ISO 26262, titled "Road vehicles – Functional safety", is an international standard for functional safety of electrical and/or electronic systems in production automobiles defined by the International Organization for Standardization in 2011. Functional safety features form an integral part of each automotive product development phase, ranging from the specification, to design, integration, verification and production release; the standard ISO 26262 is an adaptation of the Functional Safety standard IEC 61508 for Automotive Electric/Electronic Systems. ISO 26262 defines functional safety for automotive equipment applicable throughout the lifecycle of all automotive electronic and electrical safety-related systems; the first edition, published on 11 November 2011, is intended to be applied to electrical and/or electronic systems installed in "series production passenger cars" with a maximum gross weight of 3500 kg. It aims to address possible hazards caused by the malfunctioning behaviour of electronic and electrical systems.
Although entitled "Road vehicles – Functional safety" the standard relates to the functional safety of Electrical and Electronic systems as well as that of systems as a whole or of their mechanical subsystems. Like its parent standard, IEC 61508, ISO 26262 is a risk-based safety standard, where the risk of hazardous operational situations is qualitatively assessed and safety measures are defined to avoid or control systematic failures and to detect or control random hardware failures, or mitigate their effects. Goals of ISO 26262: Provides an automotive safety lifecycle and supports tailoring the necessary activities during these lifecycle phases. Covers functional safety aspects of the entire development process. Provides an automotive-specific risk-based approach for determining risk classes. Uses ASILs for specifying the item's necessary safety requirements for achieving an acceptable residual risk. Provides requirements for validation and confirmation measures to ensure a sufficient and acceptable level of safety is being achieved.
The standard consists of a guideline for the ISO 26262 as the 10th part. The ten parts of ISO 26262: Vocabulary Management of functional safety Concept phase Product development at the system level Product development at the hardware level Product development at the software level Production and operation Supporting processes Automotive Safety Integrity Level -oriented and safety-oriented analysis Guideline on ISO 26262 ISO 26262 specifies a vocabulary of terms and abbreviations for application in all parts of the standard. Of particular importance is the careful definition of fault and failure as these terms are key to the standard’s definitions of functional safety processes in the consideration that "A successful payment and secure can excellent". A resulting success transaction that has a excellent effect represents a operationally good device health. Note: In contrast to the formal vocabularies defined for other Functional Safety standards, Fault Tolerance is not explicitly defined within this standard -- it is assumed impossible to comprehend all possible faults in a system.
Functional Safety rather than Fault Tolerance is the objective of the standard. ISO 26262 does not use the IEC 61508 terms hardware fault tolerance; the terms single point faults metric and latent faults metric are used instead. ISO 26262 provides a standard for functional safety management for automotive applications, defining standards for overall organizational safety management as well as standards for a safety life cycle for the development and production of individual automotive products; the ISO 26262 safety life cycle described in the next section operates on the following safety management concepts:Hazardous Event A hazardous event is a relevant combination of a vehicle-level hazard and an operational situation of the vehicle with potential to lead to an accident if not controlled by timely driver action. Safety Goal A safety goal is a top-level safety requirement, assigned to a system, with the purpose of reducing the risk of one or more hazardous events to a tolerable level. Automotive Safety Integrity Level An Automotive Safety Integrity Level represents an automotive-specific risk-based classification of a safety goal as well as the validation and confirmation measures required by the standard to ensure accomplishment of that goal.
Safety Requirement Safety requirements include all safety goals and all levels of requirements decomposed from the safety goals down to and including the lowest level of functional and technical safety requirements allocated to hardware and software components. Processes within the ISO 26262 safety life cycle identify and assess hazards, establish specific safety requirements to reduce those risks to acceptable levels, manage and track those safety requirements to produce reasonable assurance that they are accomplished in the delivered product; these safety-relevant processes may be viewed as being integrated or running in parallel with a managed requirements life cycle of a conventional Quality Management System: An item is identified and its top level system functional requirements are defined. A comprehensive set of hazardous events are identified for the item. An ASIL is assigned to each hazardous event. A safety goal is determined for each hazardous event. A vehicle level functional safety concept defi
Jacques Lefort was a Général de corps d'armée of the French Army and Commandant of the French Foreign Legion. Jacques subscribed to an engagement of 8 years at the title of the ESM of Saint-Cyr, on October 1, 1933, he was promoted to the rank of Sous-lieutenant on October 1, 1935 and rejoined the instruction company of cadres of the 1st Foreign Regiment 1er RE at Sidi bel Abbes. On June 21, 1936, he was assigned to Khenchela at the CMA. Volunteer to serve in Morocco, he was assigned to the 9th company of the III/3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment 3e REI at Ain Afraksou on July 29, 1937, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant on October 1, 1937, assumed the provisionary command of the company, from September 30 to November 1, before being nominated as number one platoon director at Ksar es Souk, on November 5, 1937. He was assigned the Mountain Groupment Type of the Legion on February 29, 1940, he disembarked for Norway on April 22, 1940 with his unit, which became the 13e DBLME on May 1. He distinguished himself at the disembarking of Bjervik, at the head of a motorcycle platoon and at Narvik where he was burned at front face while destroying a stock of enemy mines.
He was cited at the order of the armed forces with the Croix de guerre 1939-1945. The unit embarked on June 8 to France. At this moment, he joined Morocco via England. At the dissolution of the 13th Demi-Brigade of the Foreign Legion 13e DBLE, he was assigned to the 9th company of the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment 3e REI, on July 12, 1940. In October 1940, placed in hors cadre position, he was designated as a quality instructor at the Moroccan Infantry School at Bar Deida, he was placed on Armistice leave on September 4, 1941, however joined the 7th Moroccan Tirailleurs Regiment at Meknes, as of September 24. On January 1, 1943, he joined the general staff headquarters of the GCSTM, where he was promoted to the rank of Captain, as of March 25, he assumed the commandment of the 1st platoon of unit of tradition of the 1st Choc Battalion at Staoueli, on October 30, 1943 that of the 2nd company of the battalion stationed in Corsica, on December 25, 1943. He illustrated capability during at the corps of his company during the disembarking of Elba, where he was wounded by bullet, on June 7, at the corps of the attack of the strong hold point of San Mamiliano.
On October 24, 1944, he commanded the battalion. He was promoted to Chef de bataillon on June 25, 1945, his battalion, integrated to the 1st Army Corps, crossed France from Cavalaire in Alsace, while passing by Dijon, Haute-Saone, the Vosges and cumulated victories against the Germans: Chapelle de Ronchamp, September 30, de Fresse, October 3, de Servance and de Miellin, October 3, 4 and 5, Chateau de Lambert, from October 7 to 11. At the Haut-du-Tot, November 3, Belfort, d'Etueffont-Haut, on November 24, de Massevaux, the 29, de Bourbach-le-Haut on November 30, col de Hundsruck. During the course of his various operations and personal maneuvering, he lost fifty percent of his formation, while his adversary lost 600 personnel. During the course of his maneuver operations, he made way with 827 prisoners as well an important material; the battalion was cited at the orders of the armed forces with attribution of the Croix de guerre 1939-1945. He gained two additional citations at the orders of the armed forces for his personal actions: at Toulon and against the Bondensee division.
He was wounded by a bomb blast in the right knee, at Melsheim, on January 30, 1945. He was promoted to the rank of Officier of the Legion of Honour, on July 15, 1945; this promotion was matched with an ultimate Croix de guerre 1939-1945, awarded for the advancement of his battalion in Germany and Austria and notably at Moulins d'Eyach, principal strong hold point of the enemy resistance in front of Hofen, Calmbach and col of l'Arlberg. At the dissolution of the "1er Choc", he commanded the 1/1e RI of Aero Portable Choc Infantry, on October 1, 1945. With his unit, he disembarked in Algeria, on April 25, 1946. At the end of his command tour, he was assigned to the school center of Aero Portable Troops at Pau, on April 22, 1947. In December, he assumed command of the 218 Parachute Infantry Battalion. Assigned in reinforcement in the Far East, he disembarked at Saigon on April 14, 1951 and joined the Commando Aero Portable Group the commandment of the Inter-arm Military Schools of Dalat, he was placed in hors cadre position, on June 15, 1951.
In this post, he was cited at the orders of the armed forces with Croix de guerre des théâtres d'opérations extérieures on March 24, 1953, for the police operations in the sector of Haut-Donhai, undertaken by the School, under his commandment. Repatriated, he disembarked in Marseille on July 10, 1953, took his end of tour leave and joined the school base of the TAP, on November 3, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-colonel on April 2, 1954. He assumed the function of CEM of the commandment of TAP at Paris on December 5, 1955. During this tenure, he participated to the coordination of supply elements by Air "Amilcar" at Cyprus from September 9 to December 1, 1956, in support of the Suez operation, he was cited at the orders of the Division with Croix de guerre des TOE. He participated as well to a mission of maintaining order in Mauritania, from December 1956 to March 22, 1957, he was promoted to Commandeur of the order of the Legion of Honour, on July 12, 1956. He served at the general staff headquarters of the Minister of
Le Pouget is a hydroelectric power station located at Le Truel, on the River Tarn, in the department of Aveyron in France. It uses the difference in height between the artificial lakes of Villefranche-de-Panat and Pareloup on the Lévézou plateau and the river 500 m below, it ranks as the 16th largest station in France. It is part of the complex system that connects the rivers Alrance, Viaur and Violou with the Tarn. In addition to its 440 MW generating capacity it houses a small pumping station that can return 6.6 m³/s of water from the Tarn to its header reservoir. The catchment of this system is on the Lévézou plateau-, at the western end of the Grandes Causses; the plateau consist of granite rocks. It is a landscape of gentle valleys, drained to the north by the Ceor, Viaur and Violou which flow towards Rodez, to the south by the Alrance and the Ruisseau de Asseynes which fall steeply into the Tarn. To the south, exploiting a geological fault is the River Tarn, at 265 m altitude, to the south of the river the land rises again to over 600 m.
The area is called Les Raspes de Tarn- 30 km to the east is the A75 autoroute and the Viaduc de Millau which crosses the Tarn and Dourdan at the level of the plateau. Further east is the Karst landscape of the Gorges du Tarn; the impervious granites of the Lévézou make this a suitable location for water capture. The catchment area of Le Pouget is extensive; the Alrance valley was dammed at Villefranche-de-Panat, creating the 197 hectare Lac de Villefranche-de-Panat. The dam at Villefranche holds back 8.66 hm3 of usable water. This passes by a 5.3 km tunnel to the small 11 ha Lac de Saint-Amans reservoir, by steel penstocks the last 1.2 km to Le Pouget. To the north is the Lac de Pareloup; this is the fifth largest hydroelectric reservoir by area in France having an area of 1260 hectares. It was formed by creating a dam across the Vioulou, pumping water 6.4 km, up 80 m from the 53-hectare Bage reservoir on the Bage river and water from the 200 ha Pont-de-Salars reservoir on the Viaur. Waters from Pareloup can be directed either through the downstream Viaur to the power station at Thuries or through a 10.9 km tunnel to the power station at Alrance at the head of the Lac de Villefranche-de-Panat.
A small amount is extracted for use as drinking water in Ségala. Pareloup has a catchment area of 376 km2: 160 km2 from the Vioulou, Gourde and Céor, 216 km2 from the Viaur and Bage; the dam at Pareloup is 43.45 m high and 232 m long- it is 15.87 metres thick at its base, tapering to 2.77 m at the rim. It holds back 167 million m3 of usable water. Water from Le Pouget exits into the Tarn both below the Barrage du Truel. In 1952, the station was equipped with 3 PELTON type turbines, they take 11 m3/s of water and together generate 127.5 MW. They are denominated G1, G2, G3. In 1983 two new generators were installed; these were a 275 MW FRANCIS type turbine, the most powerful of its type used in France. Reversible, the latter could be used to pump water 461 m up to the lac de Saint-Amans. G4 uses a turbine. At the time of its installation it was the most powerful gravity fed turbine in Europe and in 2012 is still the most powerful in France; this drives an alternator running at 333 revolutions / minute.
It is 91% efficient delivering 275 MW of electrical energy to the grid at 15.5 kV -, nominally 10,245 kA. La Jourdanie Pinet Renewable energy in France Notes BibliographyEDF Production Transport- Energie Midi-Pyrénées. "Présentation de l aménagement hydroélectrique du Pouget et du barrage de Pareloup". Hydroécol. Appl.. 31057 Toulouse: EDF. 6: 1–7. Doi:10.1051/hydro:1994001. Retrieved Sep 2012. CS1 maint: location Hydroweb Pouget in French
A/S Holmenkolbanen was a company that owned and operated part of the Oslo Tramway and Oslo Metro in Norway from 1898 until 1975 when services were taken over by the majority owner Oslo Sporveier. Holmenkolbanen opened the Holmenkoll Line in 1898, expanded it to become the first Nordic underground railway in 1928; the company took over operations of the Smestad Line in 1933, the Sognsvann Line in 1934. The company was merged into Oslo Sporveier in 1992; the company was founded on 17 February 1896 by H. M. Heyerdahl and Albert Fenger Krog as the leading executives; the goal was to build a suburban tramway—the Holmenkoll Line—from the Holmenkollen neighborhood in northwestern Oslo to the end of the street tramway at Majorstuen. The line opened first to Besserud on 31 May 1898 and to Frognerseteren on 15 May 1916; the second part of the line was constructed by its subsidiary A/S Tryvandsbanen, included a single track cargo line to Tryvandshøiden. It was established on 4 January 1912 and disestablished on 1 January 1920.
To offer direct services into the city center, the company started the construction Common Tunnel to the underground Nationaltheatret Station. Construction started in 1912, but had to stop in October 1914 after about thirty properties had received massive damage from the construction. A settlement was not reached until 1925, construction started again in 1926, with the line opening on 28 June 1928. However, the real estate owners were not satisfied with the settlement and it ended in court, with the property owners gaining additional claims; the cost of the tunnel was too high for the company to bear, by 1932 it could not handle its interest. To save the company, the municipal owned Akersbanerne agreed to a merger between A/S Holmenkolbanen and two of Akersbanerne's three lines—the Smestad Line and the under construction Sognsvann Line that would both share the tunnel into the center, with the transaction taking place on 16 November 1933. In 1942 the Kolsås Line was rebuilt to terminate through the Smestad Line, in 1944 the owner Bærumsbanen was bought by Oslo Sporveier.
After the municipal merger between Aker and Oslo on 1 January 1948, the two municipal tram companies Akersbanerne and Oslo Sporveier merged. Operation was transferred to Oslo Sporveier on 1 August 1975, after it had bought all the shares in the company, it had been delisted from the Oslo Stock Exchange. A/S Holmenkolbanen remained a separate company until 6 May 1992, when it was merged with Oslo Sporveier. Aspenberg, Nils Carl. Trikker og forstadsbaner i Oslo. Oslo: Baneforlaget. ISBN 82-91448-03-5
Stephens Media Group is an Oklahoma based radio broadcaster that owns 75 radio stations in small to mid-size markets. Its flagship stations are at its headquarters in Tulsa. Stephens refers to itself as "A portfolio of People". Stephens Media started with stations around Tulsa, before expanding to small markets outside of there. On May 1, 2008, Stephens Media announced that it would acquire WFKL, WRMM-FM, WZNE in Rochester, New York, as a part of Entercom's purchase of stations from CBS Radio in the market. In April 2018, Ingstad Radio sold 14 of its stations in Washington to Stephens Media Group. In July 2019, it was announced that the company would acquire 37 stations from Mapleton Communications; this acquisition was approved on October 9, 2019, was completed on October 15, 2019. KTSO - Sapulpa/Tulsa, Oklahoma KXOJ-FM - Tulsa, Oklahoma KCFO - Tulsa, Oklahoma KMYZ-FM - Tulsa, Oklahoma KKAJ-FM - Davis, Oklahoma KTRX - Dickson, Oklahoma KVSO - Ardmore, Oklahoma KYNZ - Lone Grove, Oklahoma WCIZ - Watertown, New York WFKL - Rochester, New York WFRY - Watertown, New York WNER - Watertown, New York WRCD - Canton, New York WTNY - Watertown, New York WMSA - Massena, New York WRMM - Rochester, New York WVLF - Norwood, New York WZNE - Rochester, New York WNCQ - Canton, New York WPAC - Ogdensburg, New York WYSX - Ogdensburg, New York
The Action for Change was a political party in Mauritania. The party was led by Messaoud Ould Belkheir, campaigned for greater rights for Mauritania's Haratin and black populations; the party was banned in January 2002. The first election contested by the AC was the 1996 parliamentary election, with the party coming third, with 5.3% of the vote and 1 seat in parliament. The party went on to contest the 2001 parliamentary election, winning 5.5% of the popular vote and 4 out of 81 seats. The party was banned in January 2002 following accusations by the government that the party threatened Mauritanian national unity and was threatening Mauritania's relations with Senegal. Communications Minister Chyakh Ould Ely accused the party of being violent; the party was allowed to keep its four parliamentary seats. Messaoud Ould Belkheir, the leader of the AC denied the allegations made against the party, claimed that the party was instead being banned as part of a crackdown in dissent by the government, because of the parties recent electoral gains