ISO 4 is an international standard which defines a uniform system for the abbreviation of serial publication titles, i.e. titles of publications such as scientific journals that are published in regular installments. The International Organization for Standardization has appointed the ISSN International Centre as the registration authority for ISO 4, it maintains the List of Title Word Abbreviations, which contains standard abbreviations for words found in serial titles. As of August 2017, the standard's most recent update came in 1997, when its third edition was released. A major use of ISO 4 is to abbreviate the names of scientific journals using the LTWA. For instance, under ISO 4 standards, the Journal of Biological Chemistry is cited as J. Biol. Chem. and the Journal of Polymer Science Part A should be cited as J. Polym. Sci. A; the standard notes. Full stops may be omitted from abbreviated words in applications that require limited use of punctuation", it was published in 1972, with a second edition published in 1984, the third edition in 1997.

ISSN CODEN List of Title Word Abbreviations Text of the standard

Lee Ming-kwai

Lee Ming-kwai, Dick, GBS, QPM, CPM was the Commissioner of Police of Hong Kong from 2003 to 2007. Lee attended The Chinese University of Hong Kong and joined the Royal Hong Kong Police Force on December 1972 as a probationary inspector, he served as CID in various police divisions in Hong Kong. As a superintendent, he was placed in charge of training and reforming the Hawker Control Unit of the Urban Services Department, he was posted to a police school in the United Kingdom. He was the district commander of Wan Chai. In 1995, Lee was promoted to the rank of Assistant Commissioner of Police. During this period, he was in charge of restoring order after rioting broke out at Vietnamese boat people detention centres across Hong Kong against the policy of mandatory repatriation. Lee was in charge of the security of the Handover Ceremony in 1997, he became well known for ordering the playing of Beethoven's 5th Symphony over a PA system to cover the noise of protesters at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre.

He received a commendation from the Chief Executive of the HKSAR for his efforts during the handover period. Lee was promoted to Senior Assistant Commissioner in 1998 and Deputy Commissioner in 2001, he was appointed Commissioner of Police in 2003. He is the first Chinese Commissioner of Police with a university degree. Lee was well received by senior officers of the police force, he had a reputation for being an operational commissioner visiting frontline units and participating in raids on vice premises. Lee would visit all colleagues injured on duty, he visited the scene of the fatal shooting of a police officer by another in Tsim Sha Tsui in the small hours of 17 March 2006. Lee's handling of militant Korean protesters during the 6th Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organisation in December 2006 earned him local and international acclaim. Over 1000 protesters were arrested after attacking police officers and police cordons at the HKCEC with minimal casualties. Lee is related to former police commissioner Eddie Hui through marriage.

Lee formally retired as Commissioner of Police on 15 January 2007. He began a year of paid leave until January 2008, he has stated on an RTHK interview that he will no longer work for a salary after his retirement and intends to spend more time with his family and promoting local sports in Hong Kong. 1975 – Commanding Officer's Commendation 1977 – Commanding Officer's Commendation 1990 – Colonial Police Long Service Medal 1994 – Colonial Police Medal for Meritorious Service 1997 – Queen's Police Medal for Distinguished Service 1997 – Hong Kong Police Long Service Medal with First Clasp 1998 – Chief Executive's Commendation 2002 – Hong Kong Police Long Service Medal with Second Clasp 2004 – Honorary Fellowship, Chinese University of Hong Kong 2005 – Hong Kong Police Long Service Medal with Third Clasp 2007 – Gold Bauhinia Star


Bhoodana is a 1962 Indian Kannada film and produced by P. S. Gopalakrishna and G. V. Iyer; the film stars Kalyan Kumar, Udaykumar and K. S. Ashwath in the lead roles; the film has musical score by G. K. Venkatesh; the movie starred Rajkumar, Kalyan Kumar and Udaykumar - all 3 in full-fledged roles in a single movie for the only time in their career. All 3 had worked together earlier in Gaali Gopura, Udaykumar only had a special appearance in that movie; this is the only movie in which Rajkumar played the role of father to Kalyan Kumar and Udaykumar. This is the only movie where Leelavathi played the role of Rajkumar's daughter; the theme of the movie was based on Vinoba Bhave's Bhoodan movement and takes its inspiration from the novel Chomana Dudi by K. Shivaram Karanth. S. K. Bhagavan had revealed that while working as an assistant on this movie, they had approached Shivaram Karanth to procure the rights of Chomana Dudi to make it into a movie. However, Karanth refused to sell the copyrights but permitted them to make a movie based on the story.

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