SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

ISO 9660

ISO 9660 is a file system for optical disc media. Being published by the International Organization for Standardization the file system is considered an international technical standard. Since the specification is available for anybody to purchase, implementations have been written for many operating systems. ISO 9660 traces its roots to the High Sierra Format file system. High Sierra arranged file information in a dense, sequential layout to minimize nonsequential access by using a hierarchical tree file system arrangement, similar to UNIX and FAT. To facilitate cross platform compatibility, it defined a minimal set of common file attributes and name attributes, used a separate system use area where future optional extensions for each file may be specified. High Sierra was adopted in December 1986 as an international standard by Ecma International as ECMA-119 and submitted for fast tracking to the ISO, where it was accepted as ISO 9660:1988. In 2013, ISO published Amendment 1 to the ISO 9660 standard, introducing new data structures and relaxed file name rules intended to "bring harmonization between ISO 9660 and used'Joliet Specification'."

In December 2017, a 3rd Edition of ECMA-119 was published, technically identical with ISO 9660, Amendment 1. The following is the rough overall structure of the ISO 9660 file system: The System Area, the first 32,768 data bytes of the disc, is unused by ISO 9660 and therefore available for other uses. For example, a CD-ROM may contain an alternative file system descriptor in this area, as it is used by hybrid CDs to offer classic Mac OS-specific and macOS-specific content. All multi-byte values are stored twice, in little-endian and big-endian format, either one-after-another in what the specification calls "both-byte orders", or in duplicated data structures such as the path table; as the structures have been designed with unaligned members, this "both endian" encoding does however not help implementors as the data structures need to be read byte-wise to convert them to properly aligned data. The data area begins with a set of one or more volume descriptors, terminated with a volume descriptor set terminator.

Collectively the volume descriptor set acts as a header for the data area. The volume descriptor set terminator is a particular type of volume descriptor with the purpose of marking the end of this set of structures; each volume descriptor is 2048 bytes in size, fitting into a single Mode 1 or Mode 2 Form 1 sector. They have the following structure: The data field of a volume descriptor may be subdivided into several fields, with the exact content depending on the type. Standard volume descriptor types are the following: An ISO 9660 compliant disc contains at least one Primary Volume Descriptor describing the file system and a Volume Descriptor Set Terminator for indicating the end of the descriptor sequence; the Primary Volume Descriptor provides information about the volume and metadata, including a root directory record that indicates in which sector the root directory is located. Other fields contain the description or name of the volume, information about who created it and with which application.

The size of the logical blocks which the file system uses to segment the volume is stored in a field inside the primary volume descriptor, as well as the amount of space occupied by the volume. In addition to the Primary Volume Descriptor, Supplementary Volume Descriptors or Enhanced Volume Descriptors may be present. Supplementary Volume Descriptors describe the same volume as the Primary Volume Descriptor does, are used for providing additional code page support when the standard code tables are insufficient; the standard specifies that ISO 2022 is used for managing code sets that are wider than 8 bytes, that ISO 2375 escape sequences are used to identify each particular code page used. ISO 9660 supports international single-byte and multi-byte character sets, provided they fit into the framework of the referenced standards. However, ISO 9660 does not specify any code pages that are guaranteed to be supported: all use of code tables other than those defined in the standard itself are subject to agreement between the originator and the recipient of the volume.

Enhanced Volume Descriptors were introduced in ISO 9660, Amendment 1. They relax some of the requirements of the other volume descriptors and the directory records referenced by them: for example, the directory depth can exceed eight, file identifiers need not contain'.' or file version number, the length of a file and directory identifier is maximized to 207. Redundant copies of each volume descriptor can be included in case the first copy of the descriptor becomes corrupt. Directory entries are stored following the location of the root directory entry, where evaluation of filenames is begun. Both directories and files are stored as extents. Files and directories are differentiated only by a file attribute; the attributes of a file are stored in the directory entry that describes the file, optionally in the extended attribute record. To locate a file, the directory names in the file's path can be checked sequentially, going to the location of each directory to obtain the location of the subsequent subdirectory.

However, a file can be located through the path table provided by the file system. This path table stores information about each directory, its parent, its l

Kettler Inc.

KETTLER is a company engaged in real estate development in the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area. The company was founded in 1977 by Robert C. Kettler. In January 2014, the company announced plans to start construction on a 275-unit apartment complex just north of Rockville Town Square in Rockville, Maryland. In February 2014, the company formed a joint venture with PS Business Parks to redevelop an office property in Tysons Corner to an apartment building; the company acquired a site on Florida Avenue in Washington, D. C. for redevelopment into apartments. In March 2014, the company announced plans to develop Element 28, a 101-unit luxury high-rise in Bethesda, Maryland. In November 2014, the company sold an apartment complex in Mount Vernon Triangle for $106.5 million. In November 2015, the company submitted plans for its Market Terminal project, which features two residential buildings and an office building near Union Market. In January 2017, the company re-submitted plans for the development.

In April 2016, in partnership with Westbrook Partners, the company acquired the 257-unit The Flats at Atlas. In February 2017, a joint venture between the company and Federal Capital Partners sold a 404-unit apartment complex in Leesburg, Virginia to PNC Bank for $55.25 million

Mile End Park

Mile End Park is a park located in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. It is a linear park of some 32 hectares, was created on industrial land devastated by World War II bombing; some of the park is within Limehouse and Globe Town, with the park lying on land to the east of the Regent's Canal. In the north, it is separated from the southern edge of Victoria Park by the Hertford Union Canal, it is open 24 hours a day. A plan existed from the end of the war to create the park, but extensive development did not begin until the end of the millennium. A pedestrian bridge, opened in July 1999, was built over the Mile End Road, which bisects the park, near Mile End tube station; the bridge was designed by Piers Gough. Prior to the park's construction, 193 Grove Road - at the edge of the park - was transformed by sculptor Rachel Whiteread into a cast of its interior; this work won her the Turner Prize in 1993. In 1381, 60,000 Men of Essex camped here and met Richard II at Mile End, on 14 June 1381, during the Peasants' Revolt.

The park now consists of a number of elements: The Play Arena - for children, The Ecology Park - including a lake, an ecology building, wind turbine and climbing wall, The Arts Park, The Green Bridge, The Terraced Garden, The South Park, Adventure Park, Sports Park - including the Mile End stadium, Kirk's Place and The Children's Park. Nearby are an extreme sports centre and an electric Go kart track; the Ragged School Museum opened in 1990 in three canal side former warehouses in Copperfield Road. It faces the western edge of the park south of Mile End Road; the buildings housed Dr Barnado's Copperfield Road Ragged School. The park has been awarded the London First Award, the Green bridge the Institution of Civil Engineers Award of Merit, a commendation at the British Construction Industry Awards and a special commendation from the Prime Minister's Award. Mile End Stadium, situated at the south end of the park, underwent refurbishment, completed in 2005. A new sport and fitness centre, the Mile End Park Leisure Centre was built adjacent to the Stadium and opened in 2006.

It houses a four- court sports hall, two swimming pools, state-of-the-art fitness studios, a health suite and sauna. The Mile End Climbing Wall is located in Mile End Park. Mile End park Mile End park Audio Tour featuring Joanna Lumley