Transport for London
Transport for London is a local government body responsible for the transport system in Greater London, England. Its head office is 55 Broadway in the City of Westminster. TfL has responsibility for London's network of principal road routes, for various rail networks including the London Underground, London Overground, Docklands Light Railway and TfL Rail, it does not control National Rail services in London, but does for London's trams and taxis, for cycling provision, for river services. The underlying services are provided by a mixture of wholly owned subsidiary companies, by private sector franchisees and by licensees. TfL is responsible, jointly with the national Department for Transport, for commissioning the construction of the new Crossrail line, will be responsible for franchising its operation once completed. In 2015 -- 16, TfL had a budget of £ 40 % of which comes from fares; the rest comes from government funding, Congestion Charge and other income and Crossrail funding. TfL was created in 2000 as part of the Greater London Authority by the Greater London Authority Act 1999.
It gained most of its functions from its predecessor London Regional Transport in 2000. The first Commissioner of TfL was Bob Kiley; the first Chair was then-Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, the first Deputy Chair was Dave Wetzel. Livingstone and Wetzel remained in office until the election of Boris Johnson as Mayor in 2008. Johnson took over as chairman, in February 2009 fellow-Conservative Daniel Moylan was appointed as his Deputy. TfL did not take over responsibility for the London Underground until 2003, after the controversial public-private partnership contract for maintenance had been agreed. Management of the Public Carriage Office had been a function of the Metropolitan Police. Transport for London Group Archives holds business records for TfL and its predecessor bodies and transport companies; some early records are held on behalf of TfL Group Archives at the London Metropolitan Archives. After the bombings on the underground and bus systems on 7 July 2005, many staff were recognised in the 2006 New Year honours list for the work they did.
They helped survivors out, removed bodies, got the transport system up and running, to get the millions of commuters back out of London at the end of the work day. Those mentioned include Peter Hendy, at the time Head of Surface Transport division, Tim O'Toole, head of the Underground division, who were both awarded CBEs. Others included Station Supervisor, London Underground. On 1 June 2008, the drinking of alcoholic beverages was banned on Tube and London Overground trains, trams, Docklands Light Railway and all stations operated by TfL across London but not those operated by other rail companies. Carrying open containers of alcohol was banned on public transport operated by TfL; the Mayor of London and TfL announced the ban with the intention of providing a safer and more pleasant experience for passengers. There were "Last Round on the Underground". Passengers refusing to observe the ban may be asked to leave the premises; the Greater London Authority reported in 2011 that assaults on London Underground staff had fallen by 15% since the introduction of the ban.
TfL commissioned a survey in 2013 which showed that 15% of women using public transport in London had been the subject of some form of unwanted sexual behaviour but that 90% of incidents were not reported to the police. In an effort to reduce sexual offences and increase reporting, TfL—in conjunction with the British Transport Police, Metropolitan Police Service, City of London Police—launched Project Guardian. In 2014, Transport for London launched the 100 years of women in transport campaign in partnership with the Department for Transport, Network Rail, Women's Engineering Society and the Women's Transportation Seminar; the programme is a celebration of the significant role that women have played in transport over the past 100 years, following the centennial anniversary of the First World War, when 100,000 women entered the Transport industry to take on the responsibilities held by men who enlisted for military service. TfL is controlled by a board whose members are appointed by the Mayor of London, a position held by Sadiq Khan since May 2016.
The Commissioner of Transport for London reports to the Board and leads a management team with individual functional responsibilities. The body is organised in three main directorates and corporate services, each with responsibility for different aspects and modes of transport; the three main directorates are: London Underground, responsible for running London's underground rail network known as the tube, managing the provision of maintenance services by the private sector. This network is sub-divided into different service delivery units: London Underground BCV: Bakerloo, Central and Waterloo & City lines. JNP: Jubilee and Piccadilly lines. SSL: Metropolitan, District and Hammersmith & City lines. TfL Rail. Surface Transport, consisting of: Docklands Light Railway: abbreviated DLR, this is the automatically driven light rail network in East London and South London, although actual operation and maintenance is undertaken by a private sector concessionaire. London Buses, responsible for managing the red
Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces are understood, to work with other products or systems, at present or in the future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions. While the term was defined for information technology or systems engineering services to allow for information exchange, a broader definition takes into account social and organizational factors that impact system to system performance. Task of building coherent services for users when the individual components are technically different and managed by different organizations If two or more systems are capable of communicating with each other, they exhibit syntactic interoperability when using specified data formats and communication protocols. XML or SQL standards are among the tools of syntactic interoperability; this is true for lower-level data formats, such as ensuring alphabetical characters are stored in a same variation of ASCII or a Unicode format in all the communicating systems.
Beyond the ability of two or more computer systems to exchange information, semantic interoperability is the ability to automatically interpret the information exchanged meaningfully and in order to produce useful results as defined by the end users of both systems. To achieve semantic interoperability, both sides must refer to a common information exchange reference model; the content of the information exchange requests are unambiguously defined: what is sent is the same as what is understood. The possibility of promoting this result by user-driven convergence of disparate interpretations of the same information has been object of study by research prototypes such as S3DB. Cross-domain interoperability involves multiple social, political, legal entities working together for a common interest and/or information exchange. Interoperability imply Open standards ab-initio, i.e. by definition. Interoperability imply exchanges between a range of products, or similar products from several different vendors, or between past and future revisions of the same product.
Interoperability may be developed post-facto, as a special measure between two products, while excluding the rest, by using Open standards. When a vendor is forced to adapt its system to a dominant system, not based on Open standards, it is not interoperability but only compatibility. Open standards rely on a broadly consultative and inclusive group including representatives from vendors and others holding a stake in the development that discusses and debates the technical and economic merits and feasibility of a proposed common protocol. After the doubts and reservations of all members are addressed, the resulting common document is endorsed as a common standard; this document is subsequently released to the public, henceforth becomes an open standard. It is published and is available or at a nominal cost to any and all comers, with no further encumbrances. Various vendors and individuals can use the standards document to make products that implement the common protocol defined in the standard, are thus interoperable by design, with no specific liability or advantage for any customer for choosing one product over another on the basis of standardised features.
The vendors' products compete on the quality of their implementation, user interface, ease of use, price, a host of other factors, while keeping the customers data intact and transferable if he chooses to switch to another competing product for business reasons. Post facto interoperability may be the result of the absolute market dominance of a particular product in contravention of any applicable standards, or if any effective standards were not present at the time of that product's introduction; the vendor behind that product can choose to ignore any forthcoming standards and not co-operate in any standardisation process at all, using its near-monopoly to insist that its product sets the de facto standard by its market dominance. This is not a problem if the product's implementation is open and minimally encumbered, but it may as well be both closed and encumbered; because of the network effect, achieving interoperability with such a product is both critical for any other vendor if it wishes to remain relevant in the market, difficult to accomplish because of lack of co-operation on equal terms with the original vendor, who may well see the new vendor as a potential competitor and threat.
The newer implementations rely on clean-room reverse engineering in the absence of technical data to achieve interoperability. The original vendors can provide such technical data to others in the name of'encouraging competition,' but such data is invariably encumbered, may be of limited use. Availability of such data is not equivalent to an open standard, because: The data is provided by the original vendor on a discretionary basis, who has every interest in blocking the effective implementation of competing solutions, may subtly alter or change its product in newer revisions, so that competitors' implementations are but not quite interoperable, leading customers to consider them unreliable or of a lower quality; these changes can either not be passed on to other vendors at all, or passed on after a strategic delay, maintaining the market dominance of the original vendor. The data itself may be encumbered, e.g. by patents or pricing, leading to a dependence of all competing solutions on the original vendor, leading a revenue stream from the competitors' customers back to the original vendor.
This revenue stream is only a result of the origina
English National Concessionary Travel Scheme
The English National Concessionary Travel Scheme is a national scheme by the Department for Transport in conjunction with local authorities across England. The scheme extended the provision of free bus travel within individual local authorities to allow travel throughout England from 1 April 2008. English residents who have attained the state pension age for women, being increased from 60 to 66, as well as eligible disabled people, are provided with free off-peak bus travel on weekdays and all day at weekends and Bank Holidays. Certain local authorities offer extra benefits for use within their area. Comparable schemes operate within Scotland. There are two types of concessionary pass; the Senior pass has a blue panel at the right hand side of the pass. A disabled person's pass has an orange panel. A Senior pass is valid between 09:30 and 23:00 on weekdays and at any time at weekends and public holidays The pass is valid at all times on TfL operated bus services for journeys within Greater London or those that begin or end in Greater London.
An accessibility pass has the same statutory validity, but some authorities allow disabled persons to travel at additional times. Both types of pass are valid throughout England only. Additionally some authorities allow qualifying holders of an accessibility pass to be accompanied by a companion, entitled to free travel when and while accompanying the pass holder; this scheme is not nationwide and the companion can only accompany the disabled person within the administrative area of the pass issuer and the area of any other authority that accepts a companion pass from other areas. Issuing authorities identify the accessibility pass as a companion pass with a "C+" in the top right corner. Freedom Pass Channel 4 News, 16 July 2010: Breaking the bus pass promise
The Oyster card is a form of electronic ticket used on public transport in Greater London in the United Kingdom. It is promoted by Transport for London and is valid on travel modes across London including London Underground, London Buses, the Docklands Light Railway, London Overground, some river boat services, most National Rail services within the London fare zones. Since its introduction in June 2003, more than 86 million cards have been used. A standard Oyster card is a blue credit-card-sized stored-value contactless smartcard that can hold single tickets, period tickets and travel permits, which must be added to the card before travel. Passengers touch it on an electronic reader when entering and leaving the transport system in order to validate it or deduct funds. Cards may be "topped-up" by recurring payment authority, by online purchase, at credit card terminals or by cash, the last two methods at stations or ticket offices; the card is designed to reduce the number of transactions at ticket offices and the number of paper tickets.
Usage is encouraged by offering cheaper fares than with cash though the acceptance of cash is being phased out. On London buses, cash is no longer accepted; the card was first issued to the public on 30 June 2003, with a limited range of features and there continues to be a phased introduction of further functions. By June 2012, over 43 million Oyster cards had been issued and more than 80% of all journeys on public transport in London were made using the card. Since 2014, the use of Oyster cards has been supplemented by contactless credit and debit cards as part of TfL's "Future Ticketing Programme". TfL was the first public transport provider in the world to accept payment by contactless bank cards, the widespread adoption of contactless in London has been credited to this. TfL is now one of Europe's largest contactless merchants, with around 1 in 10 contactless transactions in the UK taking place on the TfL network; the Oyster card was set up under a Private Finance Initiative contract between Transport for London and TranSys, a consortium of suppliers that included EDS and Cubic Transportation Systems and Fujitsu and WS Atkins.
The £100 million contract was signed in 1998 for a term of 17 years until 2015 at a total cost of £1.1 billion. In August 2008, TfL decided to exercise a break option in the contract to terminate it in 2010, five years early; this followed a number of technical failures. TfL stated. In November 2008 a new contract was announced between TfL and Cubic and EDS for two of the original consortium shareholders to run the system from 2010 until 2013; the Oyster name was agreed on after a lengthy period of research managed by TranSys and agreed by TfL. Two other names were considered and "Oyster" was chosen as a fresh approach, not directly linked to transport, ticketing or London. Other proposed names were "Pulse" and "Gem". According to Andrew McCrum, now of Appella brand name consultants, brought in to find a name by Saatchi and Saatchi Design, "Oyster was conceived... because of the metaphorical implications of security and value in the hard bivalve shell and the concealed pearl. Its associations with London through Thames estuary oyster beds and the major relevance of the popular idiom "the world is your oyster" were significant factors in its selection" The intellectual property rights to the Oyster brand belonged to TranSys.
Following the renegotiation of the operating contract in 2008, TfL sought to retain the right to use the Oyster brand after the termination of its partnership with Transys acquiring the rights to the brand in 2010 at a cost of £1 million. The Oyster card has a claimed proximity range of about 80 mm; the card operates as a RFID system and is compatible with ISO/IEC 14443 types A and B. Oyster readers can read other types of cards including Cubic Transportation Systems' Go cards. From its inception until January 2010, Oyster cards were based on NXP/Philips' MIFARE Classic 1k chips provided by Giesecke & Devrient and SchlumbergerSema. All new Oyster cards have used MIFARE DESFire EV1 chips since December 2009. From February 2010, MIFARE Classic-based Oyster cards were no longer issued. MIFARE DESFire cards are now used as transport smartcards. MIFARE Classic chips, on which the original Oyster card was based, are hard-wired logic smartcards, meaning that they have limited computing power designed for a specific task.
The MIFARE DESFire chips used on the new Oyster card are CPUs with much more sophisticated security features and more complex computation power. They are activated only when they are in an electromagnetic field compatible with ISO/IEC 14443 type A, provided by Oyster readers; the readers read information from the cards, calculate whether to allow travel, assess any fare payable and write back information to the card. Some basic information about the MIFARE Classic or MIFARE DESFire chip can be read by any ISO/IEC 14443 type A compatible reader, but Oyster-specific information cannot be read without access to the encryption used for the Oyster system. While it has been suggested that a good reader could read personal details from a distance, there has been no evidence of anyone being able to decrypt Oyster information. By design the cards do not carry any personal information. Aluminium shielding has been suggested to prevent any personal data from being read. Oyster uses a distributed settlement framework.
All transactions are settled between the reader alone. Readers transmit the transactions to the back office in batches but there is no need for this to be done in real time. T
A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card is a physical electronic authorization device, used to control access to a resource. It is a plastic credit card sized card with an embedded integrated circuit. Many smart cards include a pattern of metal contacts to electrically connect to the internal chip. Others are contactless, some are both. Smart cards can provide personal identification, data storage, application processing. Applications include identification, mobile phones, public transit, computer security and healthcare. Smart cards may provide strong security authentication for single sign-on within organizations. Several nations have deployed smart cards throughout their populations. In 1968 and 1969 Helmut Gröttrup and Jürgen Dethloff jointly filed patents for the automated chip card. Roland Moreno patented the memory card concept in 1974. An important patent for smart cards with a microprocessor and memory as used today was filed by Jürgen Dethloff in 1976 and granted as USP 4105156 in 1978.
In 1977, Michel Ugon from Honeywell Bull invented the first microprocessor smart card with two chips: one microprocessor and one memory, in 1978, he patented the self-programmable one-chip microcomputer that defines the necessary architecture to program the chip. Three years Motorola used this patent in its "CP8". At that time, Bull had 1,200 patents related to smart cards. In 2001, Bull sold its CP8 division together with its patents to Schlumberger, who subsequently combined its own internal smart card department and CP8 to create Axalto. In 2006, Axalto and Gemplus, at the time the world's top two smart-card manufacturers and became Gemalto. In 2008, Dexa Systems spun off from Schlumberger and acquired Enterprise Security Services business, which included the smart-card solutions division responsible for deploying the first large-scale smart-card management systems based on public key infrastructure; the first mass use of the cards was as a telephone card for payment in French payphones, starting in 1983.
After the Télécarte, microchips were integrated into all French Carte Bleue debit cards in 1992. Customers inserted the card into the merchant's point-of-sale terminal typed the personal identification number, before the transaction was accepted. Only limited transactions are processed without a PIN. Smart-card-based "electronic purse" systems store funds on the card, so that readers do not need network connectivity, they entered European service in the mid-1990s. They have been common in Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Finland, UK, Denmark and Portugal. Private electronic purse systems have been deployed such as the Marines corps at Parris Island allowing small amount payments at the cafeteria. Since the 1990s, smart cards have been the subscriber identity modules used in GSM mobile-phone equipment. Mobile phones are used across the world, so smart cards have become common. Europay MasterCard Visa -compliant cards and equipment are widespread with the deployment led by European countries.
The United States started deploying the EMV technology in 2014, with the deployment still in progress in 2018. A country's national payment association, in coordination with MasterCard International, Visa International, American Express and Japan Credit Bureau, jointly plan and implement EMV systems. In 1993 several international payment companies agreed to develop smart-card specifications for debit and credit cards; the original brands were MasterCard and Europay. The first version of the EMV system was released in 1994. In 1998 the specifications became stable. EMVCo maintains these specifications. EMVco's purpose is to assure the various financial institutions and retailers that the specifications retain backward compatibility with the 1998 version. EMVco upgraded the specifications in 2000 and 2004. EMV compliant cards were first accepted into Malaysia in 2005 and into United States in 2014. MasterCard was the first company, allowed to use the technology in the United States; the United States has felt pushed to use the technology because of the increase in identity theft.
The credit card information stolen from Target in late 2013 was one of the largest indicators that American credit card information is not safe. Target made the decision on April 30, 2014 that it would try to implement the smart chip technology in order to protect itself from future credit card identity theft. Before 2014, the consensus in America was that there were enough security measures to avoid credit card theft and that the smart chip was not necessary; the cost of the smart chip technology was significant, why most of the corporations did not want to pay for it in the United States. The debate came when online credit theft was insecure enough for the United States to invest in the technology; the adaptation of EMV's increased in 2015 when the liability shifts occurred in October by the credit card companies. Contactless smart cards do not require physical contact between a reader, they are becoming more popular for ticketing. Typical uses include mass motorway tolls. Visa and MasterCard implemented a version deployed in 2004–2006 in the U.
S. with Visa's current offering called Visa Contactless. Most contactless fare collection systems are incompatible, though the MIFARE Standard card from NXP Semiconductors has a considerable mark