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The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cybersecurity, Y.3172 for machine learning, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC for video compression, between its Member States, Private Sector Members, Academia Members. ITU-T is one of the three Sectors of the International Telecommunication Union; the standardization efforts of ITU started in 1865 with the formation of the International Telegraph Union. ITU became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1947; the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee was created in 1956, was renamed ITU-T in 1993. ITU-T has a permanent secretariat, the Telecommunication Standardization Bureau, based at the ITU headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland; the current Director of the Bureau is Chaesub Lee, whose first 4-year term commenced on 1 January 2015, whose second 4-year term commenced on 1 January 2019. Chaesub Lee succeeded Malcolm Johnson of the United Kingdom, director from 1 January 2007 until 31 December 2014.

The ITU-T mission is to ensure the efficient and timely production of standards covering all fields of telecommunications and Information Communication Technology on a worldwide basis, as well as defining tariff and accounting principles for international telecommunication services. The international standards that are produced by the ITU-T are referred to as "Recommendations", as they become mandatory only when adopted as part of a national law. Since the ITU-T is part of the ITU, a United Nations specialized agency, its standards carry more formal international weight than those of most other standards development organizations that publish technical specifications of a similar form. At the initiative of Napoleon III, the French government invited international participants to a conference in Paris in 1865 to facilitate and regulate international telegraph services. A result of the conference was the founding of the forerunner of the modern ITU. At the 1925 Paris conference, the ITU created two consultative committees to deal with the complexities of the international telephone services, known as CCIF, as the French acronym, with long-distance telegraphy.

In view of the basic similarity of many of the technical problems faced by the CCIF and CCIT, a decision was taken in 1956 to merge them into a single entity, the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. The first Plenary Assembly of the new organization was held in Geneva, Switzerland in December 1956. In 1992, the Plenipotentiary Conference saw a reform of ITU, giving the Union greater flexibility to adapt to an complex and competitive environment; the CCITT was renamed the Telecommunication Standardization Sector, as one of three Sectors of the Union alongside the Radiocommunication Sector and the Telecommunication Development Sector. The Recommendations of the CCITT were presented at plenary assemblies for endorsement, held every four years, the full set of Recommendations were published after each plenary assembly. However, the delays in producing texts, translating them into other working languages, did not suit the fast pace of change in the telecommunications industry.

The rise of the personal computer industry in the early 1980s created a new common practice among both consumers and businesses of adopting "bleeding edge" communications technology if it was not yet standardized. Thus, standards organizations had to put forth standards much faster, or find themselves ratifying de facto standards after the fact. One of the most prominent examples of this was the Open Document Architecture project, which began in 1985 when a profusion of software firms around the world were still furiously competing to shape the future of the electronic office, was completed in 1999 long after Microsoft Office's then-secret binary file formats had become established as the global de facto standard; the ITU-T now operates under much more streamlined processes. The time between an initial proposal of a draft document by a member company and the final approval of a full-status ITU-T Recommendation can now be as short as a few months; this makes the standardization approval process in the ITU-T much more responsive to the needs of rapid technology development than in the ITU's historical past.

New and updated Recommendations are published on an daily basis, much of the library of over 3,270 Recommendations is now free of charge online. ITU-T has moreover tried to facilitate cooperation between the various forums and standard-developing organizations; this collaboration is necessary to avoid duplication of work and the consequent risk of conflicting standards in the market place. In the work of standardization, ITU-T cooperates with other SDOs, e.g. the International Organization for Standardization and the Internet Engineering Task Force. Most of the work of ITU-T is carried out by its Sector Members and Associates, while the Telecommunication Standardization Bureau is the executive arm of ITU-T and coordinator for a number of workshops and seminars to progress existing work areas and explore new ones; the events cover a wide array of topics in the field of information and communication technologies and attract high-ranking experts as speakers, attendees from engineers to high-level management fro

James Brand (musician)

James C. Brand was an American musician. Moz was Brand's dark ambient, power electronics project. Founded in Houston, Texas, in 1997, transplanted to Anchorage, Alaska in 2000, dubbed Post Power Electronics by Gary of Bed Molt/a sonic deterrent. Early releases were in the harsh noise genre and had no clear themes, but works were not only less harsh but tended to deal with social and left-wing / anarchist political issues. Most recent work is influenced by Buddhist and other Asian spirituality, due to Brand's increasing involvement with Buddhism; however though devoted to Theravada Buddhism, Brand still maintains his previous anarchist political views and identifies himself as a "Dhammic Socialist". James Brand died unexpectedly at the age of 34 from a brain aneurism in Anchorage, Alaska on August 30, 2010. MOZ has had numerous releases on 4 continents, most notable were splits and collaborations with Thurston Moore of Sonic Youth, KK Null of Zeni Geva, Bastard Noise, Government Alpha, a sonic deterrent, the Haters and Hermit.

Most MOZ releases are Split releases with another artist, keeping a sort of collectivist attitude to releasing albums. Brand was married, but at one time was the ex-boyfriend of Houston experimental/noise artist Richard Ramirez, he has worked with Ramirez in a project called, d/S. Besides releasing music as MOZ, JC Brand has composed music for several films for Trisomy Films all of which were produced by Kim Henkel the writer of the screen play for the original The Texas Chain Saw Massacre two of which were released by SHOCK-O-RAMA Cinema and the latest, The Wild Man of the Navidad by IFC, he is a published author and devotes most of his creative output to writing though continues to record for Belgian experimental label: Silken Tofu. CD "The Broken Tusk of Ganesha" on Silken Tofu Split CD with KK Null on crionic mind Split/Collaboration CD with Thurston Moore "Tribute to Martin Luther King JR." on breathmint Split CD with Daruin on NEUS Split CD with Government Alpha on Verbrante Erde Split CD with Armenia on bizarre audio arts Split 7" record with a sonic deterrent on anti-everything/maladjusted Split 7" record with A) Torture Mechanism on Balefire/ MT6 Split 10" record with Flatline Construct on maladjusted/ Let it Rot Collaboration 7" with Bastard Noise and Hermit on Balefire/ CRUCIAL BLAST Compilation 7" record "Soun: An Anonymous and Random Compilation/Composition" on Game Boy The Wild Man of the Navidad Voltagen Headcheese J.

C. Brand IMDb page The Wild Man of the Navidad at IMDb Trisomy Films SHOCK-O-RAMA CINEMA crionic mind Silken Tofu

Married to the Kellys

Married to the Kellys is an American sitcom that aired on ABC from October 3, 2003 to April 23, 2004 with a run of 22 episodes. Set in a suburb of Kansas City, the series stars Kiele Sanchez; the show was a part of the TGIF Friday night line up, after Hope & Faith, airing at 9:30 EST. The show earned fair enough ratings to get picked up for a whole season, but it was cancelled at the end of the season; the series followed the adventures of a single-child New Yorker adjusting to life with his wife's large, close-knit suburban family. The show was to be titled Back to Kansas. Producer Tom Hertz loosely based this comedy on his life experiences; the sitcom centers on New York loner Tom, raised as an only child. After he marries Susan, a woman raised in the Midwest by a large family, they move to Kansas to be closer to them and he has to adjust to life with a big, caring family; when Tom married Susan he thought. He never considered that he would be getting a brand-new family as well. Included in this new family are mother Sandy, the rule-maker of the house, father Bill, once an only child, who could be the person Tom can relate to the most.

There's Susan's competitive sister Mary and her husband Chris, who considers himself Bill and Sandy's favorite son-in-law and finds Tom as somewhat of a threat. And there's Susan's brother Lewis, a shy and awkward young man who has made a career of collecting bugs. Other family members who drop by include Uncle Dave, the big-shot of the family, Lisa, the youngest daughter who wants to backpack around Europe and become an art major; when Married to the Kellys premiered Fridays at 8:30pm/7:30 central during ABC's fall 2003 season, it aired after George Lopez, where ABC brought back its famed TGIF block along with the new Kelly Ripa comedy Hope & Faith and Life with Bonnie. Bought by ABC as The Untitled Tom Hertz Project the show needed a quick title in order for the series to be promoted in time for the network to unveil its new line-up. So they decided on the tentative title Back to Kansas. Although the series does take place in Kansas the title didn't quite work since the main character isn't returning to Kansas and the show wasn't about the wife's "return" to Kansas but more about the entire Kelly family and the main character's efforts in trying to fit into a new situation.

The show soon acquired the more fitting title Married to the Kellys. An interesting fact about the show is that Tom Hertz didn't just use real life situations as inspiration for this sitcom, he used real life family members. All the characters in the series were named after his wife and his in-laws. Married to the Kellys starred Josh Braaten, Nancy Lenehan, Emily Rutherfurd, Sam Anderson and newcomer Derek Waters. Breckin Meyer as Tom Wagner Kiele Sanchez as Susan Wagner Josh Braaten as Chris Emily Rutherfurd as Mary Derek Waters as Lewis Kelly Sam Anderson as Bill Kelly Nancy Lenehan as Sandy Kelly Richard Riehle as Uncle Dave Ashley Johnson as Shari Eddie McClintock as Bob Seth Green as Dr. Jim Coglan Stephen Tobolowsky as Henry Conway Tinsley Grimes as Lisa Kelly Lee Majors as himself Tony Gonzalez as himself Michele Lee as Maggie Wagner Tony Roberts as Martin Wagner Keith Coogan as Customer Tom is a quirky, sometimes-stupid only child from New York who marries Kansas-raised Susan Kelly and decides to move back to her home so they can be closer to her parents.

Tom is a writer with a New York Times best-selling novel under his belt and Susan is a homemaker. Chris is the whipped and sappy son-in-law who married Mary Kelly and who fixes all of the problems around the house. Tom is trying to get Chris to stop being so uptight. Mary on the other hand is trying to get Chris to be like a dog to his master and ends up winning anyway. Lewis is Susan's younger brother, he has a strange obsession with a secret girlfriend named Shari. Bill and Sandy Kelly are the average all-American parents. Bill takes care of the home; the two are seen smiling and joking, saying words that haven't been included in the dictionary since the 1950s. Official website Married to the Kellys on IMDb Married to the Kellys at

Renee C. Hanover

Renee C. Hanover was an American lawyer and civil rights advocate who practiced in Chicago; as a lawyer, she defended groups and individuals involved in civil rights cases dealing with gender, LGBT issues and race. She fought for intersectional equality. Hanover was one of the first gay lawyers to practice in the United States. Hanover was born to immigrant parents in New York City on April 18, 1926, she moved to Chicago with her husband and son in 1952. In Chicago she worked for some time as part of the Communist Party, she got divorced and decided she wanted to become a lawyer. Hanover had been an out lesbian since the 1960s, she put herself through college and law school while she a single mother of three children. She was dismissed from law school for being a lesbian four months before she was going to graduate in 1964. However, she went back and graduated from John Marshall Law School in 1969. Hanover was admitted to the Illinois bar in the same year, she was considered one of the first "out" lawyers in the United States.

Hanover and another lawyer and former classmate, Gabrielle P. Pieper, shared offices in the Stock Exchange Building until around May of 1972, when they both decided to get new quarters and to begin focusing their legal practice on women; the firm was located in the Civic Center in Chicago. Hanover's mentor at the firm was Pearl M. Hart. Both Hanover and Pieper had been students of Hart. In 1973, Hanover was the defense attorney for four young men who were arrested and charged for cross-dressing and underage drinking. Hanover's defense was used to help show that violations against cross-dressing violated the Illinois and United States Constitutions. During her law career she defended members of the Blackstone Rangers and other black power activists when they were accused of "trumped-up criminal charges." She defended the "D. C. 12," gay men who were arrested in Washington D. C. when they went to attend a 1970 Black Panthers convention. She was involved in the July 1961 "freedom wade-in" to support the desegregation of the beaches in Chicago.

Hanover spoke at the 1977 protest against an anti-gay rights activist and singer. She was involved in the 1987 March on Washington, where she was arrested in a protest in front of the Supreme Court. Hanover was inducted into the Chicago Gay and Lesbian Hall of Fame in 1991, she moved to Los Angeles in 2000 to be closer to her daughter. She was buried in Chicago's Wunder's Cemetery. Baim, Tracy. Out and Proud in Chicago: An Overview of the City's Gay Community. Chicago, Illinois: Agate Publishing. ISBN 978-1-57284-643-2. Renee Hanover explaining reasons for civil disobedience


Spodumene is a pyroxene mineral consisting of lithium aluminium inosilicate, LiAl2, is a source of lithium. It occurs as colorless to yellowish, purplish, or lilac kunzite, yellowish-green or emerald-green hiddenite, prismatic crystals of great size. Single crystals of 14.3 m in size are reported from the Black Hills of United States. The normal low-temperature form α-spodumene is in the monoclinic system whereas the high-temperature β-spodumene crystallizes in the tetragonal system; the normal α-spodumene converts to β-spodumene at temperatures above 900 °C. Crystals are heavily striated parallel to the principal axis. Crystal faces are etched and pitted with triangular markings. Spodumene was first described in 1800 for an occurrence in the type locality in Utö, Södermanland, Sweden, it was discovered by Brazilian naturalist Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva. The name is derived from the Greek spodumenos, meaning "burnt to ashes," owing to the opaque, ash-grey appearance of material refined for use in industry.

Spodumene aplites. Associated minerals include: quartz, petalite, eucryptite and beryl. Transparent material has long been used as a gemstone with varieties kunzite and hiddenite noted for their strong pleochroism. Source localities include Afghanistan, Brazil, Pakistan, Québec in Canada and North Carolina, California in the US. Spodumene is an important source of lithium for use in ceramics, mobile phone and automotive batteries, Pyroceram and as a fluxing agent. Lithium is extracted from spodumene by fusing in acid. World production of lithium via spodumene is around 80,000 metric tonnes per annum from the Greenbushes pegmatite of Western Australia and from some Chinese and Chilean sources; the Talison mine in Greenbushes, Western Australia is reported to be the largest and to have the highest grade of ore at 2.4% Li2O. Terence Bell thinks that spodumene will become a less important source of lithium due to the emergence of alkaline brine lake sources in Chile and Argentina, which produce lithium chloride directly.

Lithium chloride is converted to lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide by reaction with sodium carbonate and calcium hydroxide respectively. However, pegmatite-based projects benefit from being quicker to move into production than brines, which can take 18 months to 3 years, depending on evaporation rates. With pegmatites, once a mill is built, the production of lithium carbonate takes only a matter of days. Another key advantage that spodumene has over its more popular brine rivals is the purity of the lithium carbonate it can produce. While all product used by the battery industry has to be at least 99.5% lithium carbonate, the makeup of the remaining 0.5% is important. Hiddenite is a pale emerald green gem variety first reported from Alexander County, North Carolina, US, it was named in honor of William Earl Hidden, mining engineer, mineral collector, mineral dealer. This emerald green variety of spodumene is colored by chromium, just like emeralds. Not all green spodumene is colored with chromium, which tend to have a lighter color, therefore are not true hiddenite.

Kunzite is a pink to lilac colored gemstone, a variety of spodumene with the color coming from minor to trace amounts of manganese. Some kunzite used for gemstones has been heated to enhance its color, it is frequently irradiated to enhance the color. Kunzite was discovered in 1902, was named after George Frederick Kunz, Tiffany & Co's chief jeweler at the time, a noted mineralogist, it has been found in Brazil, US, Canada, CIS, Sweden, Western Australia and Pakistan. One notable example of kunzite used in jewellery is in the Russian Palmette tiara and necklace worn by the Duchess of Gloucester. Triphane is a synonym of spodumene, but used for colourless or yellowish varieties. List of minerals George Frederick Kunz Kunz, George Frederick. Gems and Precious Stones of North America. New York: The Scientific Publishing Company. Palache, C. Davidson, S. C. and Goranson, E. A.. "The Hiddenite deposit in Alexander County, N. Carolina". American Mineralogist Vol. 15 No. 8 p. 280 Webster, R.. Gems: Their Sources and Identification, pp. 186–190.

Great Britain: Butterworth-Heinemann. The key players in Quebec lithium, “Daily News”, The Northern Miner. August 11, 2010. Texts on Wikisource: "Kunzite". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. Rudler, Frederick William. "Spodumene". Encyclopædia Britannica. "Spodumene". New International Encyclopedia. 1905


Pontlliw is a village in the community of Pontlliw and Tircoed, part of the City and County of Swansea in Wales. The village is located off Junction 47 of the M4 motorway; the name of the village comes from the Welsh word for bridge and the name of the River Lliw which runs through the village. The Pontlliw and Tircoed community has an elected community council and has a population of 2,075. Pontlliw has a primary school, as well as a number of small businesses such as a newsagent, Post Office, a hair salon and two public houses - The Buck and The Castle, colloquially known as'The Shed' - as well as an Indian restaurant. Pontlliw has Carmel Baptist. Which runs activities throughout the week in both English; this includes and active children's and youth work. The village is home to Pontarddulais Golf Club - which lies within the boundaries of Pontlliw despite its name featuring neighbouring village Pontarddulais; the 9-hole course opened in the 1990s under the name Allt y Graban. Pontlliw Village Hall is used to stage theatrical performances and concerts as well as classes run by local groups.

Passing motorists have to take care through the village though, as there are three sets of speed cameras in the village. Pontlliw is located between the neighbouring villages Pontarddulais. Pontlliw is the birthplace of Gareth Roberts, the former Wales rugby union player. Other notable residents with a rugby connection include Mervyn'the Swerve' Davies, who lived in Vernon Close and Paul Thorburn, who lived in Heol Y Waun during the early 1990s. Pontlliw on website Pontlliw and Tircoed Community Council