Freesat is a British free-to-air satellite television service, provided by joint venture between the BBC and ITV plc. The service was formed as a memorandum in 2007 and has been marketed since 6 May 2008. Freesat offers a satellite alternative to the Freeview service on digital terrestrial television, with a broadly similar selection of channels available without subscription for users purchasing a receiver; the service makes use of the additional capacity available on satellite broadcasting to offer a selection of 17 high-definition channels from the BBC, ITV, Channel 5, Arirang TV, Daystar, Discovery Networks, France 24, NHK, RT UK and TRT World. Freesat's main competitors are Freeview, Freesat from Sky, Virgin Media and BT. TalkTalk offer a YouView service; the BBC and ITV, the two biggest free-to-air broadcasters in the UK, make their services available digitally through three routes: free-to-air via digital terrestrial and digital satellite, subscription-only via digital cable. On digital terrestrial, the channels have always been available free-to-air with the appropriate equipment.
In 2007 Freeview was available to only 73% of the population. After analogue TV services were replaced in the digital switchover, this increased to 98.5% for the public service channels and 90% for the full'Freeview' service. To provide more widespread coverage and a larger number of channels, a digital satellite alternative was felt necessary. Both the BBC's and ITV's channels were encrypted since the original Astra satellites used for Sky broadcast to most of Europe but the broadcasters' rights for premium content such as films and sports covered the UK only; the use of encryption meant that anyone wishing to view the channels had to purchase equipment from Sky and pay for a free-to-view viewing card to decrypt the channels. To use the Videoguard encryption, the broadcasters needed to pay a fee to NDS Group. In May 2003 the BBC moved most of its channels from the Astra 2A satellite to Astra 2D, which has a footprint that focuses more on the UK; this move allowed the BBC to stop encrypting its broadcasts while continuing to meet its rights obligations.
It dropped the encryption two months later. Two months ITV, whose channels had been located on the Astra 2D satellite since launching on the Sky platform some years earlier made their channels free-to-air. On 18 November 2008, Channel 5 commenced broadcasting a single channel via Freesat adding its ancillary services 5USA and 5* three years in December 2011, it added Channel 5 HD to Freesat following the removal of BBC Three as an SD & HD TV channel. Viva moved from free-to-view to free-to-air on satellite on 19 March 2013, before launching on Freesat on 2 April 2013. On 2 April 2013, all seven of Box Television's channels left Sky's subscription package, with six becoming free-to-air on satellite. TV, Kiss TV and Smash Hits – were added to the Freesat EPG; this was followed by Magic on 29 April. The free-to-air channels can be received using any standard digital satellite receiver, although those not licensed by Freesat will need to be re-tuned manually if/when channel frequencies are changed.
The Freesat project aims to provide a managed service with an Electronic Programme Guide and interactive features similar to the Freeview service launched three years earlier. Unlike Freeview, these features are only available on approved receivers manufactured under licence from Freesat; the initial plan was to launch the service in early 2006. This was postponed to Autumn 2007 as approval from the BBC Trust was only received in April 2007. However, the service was further delayed and was launched on 6 May 2008; the service launched on 6 May 2008. From the launch, Freesat advertised all national television channels from the BBC and ITV as being available on the platform, as well as all national BBC radio networks. Channel 4 managed to make most of its channels free-to-air in preparation for the launch. In addition some channels from other broadcasters such as Chello Zone, CSC Media Group, Al Jazeera English, Zee Live, Zee News, RIA Novosti and Euronews were included on the channel list. BBC HD was the only high-definition channel available on Freesat from launch day, with ITV HD added as a "red-button" interactive service from 7 June 2008.
On 2 April 2010 ITV HD changed from an interactive service to a full-time channel called ITV1 HD, simulcasting the main ITV1 channel. The name was changed back to ITV HD on 14 January 2013. BBC One HD, a high-definition simulcast of BBC One, was made available on Freesat and other platforms on 3 November 2010. Channel 4 HD became available on the platform on 19 April 2011, but will be withdrawn from 22 February 2018. NHK World HD was added to Freesat on 9 May 2011. On 23 July 2012, the BBC added 24 temporary channels to cover the 2012 Summer Olympics, the channels share their EPG slot with their standard definition counterpart. On 29 August 2012, Channel 4 added three temporary channels covering the 2012 Summer Paralympics in high definition from the following day. On 14 February 2013, RT HD was added to Freesat, sharing its channel number with its standard definition simulcast. On 26 March 2013, BBC HD was replaced by a high-definiti
ITV Digital Channels
ITV Digital Channels Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of British television broadcaster ITV plc. ITV Digital Channels Ltd now under control of ITV plc is today a profitable business which runs all ITV plc's television channels with the exception of ITV, part of the ITV Network. Granada Sky Broadcasting was set up in 1996 and operated until 2004 as a joint venture between Granada plc and BSkyB to launch a range of television channels broadcasting the Granada and London Weekend Television archive on the Sky satellite television platform as well as other digital platforms such as ITV Digital, NTL and Telewest. On 2 February 2004, Granada merged with Carlton Communications to form ITV plc. On 1 November 2004, ITV plc agreed to purchase BSkyB's stake in GSB for £10 million; the deal included the slot that Plus was broadcast on, which ITV used on the Sky platform to broadcast its new ITV3 channel, which replaced Plus on the same day. The negotiations that led to ITV plc taking sole control of GSB, closing Granada Plus and launching ITV3 on digital satellite were completed just hours before the new channel started broadcasting.
A week on the 8 November 2004, Granada Sky Broadcasting was renamed "ITV Digital Channels Limited". The closure of Granada Plus left Motors the sole survivor of the original four channels; as part of ITV's buy-out of Sky's shareholding Sky will receive 49.5% of any proceeds from any future sale of Men & Motors. On 2 May 2005, Men & Motors launched as free-to-air channel on the Freeview digital terrestrial television service, it was rumoured that ITV plc would replace Men & Motors with ITV4, another men's channel, when it launched on 1 November 2005, echoing the launch of ITV3 in 2004. However, after a better than expected performance from Men & Motors as a free-to-air channel and avoiding the issues that led to ITV3 replacing Plus, both channels continued and ITV plc cut the hours of the ITV News Channel to make way for ITV4 and CITV instead; the News Channel closed in December 2005, with its remaining bandwidth used for CITV. Although ITV4 started broadcasting from the Astra satellite on 1 November, it was not placed on the Sky EPG until 7 November.
Because of this, some ITV4 sporting programming was simulcast on Men & Motors in a ITV4 on m&m strand. Despite the previous U-turn not to close Men & Motors, fresh rumours over the channel's future began to circulate in early 2006 due to a poorer than expected performance from the fledgling ITV4 service. In April 2006 Men & Motors left Freeview to make way for the launch of ITV Play, it closed on Virgin Media on 25 March 2010, closed on Sky and Freesat on 1 April, to make way for a permanent EPG position for ITV HD. ITV2 and ITV3 are the highest rating digital TV channels in the United Kingdom. ITV4 is benefiting from extra investment and is improving its share of the viewing; the CITV channel is the number one commercial kids TV channel having a higher share of viewers compared to Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. In 2014, the portfolio of ITV's channels was expanded with the launch of ITV Encore, a drama channel, ITVBe, a reality and lifestyle channel; the launch of the latter lead to ITV2's repositioning.
ITV Digital Channels Ltd operates the following ITV plc's Television channels: ITV2 – a general entertainment channel ITV3 – a drama and movie channel ITV4 – a channel aimed at men ITVBe – a channel aimed at women ITV Box Office – a pay-per-view sports channel CITV – a channel aimed at children The Store – a shopping channel ITV HD – a high definition simulcast of ITV plc's ITV channel ITV2 HD – a high definition simulcast of ITV2 ITV3 HD – a high definition simulcast of ITV3 ITV4 HD – a high definition simulcast of ITV4 ITVBe HD – a high definition simulcast of ITVBe Plus – launched as Granada Plus on 1 October 1996, showing entertainment programmes from the archives of Granada, LWT and its subsidiaries. It was closed on 1 November 2004 to allow ITV3 to launch on Sky. Granada Breeze – launched as Granada Good Life on 1 October 1996, a lifestyle channel split into four segments: Granada Food & Wine, Granada Health & Beauty, Granada TV High Street and Granada Home & Garden. Relaunched as Granada Breeze in May 1998 in order to improve ratings but closed on 30 April 2002.
Men & Motors – launched as Granada Men & Motors on 1 October 1996, a channel aimed at men. Last of the original Granada Sky Broadcasting channels to close on 1 April 2010. Granada Talk TV – a debate channel launched on 1 October 1996. Closed on 31 August 1997. ITV Encore – a drama channel launched on 9th June 2014. Closed on 1st May 2018. ITV Digital ITV plc EMC Bitstream: ITV3: reaching for the Sky — discusses the negotiations that led to the sale of Sky's stake and closure of Granada Plus Guide to channels on Astra satellites
Swisscom AG is a major telecommunications provider in Switzerland. Its headquarters are located in Worblaufen near Bern; the Swiss Confederation owns 51.0 percent of Swisscom AG. According to its own published data, Swisscom holds a market share of 60% for mobile, 67% for broadband and 33% for TV telecommunication in Switzerland, its Italian subsidiary Fastweb is attributed 16% of private clients and 29% of corporate clients share of Italian broadband and is active in the mobile market. The Swiss telegraph network was first set up in 1852, followed by telephones in 1877; the two networks were combined with the postal service in 1920 to form the PTT. It struggled to develop a homegrown digital network, with the first digital exchange launched in 1986, but pioneered the NATEL A mobile service in 1978 and the GSM-based NATEL D offering a digital service in 1993; the Swiss telecommunications market was deregulated in 1997. Telecom PTT was spun off and rebranded Swisscom ahead of a partial privatisation in 1997, which has left the Swiss government with a 51% stake.
Besides pioneering the first mobile telephone network NATEL A, the present-day Swisscom owns the protected brand NATEL, used and known only in Switzerland. In 2001, 25% of Swisscom Mobile was sold to Vodafone. Since Swisscom has bought a majority stake in Italy's second-biggest telecom company Fastweb and invested in areas such as hospitality support, cloud services, mobile solutions and billing. Switzerland's entry into the telecommunications era came in 1851, with the passage of legislation giving the Swiss government control over the development of a telegraph network throughout the country; the government's initial plans called for the creation of three primary telegraph lines, as well as a number of secondary networks. In order to build equipment for the system, the government established the Atelier Fédéral de Construction des Télégraphes. In July 1852, the first leg of the country's telegraph system—between St. Gallen and Zurich—was operational. By the end of that year, most of the country's main cities had been connected to the telegraph system.
In 1855, the network was extended with the first underwater cable, connecting Winkel-Stansstad and Bauen-Flüelen. Night service was launched that year, starting in Basel, St. Gallen and Bellinzona. Telegraph traffic took off in the late 1860s after the government had reduced the cost of 20-word messages in 1867. While telegraph traffic continued to rise in the following decade, the technology was soon to be replaced by the telephone. Switzerland's entry into the telephone age came in 1877, when the first experimental phone lines appeared, starting with a line linking the post office building with the Federal Palace and with a link, using the existing telegraph line, between Bern and Thun; the following year, the government passed legislation establishing a monopoly on the country's telephone network. Nonetheless, private operators were allowed to bid for licenses in order to develop their local concessions. By 1880, Switzerland's first private network had been created in Zurich; this was a central system with the capacity for 200 lines.
The first directory was published that year and listed 140 subscribers. Basel and Geneva all launched their own local networks between 1881 and 1882. One year the first intercity telephone line was established, linking Zurich's private exchange with Winterthur's public system, yet the Zurich company ran into difficulties by the mid-1880s. With its development falling behind the telephone concessions elsewhere in the country, the federal government bought out the private operator, paying just over CHF 300,000 in 1886; the national telephone network continued to expand. Telephone numbers were introduced in 1890, replacing the initial system whereby callers had been able to ask for their party by name; the number of Switzerland's telephone subscribers grew after the inauguration of a new telephone switchboard capable of handling nearly 4,000 lines. By 1896, Switzerland's telephone network had been extended to include all of Switzerland's cantons. By 1900, the country had established its first international connection, between Basel and Stuttgart, Germany.
Switzerland began testing its first public phone booths in 1904. Restricted to local calls, the public telephones allowed national calling for the first time in 1907; the first automatic telephone exchanges were installed by private networks in 1912. By 1917, a semi-automatic exchange had been installed, in Zurich-Hottingen; the following year, in order to extend the country's phone system into rural parts of Switzerland, the government began promoting the establishment of party-line systems. In 1920, the Swiss government created the Swiss PTT, combining the country's postal services and telegraph and telephone systems into a single, government-controlled entity. Development of the country's telephone system now came under the purview of the government. In 1921, the PTT launched its own directory inquiries service; the following year, the PTT started the first automatic public telephone exchange in Zurich-Hottingen. The PTT began telex services in 1934, by 1936 had linked up the cities of Zurich and Bern, which were linked via Zurich to the international market.
In the meantime, the PTT became responsible for developing the company's radio broadcasting, television broadcasting services. Switzerland's telephone system took off in the years following World War II. By 1948, the country boasted 500,000 telephone subscribers. Over the following decade, that number doubled. In 1957, the PTT added computer capacity. Through this period, t
Gossip Girl is an American teen drama television series based on the book series of the same name written by Cecily von Ziegesar. The series, created by Josh Schwartz and Stephanie Savage ran on The CW network for six seasons from September 19, 2007, to December 17, 2012. Narrated by the omniscient blogger "Gossip Girl", the series revolves around the lives of privileged upper-class adolescents living in Manhattan's Upper East Side; the series begins with the return of Upper East Side teenage it girl Serena van der Woodsen from a mysterious absence. She is reunited with her frenemy Blair Waldorf and her mother Lily van der Woodsen, while she meets Dan Humphrey, an aspiring writer from Brooklyn. Other main characters are played by Chace Crawford, Ed Westwick, Taylor Momsen, Jessica Szohr, Matthew Settle and Kaylee DeFer; the success of Gossip Girl led to adaptations outside the United States. The show has received numerous award nominations; the CW renewed Gossip Girl for a sixth and final season on May 11, 2012.
The final season, consisting of 10 episodes, premiered on October 8, 2012 and ended on December 17, 2012. The Gossip Girl book series was supposed to be adapted into a film starring Lindsay Lohan with head Gilmore Girls creator Amy Sherman-Palladino; when the film project did not get off the ground, Stephanie Savage and Josh Schwartz took over the project to create a television series. As of October 2006, Schwartz was working on the pilot, he said, "I was skeptical. I don't want to do The O. C. NYC, but I thought. The characters are worldly in a way that Orange County kids aren't." The characteristics for each character in the pilot were based on the first Gossip Girl book. In January 2007, the show was given the green light by The CW; the O. C. creator Josh Schwartz and fellow writer Stephanie Savage served as the show's executive producers throughout the series' run, followed by Bob Levy and Leslie Morgenstein of Alloy Entertainment, who were assigned in aiding the adaptation of the novels into the series.
Following the success of Gossip Girl, Gilmore Girls co-producer, John Stephens was approached by Schwartz and Savage, having worked with him on The O. C. and hired him as an executive producer. Joshua Safran, who started as a writer/consulting producer before becoming co-executive producer, was added as an executive producer. On April 24, 2012, it was announced that he would leave the show at the end of the fifth season to be the new showrunner of NBC's now-cancelled musical series Smash. To fill in Safran's void, co-executive producer Sara Goodman was promoted to executive producer for the sixth season. Alexandra Patsavas who worked with Schwartz on The O. C. was in charge of the music. Eric Daman was at the head of the costume department. Featuring nine regular speaking roles, the majority of the ensemble cast was assembled from February to April 2007. Leighton Meester and Blake Lively–who started auditioning in December 2006–were the first two actresses to be chosen in February for the lead roles of Blair Waldorf and Serena van der Woodsen, respectively.
Penn Badgley, who had worked with Stephanie Savage on The Mountain, Taylor Momsen, Chace Crawford, Kelly Rutherford, Connor Paolo auditioned and landed roles in the series in March, as did Florencia Lozano who appeared only in the pilot, was replaced by Margaret Colin. Badgley at first turned down the part of Dan, as did Lively—who planned to attend college—for the role of Serena. Actors for the roles of Chuck Bass and Rufus Humphrey were found in April when English actor Ed Westwick, Matthew Settle were cast. Westwick first read for the role of Nate but was asked to try Chuck; as rumors swirled about the impending cancellation of Veronica Mars, it was revealed at The CW's 2007 Upfronts on May 17, 2007, that Kristen Bell had narrated the pilot, thus making her the title character of another show on the network. Jessica Szohr was signed on to portray the recurring role of Vanessa Abrams and received regular status during the fourteenth episode of the first season. Kaylee DeFer joined the series in the eighteenth episode of the fourth season and was promoted to series regular for the show's fifth season.
At the conclusion of the fourth season, who went on an indefinite hiatus during the season while retaining regular billing, Jessica Szohr both left the show. Throughout the series' run, Connor Paolo declined to elevate his recurring role of Eric van der Woodsen to regular status, citing personal reasons for his decision. After becoming a regular on the ABC series Revenge, Paolo confirmed his departure from Gossip Girl in August 2011; as the show progressed, numerous recurring guest stars appeared in the show. Michelle Trachtenberg signed on to portray Georgina Sparks; the role had been offered to Mischa Barton who declined the role. Francie Swift and Sam Robards took the parental roles of Howard Archibald, respectively. Caroline Lagerfelt portrayed Celia "CeCe" Rhodes and Eric's grandmother and Lily's mother. Sebastian Stan made several appearances as Carter Baizen throughout the show's first three seasons. Filming in New York, Gossip Girl has been declared by New York Magazine as the "Most Restauranty Show Since Sex and the City", citing the pilot episode filming locales such as the Japanese restaurant, the Campbell Apartment where Nate and Serena were filmed having sex and the New York Palace Hotel bar Gilt.
Other New York City landmarks and well-known establishments were filmed throughout the first season. Victor/Victrola filmed the fictiona
Internet Protocol television is the delivery of television content over Internet Protocol networks. This is in contrast to delivery through traditional terrestrial and cable television formats. Unlike downloaded media, IPTV offers the ability to stream the source media continuously; as a result, a client media player can begin playing the content immediately. This is known as streaming media. Although IPTV uses the Internet protocol it is not limited to television streamed from the Internet. IPTV is deployed in subscriber-based telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into end-user premises via set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment. IPTV is used for media delivery around corporate and private networks. IPTV in the telecommunications arena is notable for its ongoing standardisation process. IPTV services may be classified into three main groups: Live television and live media, with or without related interactivity. Many different definitions of IPTV have appeared, including elementary streams over IP networks, MPEG transport streams over IP networks and a number of proprietary systems.
One official definition approved by the International Telecommunication Union focus group on IPTV is: IPTV is defined as multimedia services such as television/video/audio/text/graphics/data delivered over IP based networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service and experience, security and reliability. Another definition of IPTV, relating to the telecommunications industry, is the one given by Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions IPTV Exploratory Group in 2005: IPTV is defined as the secure and reliable delivery to subscribers of entertainment video and related services; these services may include, for example, Live TV, Video On Demand and Interactive TV. These services are delivered across an access agnostic, packet switched network that employs the IP protocol to transport the audio and control signals. In contrast to video over the public Internet, with IPTV deployments, network security and performance are managed to ensure a superior entertainment experience, resulting in a compelling business environment for content providers and customers alike.
The term IPTV first appeared in 1995 with the founding of Precept Software by Judith Estrin and Bill Carrico. Precept developed an Internet video product named IP/TV. IP/TV was an Mbone compatible Windows and Unix-based application that transmitted single and multi-source audio and video traffic, ranging from low to DVD quality, using both unicast and IP multicast Real-time Transport Protocol and Real time control protocol; the software was written by Steve Casner, Karl Auerbach, Cha Chee Kuan. Precept was acquired by Cisco Systems in 1998. Cisco retains the IP/TV trademark. Internet radio company AudioNet started the first continuous live webcasts with content from WFAA-TV in January 1998 and KCTU-LP on 10 January 1998. Kingston Communications, a regional telecommunications operator in the UK, launched Kingston Interactive Television, an IPTV over digital subscriber line service in September 1999; the operator added additional VoD service in October 2001 with a VoD content provider. Kingston was one of the first companies in the world to introduce IPTV and IP VoD over ADSL as a commercial service.
The service became the reference for various changes to UK Government regulations and policy on IPTV. In 2006, the KIT service was discontinued, subscribers having declined from a peak of 10,000 to 4,000. In 1999, NBTel was the first to commercially deploy Internet protocol television over DSL in Canada using the Alcatel 7350 DSLAM and middleware created by iMagic TV; the service was marketed under the brand VibeVision in New Brunswick, expanded into Nova Scotia in early 2000 after the formation of Aliant. IMagic TV was sold to Alcatel. In 2002, Sasktel was the second in Canada to commercially deploy IPTV over DSL, using the Lucent Stinger DSL platform. In 2005, SureWest Communications was the first North American company to offer high-definition television channels over an IPTV service. In 2005, Bredbandsbolaget launched its IPTV service as the first service provider in Sweden; as of January 2009, they are not the biggest supplier any longer. In 2007, TPG became the first internet service provider in Australia to launch IPTV.
By 2010, iiNet and Telstra launched IPTV services in conjunction to internet plans. In 2008, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited launched IPTV under the brand name of PTCL Smart TV in Pakistan; this service is available in 150 major cities of the country offering 140 live channels. In 2010, CenturyLink – after acquiring Embarq and Qwest – entered five U. S. markets with an IPTV service called Prism. This was after successful test marketing in Florida. In 2016, Korean Central Television introduced the set-top box called Manbang providing video-on-demand services in North Korea via quasi-internet protocol television. Manbang allows viewers to watch five different TV channels in real-time, read find political information regarding the Supreme Leader and Juche ideology, read articles from state-run news organizations; the technology was hindered by low broadb
ITV (TV channel)
ITV is a British free-to-air television channel. A network of separate regional television channels, ITV operates in England, Scotland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. From 2001 until 2013, the channel was called ITV1. In 2004, Granada Television acquired Carlton Communications to form ITV plc. ITV is the biggest and most popular commercial television channel in the United Kingdom. ITV and its predecessor channels have contended with BBC One for the status of the UK's most watched television channel since the 1950s. However, in line with other terrestrial channels, ITV's audience share has fallen in the era of multi-channel television. Following the creation of the Television Act 1954, the establishment of a commercial television service in the UK began; the Independent Television service, or ITV, was made up of regions, with each region run by different companies. The three largest regions were subdivided into weekday and weekend services, with a different company running each. ITV existed in a region-heavy form from its inception to the 2000s.
ITV1 became the generic on-screen brand name used by the twelve franchises of the ITV Network in the United Kingdom. The brand was introduced in 2001 by Carlton- and Granada-owned franchises used alongside the local regional name. However, it became the sole on-air identity in 2002 when the two companies decided to create a single unified playout of the channel, with regional references only used prior to regional programming. Carlton and Granada went on to merge in 2004, creating ITV plc which now owns thirteen of the fifteen regional ITV licences; the ITV1 name was only used in England, Southern Scotland and Isle of Man until Channel Television adopted the name in January 2006, bringing it to the Channel Islands. As national continuity is used on Channel Television, ITV1 national branding had been seen on the station for several years previously; the licencees that used the ITV brand were Anglia Television, Border Television, Carlton Television, Central Independent Television, Channel Television, Granada Television, HTV, London Weekend Television, Meridian Television, Tyne Tees Television, Westcountry Television and Yorkshire Television.
ITV Wales & West was the only exception, using the name ITV1 Wales at all times for the Welsh part of its broadcast area as it has a higher regional commitment. Latterly the ITV1 Wales name was only used on breakbumpers and regionally advertised programmes until 2013. Non ITV plc-owned licencees on the network did not refer to the ITV name; the network production arms of the ITV-plc owned licencees have been combined since 1993 to form ITV Studios. ITV was formed by the unification of eleven of the ITV licences; the Broadcasting Act 1990 changed many of the rules regulating the ITV Network, which most notably relaxed franchise ownership and hours of production. However, as far back as 1974, Yorkshire Television and its North East neighbour, Tyne Tees Television, formally created Trident Television, a merged entity of the two companies. By 1981 due to regulation, the company was forced to de-merge. However, the intense race to own more of the ITV Network began in 1994 when Carlton Communications, the owner of London weekday broadcaster Carlton Television, took control of Central Independent Television in the Midlands.
Days afterwards, Granada plc, owner of Granada Television of the North West purchased London Weekend Television. Meridian's owner and Allen International went on to purchase Anglia Television in the same year, before merging to become United News and Media in 1995. UNM went on to purchase Wales and West broadcaster, HTV in 1996, while Carlton purchased Westcountry Television that year. Granada agreed a deal to take over Yorkshire-Tyne Tees Television in 1997, giving the broadcaster access to both Yorkshire and North East franchises. There was no movement in the take-over of franchises until 2000 when Border Television and all of its radio assets were sold to Capital Radio Group, who sold the television broadcasting arm to Granada Media Group. Granada went on to purchase all of UNM's television interests, which brought Meridian, Anglia and HTV into its power, but due to regulation Granada was forced to sell HTV to Carlton. By this time, all of the franchises in England and Wales were owned by either Granada.
In 2004, Granada plc merged with Carlton Communications, creating ITV plc, although it was a takeover by Granada in effect. In 2011, ITV plc acquired Channel Television from its private owners Yattendon Group plc. On 19 October 2015 ITV announced they were to buy UTV for £100million subject to regulatory approval; the deal included UTV Ireland, UTV's Irish channel. Unlike other ITV franchises owned by ITV plc that use the ITV name, the UTV name will be retained. ITV consists of eleven franchises in England and Wales which broadcast regional news and other local programming to its area. Many franchise areas in England had sub-regions providing separate regional news bulletins. For example, the Anglia region was divided into East; this arrangement came to an end in February 2009 when ITV implemented plans to save the company £40m a year on the amount it spent making local news. Since 27 October 2002, on all ITV plc-owned franchises, regional programming has been preceded or plugged by an oral regional announcement, in the format ITV1 regional brand, e.g. ITV1 Granada.
In English regions, up until 13 Novem