The Red List of Threatened Species, founded in 1964, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species. It uses a set of criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of subspecies; these criteria are relevant to all regions of the world. With its strong scientific base, the IUCN Red List is recognized as the most authoritative guide to the status of biological diversity. A series of Regional Red Lists are produced by countries or organizations, which assess the risk of extinction to species within a political management unit; the IUCN Red List is set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all regions of the world; the aim is to convey the urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well as help the international community to try to reduce species extinction. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the formally stated goals of the Red List are to provide scientifically based information on the status of species and subspecies at a global level, to draw attention to the magnitude and importance of threatened biodiversity, to influence national and international policy and decision-making, to provide information to guide actions to conserve biological diversity.
Major species assessors include BirdLife International, the Institute of Zoology, the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, many Specialist Groups within the IUCN Species Survival Commission. Collectively, assessments by these organizations and groups account for nearly half the species on the Red List; the IUCN aims to have the category of every species re-evaluated every five years if possible, or at least every ten years. This is done in a peer reviewed manner through IUCN Species Survival Commission Specialist Groups, which are Red List Authorities responsible for a species, group of species or specific geographic area, or in the case of BirdLife International, an entire class; the number of species included on the Red List has been increasing over time. As of 2019, of 105,000 species surveyed, 28,338 are considered at risk of extinction because of human activity, in particular overfishing and land development; the 1964 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants used the older pre-criteria Red List assessment system.
Plants listed may not, appear in the current Red List. IUCN advise that it is best to check both the online Red List and the 1997 plants Red List publication; the 2006 Red List, released on 4 May 2006 evaluated 40,168 species as a whole, plus an additional 2,160 subspecies, aquatic stocks, subpopulations. On 12 September 2007, the World Conservation Union released the 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. In this release, they have raised their classification of both the western lowland gorilla and the Cross River gorilla from endangered to critically endangered, the last category before extinct in the wild, due to Ebola virus and poaching, along with other factors. Russ Mittermeier, chief of Swiss-based IUCN's Primate Specialist Group, stated that 16,306 species are endangered with extinction, 188 more than in 2006; the Red List includes the Sumatran orangutan in the Critically Endangered category and the Bornean orangutan in the Endangered category. The 2008 Red List was released on 6 October 2008 at the IUCN World Conservation Congress in Barcelona and "confirmed an extinction crisis, with one in four at risk of disappearing forever".
The study shows at least 1,141 of the 5,487 mammals on Earth are known to be threatened with extinction, 836 are listed as Data Deficient. The Red List of 2012 was released 19 July 2012 at Rio+20 Earth Summit; the IUCN assessed a total of 63,837 species. 3,947 were described as "critically endangered" and 5,766 as "endangered", while more than 10,000 species are listed as "vulnerable". At threat are 41% of amphibian species, 33% of reef-building corals, 30% of conifers, 25% of mammals, 13% of birds; the IUCN Red List has listed 132 species of plants and animals from India as "Critically Endangered". Species are classified by the IUCN Red List into nine groups, specified through criteria such as rate of decline, population size, area of geographic distribution, degree of population and distribution fragmentation. There is an emphasis on the acceptability of applying any criteria in the absence of high quality data including suspicion and potential future threats, "so long as these can reasonably be supported".
Extinct – beyond reasonable doubt that the species is no longer extant. Extinct in the wild – survives only in captivity, cultivation and/or outside native range, as presumed after exhaustive surveys. Critically endangered – in a and critical state. Endangered – high risk of extinction in the wild, meets any of criteria A to E for Endangered. Vulnerable – meets one of the 5 red list criteria and thus considered to be at high risk of unnatural extinction without further human intervention. Near threatened – close to being at high risk of extinction in the near future. Least concern – unlikely to become extinct in the near future. Data deficient Not evaluated In the IUCN Red List, "threatened" embraces the categories of Critically Endangered and Vul
Southern Methodist University is a private research university in University Park, with satellite campuses in Plano and Taos, New Mexico. SMU was founded in April 17, 1911 by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South—now part of the United Methodist Church—in partnership with Dallas civic leaders. However, it is nonsectarian in its enrolls students of all religious affiliations; as of fall 2018, the university had 11,824 students, including 6,710 undergraduates and 5,114 postgraduates, from all 50 states and 85 countries. Its instructional faculty is 1,151, with 754 being full-time; the student-faculty ratio is 11:1. The university grants degrees from eight schools. Lyle School of Engineering, Algur H. Meadows School of the Arts, Moody School of Graduate and Advanced Studies, Perkins School of Theology, Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development; the university was chartered on April 17, 1911, by the southern denomination of the Methodist Episcopal Church. At the time of the charter, church leaders saw a need to establish a Methodist institution within a metropolitan area.
This new institution was intended to be created in Fort Worth through a merger between Polytechnic College and Southwestern University. However, the church's education commission instead opted to create a new institution in Dallas to serve this purpose after extensive lobbying by the Dallas Chamber of Commerce. Robert Stewart Hyer president of Southwestern University, was appointed as the first president of the new university; the effort to establish a new university in Dallas drew the attention of the General Conference of the Methodist Church, seeking to create a new connectional institution in the wake of a 1914 Tennessee Supreme Court decision stripping the church of authority at Vanderbilt University. The church decided to support the establishment of the new institution while increasing the size of Emory University at a new location in DeKalb County, Georgia. At the 1914 meeting of the General Conference, Southern Methodist University was designated the connectional institution for all conferences west of the Mississippi River.
SMU named its first building Dallas Hall in gratitude for the support of Dallas leaders and local citizens, who had pledged $300,000 to secure the university's location. It remains the university's symbol and centerpiece, it inspired "the Hilltop" as a nickname for the school, it was designed by Shepley and Coolidge after the Rotunda at the University of Virginia. Dallas Hall opened its doors in 1915 and housed the entire university along with a bank and a barbershop; the hall is registered in the National Register of Historic Places. Classes were planned to begin in 1913, but construction delays on the university's first building prevented classes from starting until 1915. In the interim, the only functioning academic department at SMU was the medical college it had acquired from Southwestern University; as the first president of Southern Methodist University, Hyer selected Harvard crimson and Yale blue as the school colors in order to associate SMU with the high standards of Ivy League universities.
Several streets in University Park and adjacent Highland Park were named after prominent universities, including Harvard, Cornell, Princeton, Purdue, Sewanee, Bryn Mawr, Hanover, Southwestern and Villanova. In 1927, Highland Park United Methodist Church, designed by architects Mark Lemmon and Roscoe DeWitt, was erected on campus. During World War II, SMU was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission; the university drew considerable media attention in 1987 when the NCAA administered the death penalty against the SMU football program for repeated, flagrant recruiting violations. The punishment included cancellation of the 1987 and most of the 1988 football season and a two-year ban from Bowl Games and all televised sports coverage. On February 22, 2008, the university trustees unanimously instructed President R. Gerald Turner to enter into an agreement to establish the George W. Bush Presidential Center on 23 acres on the southeast side of the campus.
The Center, which includes a presidential library, museum and the offices of the George W. Bush Foundation, was dedicated on April 25, 2013, in a ceremony which featured all living former U. S. Presidents Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, then-incumbent U. S. President, Barack Obama; the library and museum are administered by the National Archives and Records Administration, while the university holds representation on the independent public policy institute board. The project raised over $500 million for the construction and endowment of the George W. Bush presidential center; the university's endowment surpassed $1 billion for the time in the university's history in 2005. Through its "Second Century Campaign" from 2008 to 2015, the university raised $1.15 billion and celebrated the centennials of its 1911 founding and 1915 opening through the renovation of Fondren Library, the construction of five new residential halls, other campus revitalization projects. The main campus of Southern Methodist University is located in Highland Park and University Park, both of which are incorporated enclaves of Dallas, Texas.
It is located on 237 acres of land just west of US Route 75. Dallas Hall serves as the centerpiece for this campus and is the admini
Oldway Mansion is a large house and gardens in Paignton, England. It was built as a private residence for Isaac Singer, rebuilt by his son Paris Singer in the style of the Palace of Versailles. Around 1871, the Fernham estate in Paignton was purchased by Isaac Singer, the founder of the Singer Sewing Machine Company; the old buildings on the site were demolished and he commissioned a local architect, George Soudon Bridgman, to build a new mansion as his home. As part of the designs, Singer instructed Bridgman to build a theatre within the house. Bridgman was at that time being apprenticed by a young Frank Matcham, who had just returned from London where he had been studying architecture in a surveyors office. In an edition of The Builder, dated 1873, Matcham was named in the request for tender section as being the accepted party to work alongside Bridgman on the Oldway Mansion project; the architectural historian Gorel Garlick considers it possible that Matcham was given sole responsibility by Bridgman for the theatre's design because of his educational experiences in London.
Singer spared no cost in terms of Oldway Mansion's construction. Garlick notes that it was likely that Singer's exuberance would have influenced someone as architecturally impressionable as Matcham, whose theatres used such extravagant decoration; the work was completed in 1873 Singer died on 23 July 1875, shortly before work on the original mansion was completed. Paris Singer, a son of Isaac Singer, supervised the alterations at Oldway Mansion between 1904 and 1907; the rebuilding work was modelled on the Palace of Versailles, the eastern elevation of the building was inspired by the Place de la Concorde in Paris. The interior of the building is noted for its grand staircase made from marble, balusters of bronze; the ceiling of the staircase is decorated with an ornate painting based on an original design for the Palace of Versailles for Louis XIV by the French painter and architect Charles Le Brun. Above the grand staircase, there is a reproduction of the first version of Jacques-Louis David's painting The Crowning of Josephine by Napoleon.
The original was purchased by Paris Singer in the late 19th century. The reproduction at the mansion, which hangs in the same place as the original did, is a copy made by Rutters Scanachrome and was unveiled in 1995; the gallery on the first floor is a reproduction of the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, it is floored in parquet. The gallery leads into the ballroom. Above the fireplace, there is an oil painting of Louis de Bourbon dating from 1717. Oldway Mansion is set in 17 acres of gardens, which were laid out on an Italian theme by the French landscape gardener Achille Duchesne. Beneath the eastern elevation of the building is the maze, which consists of dwarf box hedging and flower beds. To the south of the mansion, there is a grotto garden, where a waterfall passes over a rocky cave into a pool below; the grounds of the mansion contain many sub-tropical shrubs. Opposite the main entrance to the mansion is a large round building known as The Rotunda; this was built in 1873, it was used as a horse riding pavilion and exercise area.
Isaac Singer gave this building the nickname of "The Wigwam". The formal gardens and parkland are Grade II listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. Following the end of an affair with the dancer Isadora Duncan in 1917, Paris Singer became an American citizen and went to live in the United States; this was done for tax reasons, after 1918, Oldway Mansion was no longer the permanent home of the Singer family. During the period of the First World War from 1914 to 1918, Oldway Mansion was transformed into the American Women's War Relief Hospital; the Rotunda was converted to house rows of beds for the wounded soldiers being brought back to England from the trenches of France and Belgium. King George V visited the mansion in 1915. Oldway Mansion became the Torbay Country Club in 1929. During this period, tennis courts and a bowling green were added to the grounds. Torbay Golf & Country Club opened in 1933. Oldway Mansion was used with the course in the hills above the Mansion; the course closed in the mid-1950s.
During the Second World War from 1939 to 1945, Oldway was used in the war effort by housing RAF cadets training to be aircrew. In 1943, Oldway was damaged in an air raid, along with many other buildings in Paignton. Paignton Urban District Council purchased Oldway Mansion from the Singer family in 1946 for £46,000, it is estimated. Until 2013, the building was used for civil marriage ceremonies. Oldway Mansion has been a Grade II* listed building since 1993. In January 2007, Torbay Council announced that it was considering selling the mansion, as it had become too expensive to maintain; the suggestion was controversial since local residents argued that the mansion was sold at a reduced price on the understanding that it would be open to the public. On 30 April 2012, plans for Oldway Mansion to be converted into a luxury hotel and sheltered retirement flats were approved by Torbay Council; the deal was finalised in September 2012. Oldway Mansion has been closed since Torbay Council stopped using the buildings in 2013, although the grounds have remained open to the public.
The bowling green is still in use. In January 2016, it was reported that the property developer Akkeron had filed a claim for more than £8 million in damages against Tor