Kalamazoo is a city in the southwest region of the U. S. state of Michigan. It is the county seat of Kalamazoo County; as of the 2010 census, Kalamazoo had a population of 74,262. Kalamazoo is the major city of the Kalamazoo-Portage Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of 335,340 as of 2015. Kalamazoo is equidistant from the major American cities of Chicago and Detroit, each less than 150 miles away. One of Kalamazoo's most notable features is the Kalamazoo Mall, an outdoor pedestrian shopping mall; the city created the mall in 1959 by closing part of Burdick Street to auto traffic, although two of the mall's four blocks have been reopened to auto traffic since 1999. Kalamazoo is home to Western Michigan University, a large public university, Kalamazoo College, a private liberal arts college, Kalamazoo Valley Community College, a two-year community college. Known as Bronson in the township of Arcadia, the names of both the city and the township were changed to "Kalamazoo" in 1836 and 1837, respectively.
The Kalamazoo name comes from a Potawatomi word, first found in a British report in 1772. However, the Kalamazoo River, which passes through the modern city of Kalamazoo, was located on the route between Detroit and Fort Saint-Joseph. French-Canadian traders and military personnel were quite familiar with this area during the French era and thereafter; the name for the Kalamazoo River was known by Canadians and French as La rivière Kikanamaso. The name "Kikanamaso" was recorded by Father Pierre Potier, a Jesuit missionary for the Huron-Wendats at the Assumption mission, while en route to Fort Saint-Joseph during the fall of 1760. Legend has it that "Ki-ka-ma-sung," meaning "boiling water," referring to a footrace held each fall by local Native Americans, who had to run to the river and back before the pot boiled. Another theory is that it means "the mirage or reflecting river". Another legend is that the image of "boiling water" referred to fog on the river as seen from the hills above the current downtown.
The name was given to the river that flows all the way across the state. The name Kalamazoo, which sounds unusual to English-speaking ears, has become a metonym for exotic places, as in the phrase "from Timbuktu to Kalamazoo." Today, T-shirts are sold in Kalamazoo with the phrase "Yes, there is a Kalamazoo." The area on which the modern city of Kalamazoo stands was once home to Native Americans of the Hopewell culture, who migrated into the area sometime before the first millennium. Evidence of their early residency remains in the form of a small mound in downtown's Bronson Park; the Hopewell civilization was replaced by other groups. The Potawatomi culture lived in the area. René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, passed just southeast of the present city of Kalamazoo in late March 1680; the first Europeans to reside in the area were itinerant fur traders in the late 18th and early 19th century. There are records of several traders wintering in the area, by the 1820s at least one trading post had been established.
During the War of 1812, the British established a prison camp in the area. The 1821 Treaty of Chicago ceded the territory south of the Grand River to the United States federal government. However, the area around present-day Kalamazoo was reserved as the village of Potawatomi Chief Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish. Six years as a result of the 1827 Treaty of St. Joseph, the tract that became the city of Kalamazoo was ceded. In 1829, Titus Bronson from Connecticut, became the first white settler to build a cabin within the present city limits of Kalamazoo, he platted the town in 1831 and named it the village of Bronson—not to be confused with the much smaller Bronson, about fifty miles to the south-southeast of Kalamazoo. Bronson described as "eccentric" and argumentative, was run out of town; the village was renamed Kalamazoo in 1836, due in part to Bronson's being fined for stealing a cherry tree. Today, a downtown park, among other things, are named for Bronson. Kalamazoo was incorporated as a village in 1838 and as a city in 1883.
The fertile farmlands attracted prosperous Yankee farmers who settled the surrounding area, sent their sons to Kalamazoo to become businessmen and entrepreneurs who started numerous factories. Most of the original settlers of Kalamazoo were from upstate New York. In the 1940s, the city became the first to install curb cuts. In 1959, the city created the Kalamazoo Mall, the first outdoor pedestrian shopping mall in the United States, by closing part of Burdick Street to auto traffic; the Mall was designed by Victor Gruen, who designed the country's first enclosed shopping mall, which had opened three years earlier. Two of the mall's four blocks were reopened to auto traffic in 1999 after much debate. An F3 tornado struck downtown Kalamazoo on May 13, 1980, killing five and injuring 79. On February 20, 2016, Kalamazoo became the site of a random series of shootings in which six people were killed. A prime suspect was apprehended by police without incident. In the past, Kalamazoo was known for its production of windmills, buggies, cigars, stoves and paper products.
Agriculturally, it once was noted for celery. Although much of it has become suburbanized, the surrounding area still produces farm crops corn and soybeans. Kalamazoo was the original home of Gibson Guitar Corporation, which spawned the still-local Heritage Guitars; the company was incorporated as "Gibson Mandolin - Guitar Co. Ltd" on October 11, 1902, by the craftsman
Oolitic is a town in Indian Creek and Shawswick townships, Lawrence County, United States. The population was 1,184 at the 2010 census. Oolitic was platted on March 1896, by the Bedford Quarries Company, it was incorporated in 1900. In 1910, its population was 1,079. Oolite is a type of limestone found in Indiana. Oolitic is the site of a limestone statue of comic-strip boxer Joe Palooka, moved there from Bedford in 1984. Oolitic is located at 38°53′44″N 86°31′29″W. According to the 2010 census, Oolitic has a total area of all land; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Oolitic has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; the town is built upon oolitic limestone. The town was founded for the purpose of quarrying this material, for building purposes. Oolitic was platted as "Limestone" on September 26, 1888. In 1896, the name was sent to Washington, D. C. to allow a post office to be established.
The request was refused because of a town named Limestone, Indiana. Doctor R. B. Short suggested using "Oolitic", Oolitic became incorporated on November 4, 1901; the word Oolitic was used as an adjective for Oolitic limestone. Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed of calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate and quartz, along with the small shells and eggs left behind when this area was covered by an inland sea. Found north of Oolitic are some of the largest Limestone quarries in the world, many of them in continuous operation since the 1830s. Many famous buildings are built of Oolitic Limestone; the most famous is the Empire State Building. Visitors can see the "Empire Hole," about 1/2 mile north of Oolitic As of the census of 2010, there were 1,184 people, 534 households, 334 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,517.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 587 housing units at an average density of 752.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.7% White, 0.3% African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 0.6% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population. There were 534 households of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.5% were non-families. 34.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.80. The median age in the town was 41 years. 22.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 50.3% male and 49.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,152 people, 507 households, 337 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,431.1 people per square mile. There were 563 housing units at an average density of 699.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.78% White, 0.17% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 0.09% from other races, 0.87% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.35% of the population. There were 507 households out of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.1% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.5% were non-families. 31.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.82. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 25.4% from 45 to 64, 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $31,250, the median income for a family was $37,279. Males had a median income of $30,758 versus $21,650 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,889. About 13.4% of families and 13.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.9% of those under age 18 and 12.2% of those age 65 or over.
History of Lawrence and Monroe Counties Indiana. Indianapolis: B. F. Bowen and Company. 1914. Retrieved 2013-05-02. Oolitic Fire Department
Charlestown is a city in Clark County, United States. The population was 7,585 at the 2010 census. Charlestown was established in 1808, named after one of its surveyors, Charles Beggs, upon 300 acres, of which 3 acres was designated for a town square, it was established one mile northeast of Springville, was responsible for Springville's demise. Milling was important to the town, as the first mill was built in the area, on Fourteen Mile Creek, in 1804; this mill would be abandoned when John Work built a mill by use of a tunnel in 1814. Today, that mill is part of the Tunnel Mill Scout Reservation. From 1811 to 1878 Charlestown was the county seat of Clark County, but as Jeffersonville had surpassed it economically, the county seat reverted to Jeffersonville in 1878. In 1818 the first Grand Lodge of Free & Accepted Masons in Indiana met in Charlestown, due to Jonathan Jennings' influence. In 1940 the population of Charlestown was 900, but it swelled to 13,400 due to the building and operation of the Indiana Army Ammunition Plant.
This created a housing problem, as chicken and wash houses had to house all the new residents who flocked to the area for the jobs created by the INAAP. Additional problems caused by the rapid influx of new residents was improper sanitation at restaurants, inefficient sewers, gambling and diseases such as typhoid and malaria. In 2014 the city announced they would be applying for a grant to redevelop Pleasant Ridge Subdivision, an impoverished area within the city; some residents of the Pleasant Ridge Subdivision formed an association to fight against demolishing their homes via eminent domain. The City Council did not call for a vote on the issue and the grant issue failed. Starting in 2016 the city was accused of using excessive fines against homeowners in the subdivision in order to force them to sell to a private developer. Charlestown is located at 38°27′7″N 85°40′2″W. According to the 2010 census, Charlestown has a total area of 11.489 square miles, of which 11.45 square miles is land and 0.039 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 7,585 people, 2,884 households, 2,034 families residing in the city. The population density was 662.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,169 housing units at an average density of 276.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.9% White, 2.1% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 5.3% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.3% of the population. There were 2,884 households of which 39.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.7% were married couples living together, 17.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 29.5% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.09. The median age in the city was 35.2 years. 28.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.5% male and 52.5% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 5,993 people, 2,341 households, 1,615 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,570.0 people per square mile. There were 2,489 housing units at an average density of 1,067.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.91% White, 2.47% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 2.77% from other races, 1.35% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.32% of the population. There were 2,341 households out of which 37.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.9% were married couples living together, 18.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families. 26.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.03. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.0% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,238, the median income for a family was $35,592. Males had a median income of $27,240 versus $21,901 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,892. About 15.8% of families and 19.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.8% of those under age 18 and 17.8% of those age 65 or over. The Charlestown Parks and Recreation Department strives to create lasting family memories and promote wellness for the residents of the City of Charlestown by providing family friendly activities and recreation facilities; the Parks and Recreation Department operates the Arts and Enrichment Center, the Greenway Park Concession Stand and the city's community computer labs. The Charlestown Parks and Recreation Department has hosted a variety of activities at Greenway Park since the completion of the concession stand in Greenway Park in the spring of 2009.
Some of these activities include: Movies in the Park, Music in the Park, a Back-to-School Bash. The Parks and Recreation Department coordinates the city's annual celebration of Christmas, including Light Up Charlestown and the city's Christmas displays; each year, the city converts the city square
A ladder match is a type of match in professional wrestling, most one where an item is hung above the ring, the winner is the contestant who climbs a ladder and retrieves the item. The ladder itself becomes a key feature of the match, as wrestlers will use the ladder as a weapon to strike the opponent, as a launching pad for acrobatic attacks, these matches include impressive falls from the top of the ladder. However, there were few matches in which the hung item must be used in a special manner in order to win the match, such as striking the opponent with the item. Ladder matches are used as a finale to storylines and it is more common to have symbolic briefcases or championship belts hung above the ring. Ladder matches and their variants are used in feuds that involve a dispute over possession of an item. Ladder matches are always fought under no disqualification rules; the ladder match could have been invented by either Dan Kroffat of the Stampede Wrestling organization out of Calgary, Canada or British wrestler Kendo Nagasaki.
In September 1972, Stampede Wrestling held the first ladder match between Dan Kroffat and Tor Kamata, where the object to be grabbed was a wad of money. In 1987, Kendo Nagasaki competed in a "disco challenge" ladder match against Clive Myers on the popular World of Sport; the aim of this match was to retrieve a gold coloured disco record suspended above the ring. In July 1983, Stampede Wrestling held a ladder match in which Bret Hart faced off against Bad News Allen. Hart went on to join the World Wrestling Federation in 1984, and, in the early 1990s, suggested this type of match to promoter Vince McMahon, years before the gimmick achieved its eventual popularity; the first ladder match in the WWF, in which Hart defeated Shawn Michaels to retain the WWF Intercontinental Title, was held in Portland, ME on July 21, 1992. The match was taped but never aired on television, remained unseen until its inclusion on the 2007 The Ladder Match DVD and among the bonus material on the 2011 DVD and Blu-ray collection WWE's Greatest Rivalries: Shawn Michaels vs. Bret Hart.
The two performers tell interviewer Jim Ross how the match was planned along with an intended ladder rematch that never materialized. Many ladder matches, while not recognized by the WWE have taken place at house shows. Ten featured Razor Ramon retaining the Intercontinental Championship against Shawn Michaels months before their WrestleMania X encounter. Another featured Razor Ramon winning the same title from Jeff Jarrett in Montreal in 1995, only to lose it back to Jarrett two nights as part of a series of nine unrecognized ladder matches the two had. Another featured Jeff Hardy retaining his World Heavyweight Championship against CM Punk in Denver, Co in 2009. Three ladder matches took place at consecutive house shows in 2006, where each saw Jeff Hardy defend his Intercontinental Championship; the first of these three saw Johnny Nitro and Carlito as contenders. The next two nights did not feature Benjamin. Similar to a Stairway to Hell match, during Triple H and Kevin Nash's ladder match, a sledgehammer was hung above the ring.
The first participant to retrieve it could use it as a weapon. The only way to have won was by submission. Participant list This match began as a Battle Royal but when it came down to 2 competitors it became a ladder match; the big red X associated with the Ultimate X match, was used instead of a belt to win the match. King of the Mountain match – Used in TNA. However, wrestlers cannot go for the belt until they've scored a pinfall, after which the pinned wrestler must spend some time in a penalty box. Ultimate X match – Used in TNA; the match features a structure that consists of two wires strung above the ring, forming an'X'. The wrestlers climb the structure that holds the wires, makes their way across the wires to the center of the structure, retrieves the'X' while hanging from the wires. Although similar to a ladder match, ladders are used as a part of an unwritten rule of sorts, with the on exception of Team 3D in X14. Full Metal Mayhem match- same rules apply as Tables and Chairs match, but steel chains can be used.
Stairway to Hell – Used in ECW. Once you've taken down the weapon you are free to use it, you win the match via pin or submission the same as a singles match; the match was contested only thrice between Tommy Dreamer and Justin Credible, with Credible winning all the matches. Tables and Chairs match – Variation of the ladder match where tables and chairs are permitted. Referred to at times as TLC matches. Money in the Bank ladder match – Exclusively used in WWE. Challenger chooses place. Match took place at every WrestleMania from WrestleMania 2
Salem is a city in Washington Township, Washington County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. Salem serves as the county seat; the population was 6,319 at the 2010 census. Salem was laid out and platted in 1814, it was named for the hometown of one of the city founders. The Salem post office has been in operation since 1816. In June 1863, the Confederate cavalry under John Hunt Morgan had departed Tennessee on what would become known as Morgan's Raid. Traveling through Tennessee and into Kentucky, Morgan crossed into Indiana. Upon entering Salem at 9 a.m. Morgan took possession of the town and placed guards over the stores and streets; the cavalrymen burned the large, brick railroad depot, along with all the train cars on the track and the railroad bridges on each side of the town. Morgan demanded taxes from the two flour mills that belonged to DePauw and Knight, from the Allen Wollen Mill. Morgan's men took about $500 from the area before departing about 3 p.m.. Of the brief action at Salem, Col. Basil W. Duke, Morgan's second-in-command and brother-in-law said: "They did not pillage with any sort of method or reason.
One man carried for two days a bird cage containing three canaries. Another rode with a huge chafing dish on the pommel of his saddle. Although the weather was intensely warm, another slung seven pairs of skates around his neck. I saw few articles of real value taken. By 1898, Salem was a sundown town. Salem is an agricultural community, surrounded by typical Indiana forests and farmland and small bodies of water; the primary crops grown in the area are corn and soybeans. Homes in the area are of a variety of styles, with a portion of residential homes having Victorian architectural design. According to the 2010 census, Salem has a total area of 4.018 square miles, of which 4 square miles is land and 0.018 square miles is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Salem has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $29,256, the median income for a family was $37,179.
Males had a median income of $27,521 versus $21,952 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,299. About 8.5% of families and 11.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.6% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 6,319 people, 2,622 households, 1,599 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,579.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,932 housing units at an average density of 733.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.5% White, 0.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population. There were 2,622 households of which 32.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 39.0% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age in the city was 38.3 years. 24% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.5% male and 53.5% female. Every September, Salem celebrates "Old Settler's Day" at the John Hay Center. Set in a village of authentic log structures, the festival features historical re-enactments, as well as local arts and crafts. Along with "Old Settler's Day", Salem celebrates Friday Night on the Square in September; the town square is barricaded from cars and the people of Salem meet to enjoy the festivities which include food booths, commercial booths and sometimes scavenger hunts. The downtown area is on the National Register of Historic Places; the Carnegie Library in Salem was one of nearly 2,000 libraries built in the United States including 164 in Indiana in the early 20th century with funds donated by steel conglomerate Andrew Carnegie. Salem received the grant in February 1904, broke ground in August 1904 and opened in July 1905.
Still in use today, the Carnegie Library in Salem is one of just one hundred in the state of Indiana still being used for its original purpose. Located in the center of Salem's town square, the Washington County Courthouse is known as Salem's most famous and recognizable landmark; the courthouse has historical place markers surrounding it, at the southeastern corner of the grounds, there is a memorial to veterans killed in action during conflicts dating back to the Revolutionary War. The birthplace of John Hay is located in Salem; the building was used as a school house and was built in 1824. It has been furnished in the 1840 period. Salem is home to Salem Speedway, it is a half mile high banked paved oval, first built in 1947. Many of the most legendary drivers of the past 50 years have raced there including Ted Horn, Parnelli Jones, AJ Foyt, Bobby and Al Unser, Mario Andretti, Larry Dickson, Darrell Waltr
Louisville is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the 29th most-populous city in the United States. It is one of two cities in Kentucky designated as first-class, the other being Lexington, the state's second-largest city. Louisville is the historical seat and, since 2003, the nominal seat of Jefferson County, located in the northern region of the state, on the border with Indiana. Louisville, named for King Louis XVI of France, was founded in 1778 by George Rogers Clark, making it one of the oldest cities west of the Appalachian Mountains. Sited beside the Falls of the Ohio, the only major obstruction to river traffic between the upper Ohio River and the Gulf of Mexico, the settlement first grew as a portage site, it was the founding city of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, which grew into a 6,000-mile system across 13 states. Today, the city is known as the home of legendary boxer Muhammad Ali, the Kentucky Derby, Kentucky Fried Chicken, the University of Louisville and its Louisville Cardinals athletic teams, Louisville Slugger baseball bats, three of Kentucky's six Fortune 500 companies, being Humana, Kindred Healthcare and Yum!
Brands. Its main airport is the site of United Parcel Service's worldwide air hub. Since 2003, Louisville's borders have been the same as those of Jefferson County, after a city-county merger; the official name of this consolidated city-county government is the Louisville/Jefferson County Metro Government, abbreviated to Louisville Metro. Despite the merger and renaming, the term "Jefferson County" continues to be used in some contexts in reference to Louisville Metro including the incorporated cities outside the "balance" which make up Louisville proper; the city's total consolidated population as of the 2017 census estimate was 771,158. However, the balance total of 621,349 excludes other incorporated places and semiautonomous towns within the county and is the population listed in most sources and national rankings; the Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area, sometimes referred to as Kentuckiana, includes Louisville-Jefferson County and 12 surrounding counties, seven in Kentucky and five in Southern Indiana.
As of 2017, the MSA had a population of 1,293,953. The history of Louisville spans hundreds of years, has been influenced by the area's geography and location; the rapids at the Falls of the Ohio created a barrier to river travel, as a result, settlements grew up at this stopping point. The first European settlement in the vicinity of modern-day Louisville was on Corn Island in 1778 by Col. George Rogers Clark, credited as the founder of Louisville. Several landmarks in the community are named after him. Two years in 1780, the Virginia General Assembly approved the town charter of Louisville; the city was named in honor of King Louis XVI of France, whose soldiers were aiding Americans in the Revolutionary War. Early residents lived in forts to protect themselves from Indian raids, but moved out by the late 1780s. In 1803, explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark organized their expedition across America in the town of Clarksville, Indiana at the present-day Falls of the Ohio opposite Louisville, Kentucky.
The city's early growth was influenced by the fact that river boats had to be unloaded and moved downriver before reaching the falls. By 1828, the population had grown to 7,000 and Louisville became an incorporated city. Early Louisville was slaves worked in a variety of associated trades; the city was a point of escape for slaves to the north, as Indiana was a free state. During this point in the 1850s, the city was growing and vibrant, but that came with negativity, it was the center of planning, supplies and transportation for numerous campaigns in the Western Theater. By the year 1855, ethnic tension was arising. Nobody knew. On August 6, 1855 "Bloody Monday" happened. By 1861, the civil war broke out. During the Civil War, Louisville was a major stronghold of Union forces, which kept Kentucky in the Union. By the end of the war, Louisville had not been attacked, although skirmishes and battles, including the battles of Perryville and Corydon, took place nearby. After Reconstruction, returning Confederate veterans took political control of the city, leading to the jibe that Louisville joined the Confederacy after the war was over.
The first Kentucky Derby was held on May 1875, at the Louisville Jockey Club track. The Derby was shepherded by Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr. the grandson of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, grandnephew of the city's founder George Rogers Clark. Horse racing had a strong tradition in Kentucky, whose Inner Bluegrass Region had been a center of breeding high-quality livestock throughout the 19th century. Ten thousand spectators watched the first Derby. On March 27, 1890, the city was devastated and its downtown nearly destroyed when an F4 tornado tore through as part of the middle Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak. An estimated 74 to 120 people were killed and 200 were injured; the damage cost the city $2.5 million. In 1914, the City of Louisville passed a racially-based zoning residential zoning code, following Baltimore, a handful of cities in the Carolinas; the NAACP challenged the ordinance in two cases. Two weeks after the ordinance enacted, an African-American named Arthur Harris moved into a house on a block designated for whites.
He was found guilty. The second case was planned to create a test case. William Warley, the president of the local chapter
Bardstown is a home rule-class city in Nelson County, Kentucky, in the United States. The population was recorded as 11,700 by the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Nelson County. It is named for the pioneering Bard brothers. David Bard obtained a 1,000 acres land grant in 1785 in what was Jefferson County, from Governor Patrick Henry. William Bard platted the town, it was chartered as Baird's Town in 1788, has been known as Beardstown, Beards Town. First settled by European Americans in 1780, Bardstown is the second oldest city in Kentucky. Named county seat of the newly created Nelson County, Virginia in 1784, the town was formally established in 1788, it was incorporated by the state assembly in 1838. Reflecting the westward migration of Americans over the "Blue Ridge" after the Revolutionary War, Bardstown was the first center of Roman Catholicism west of the Appalachian Mountains in the original western frontier territories of the United States; the Diocese of Bardstown was established on February 8, 1808, by Pope Pius VII, to serve all Catholics between the Appalachians and the Mississippi River.
This divided the previous all-encompassing Diocese of Baltimore, established in 1789. This area is now served by 44 dioceses and archdioceses in 10 states, showing the development of communities with Catholics across the nation as immigration brought new populations; the Bardstown cathedral is the Basilica of Saint Joseph Proto-Cathedral. In 1841 the seat of the Diocese was transferred to the nearby larger river town and port of Louisville on the south bank of the Ohio River. Bardstown has a Roman Catholic parochial high school, Bethlehem High School; the Old Talbott Tavern, built in 1779 and located just off the Courthouse Square in the center of Bardstown, is part of the city's rich history. Several notable Americans passed through the tavern's doors, including famed frontiersman Daniel Boone and future 16th President, Abraham Lincoln. Bullet holes in an upstairs wall are reputed to have been shot by Jesse James. People claim to have encountered other paranormal activity at the tavern. Bardstown is the site of My Old Kentucky Home State Park.
Judge John Rowan and his wife Ann Lytle Rowan commissioned the construction of a large mansion they named "Federal Hill,", the farm that inspired the Rowan's cousin Stephen Foster to write the song "My Old Kentucky Home". Federal Hill is depicted on the reverse of the Kentucky state quarter issued by the United States Mint in 2002. Several distilleries operate in and around the Bardstown area, including Jim Beam, Heaven Hill, Barton 1792 and Maker's Mark, located in nearby Loretto; the regional production of bourbon is celebrated by the annual Kentucky Bourbon Festival, whose promoters have trademarked the phrase, Bourbon Capital of the World, to apply to Bardstown. The local tourism commission promotes the use of the trademarked phrase. A public museum, the Oscar Getz Museum of Whiskey, showcases this aspect of local history. Bardstown's downtown area is designated as a historic district and listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 2012, Bardstown was voted as "The Most Beautiful Small Town in America" in the Destination Marketing Association International's "Best of the Road" competition.
Bardstown is located at 32°48′56″N 85°27′47″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.4 square miles, all but 0.1 square miles of, land. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Bardstown has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 11,700 people, 4,712 households, 2,949 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,577.9 per square mile. There were 5,113 housing units at an average density of 689.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 82.31% White, 12.39% African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.75% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.56% from other races, 2.78% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 3.71% of the population. There were 4,712 households out of which 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.3% were married couples living together, 19.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.4% were non-families.
31.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.01. The age distribution was 27.7% under 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 12.2% who were 65 or older. The median age was 34.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males. As of the 2010 Census, the median income for a household in the city was $50,046, the median income for a family was $60,609. Full-time male workers had a median income of $46,500 versus $36,551 for females; the per capita income for the city was $26,059. About 11.3% of families and 15.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.6% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,374 people, 4,195 households, 2,701 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,445.3 per square mile.
There were 4,488 housing units at an average density of 625.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 82.11% White, 15.07% African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.94% Asian, 0