Anthems to the Welkin at Dusk
Anthems to the Welkin at Dusk is the second studio album by Norwegian black metal band Emperor. It was released on 8 July 1997 through Century Black; the album was recorded in the Grieg Hall in Norway. The opening guitar riff to "Ye Entrancemperium" is taken from an unnamed Mayhem song; as such, Mayhem guitarist Euronymous is credited in the album liner notes though he was murdered three years before the album was written and recorded. A recording of this unfinished track can be found on the Mayhem bootleg Ha Elm Zalag. In 1996, the EP Reverence, which included the track "The Loss and Curse of Reverence", was released as a teaser for the album. Anthems to the Welkin at Dusk was released on 8 July 1997 through Candlelight Records. At the time of its release, it reached number 28 on Finnish album charts. In contrast to the band's previous album, In the Nightside Eclipse, Anthems showcases a faster, more guitar-driven performance with more minimal usage of keyboards and more clean singing and blast beat-style drumwork.
The album's musical approach is explained on the back cover, with a quote that reads "Emperor performs Sophisticated Black Metal Art exclusively". As well, the album's lyrical themes began to move away from nature and Satanic elements and began to incorporate more mystical themes. In 1998, the album was re-released with the three non-album tracks from Reverence; the band made a promotional video for "The Loss and Curse of Reverence". According to Steve Huey from AllMusic, the album is a "magnificently-conceived and executed opus that fulfills all of Emperor's promise and ambition; the biggest difference from its predecessor the crisper, clearer production, which allows details in the arrangements to emerge far more readily."He added that there's greater use of classical flourishes, greater variety in Ihsahn's vocals, more audible guitar interplay between Ihsahn and Samoth and more complex and melodic keyboard work. "It builds on the groundwork laid by extreme metal pioneers Celtic Frost and Bathory: the former with its restless experimentalism, the latter with its determination to create something quintessentially Scandinavian."Finally, he concluded: "Anthems to the Welkin at Dusk cemented Emperor's reputation as black metal's greatest band, Ihsahn as its foremost musical visionary.
In the Nightside Eclipse might epitomize black metal better than any other album, but divorced from outside context, Anthems to the Welkin at Dusk is black metal's greatest stand-alone creative achievement."In June 2016, Anthems to the Welkin at Dusk was inducted into Decibel Magazine's Hall of Fame, becoming the second Emperor album to be featured in the Decibel Hall of Fame, the first being predecessor In the Nightside Eclipse. In 2018, Loudwire named it the best black metal album of all-time. Ihsahn – vocals, guitar.
In the Nightside Eclipse
In the Nightside Eclipse is the first studio album and fourth official release by Norwegian black metal band Emperor, released in 1994 through Candlelight Records. It was the last album to feature the only one to feature one-time bassist Tchort. Considered a landmark in the black metal scene, the album has been ranked by critics as one of the most influential albums of the genre, it contains some of Emperor's best known tracks, "I Am the Black Wizards" and "Inno a Satana". The album cover was drawn by "Necrolord" known as Kristian Wåhlin, depicting a host of orcs en route to Minas Morgul; the part below the band logo is based upon a section of a larger engraving called "Death on a Pale Horse" by Gustave Doré. That section itself was used as the album cover for the Emperor. In the Nightside Eclipse has been referred to as a pioneering influence in symphonic black metal. Although all the key elements of black metal are present, such as fast tremolo-picked guitar passages, harsh screams, raw, lo-fi production, the use of symphonic keyboard sections is a key part of the album's distinctive sound.
According to Steve Huey of AllMusic, "Even if the keyboards just outline basic chord changes, they add a melancholy air to all the furious extreme sounds, turning the one-note ugliness of black metal into something complex."Most of the music was written and rehearsed before the band entered the studio, however much of the symphonic keyboard sections were composed in the studio at the time of recording as the band did not have a permanent keyboard player. Some of the lyrics on the final version of the album were written by Mortiis before he left the band. Samoth has suggested that the frequent use of the word "emperor" in the lyrics became a kind of metaphor, "for our own entity, for the dark lord, for the devil, for the strong and mighty." Samoth has cited the power of Norwegian nature as a key inspiration on Emperor's music and this album in particular. They expressed a fascination with the Viking age, Tolkien's literature, the story of Dracula, as well as "everything related to Transylvania, the Carpathian Mountains, the dark corners of Eastern Europe, folklore."
Ihsahn, has explained that he never read much of Tolkien's work, although he consciously made use of the language and imagery of fantasy. The album was co-produced by Pytten, who produced Mayhem's De Mysteriis Dom Sathanas and Burzum's debut album, as well as albums by Immortal and Enslaved. Faust credits Pytten with the sound of In the Nightside Eclipse. Although the album was recorded in July 1993, it was not mixed until the following year due to Faust and Samoth's arrests and sentences in jail. In the end, only Ihsahn and Samoth were present for the mixing of the album, though he passed along his input to them in a letter. Ihsahn was ill at the time of recording, Tchort recalls him spitting blood while recording vocals for the album; some of the early vocal takes were replaced with ones recorded after he had recovered, as were some of the keyboard parts. In his review, Steve Huey of AllMusic gave the album five stars out of five, writing, "In the Nightside Eclipse resoundingly demonstrated that there was real musical substance and ambition in the world of black metal.
Somehow managed to capture the essence of the genre while rewriting its rule book", commenting that it was "the first to fuse black metal with progressive and symphonic elements, setting the stage for a bevy of future experimentation in the genre, As such, it possesses the farthest-reaching legacy of anything from Norway's bloody first wave, ranks as one of the most important heavy metal albums of the'90s." In 2005, the album was ranked number 292 in Rock Hard magazine's book of The 500 Greatest Rock & Metal Albums of All Time. Kyle Ward of Sputnikmusic gave the album 5/5, writing that "In the Nightside Eclipse is a masterwork because of this compositional balance, it allows the keys to be overbearing without stealing the show – an attribute that the lack of which has since proven to be the downfall of countless symphonic black metal acts. This is still, at its core, a harsh, obscenely heavy record, one only needs to place themselves in the maelstrom of tracks like “I Am the Black Wizards” to realize there is more than just symphonies at work here."The album is considered one of the most important releases in black metal for the second wave of black metal, has been described as a classic by music critics.
The album has gone on to influence countless bands, with many considering it the first true symphonic black metal album. Kyle Ward of SputnikMusic credits Emperor with " the genre in a direction now seen as a natural extension of black metal’s sphere of influence." It is the only Emperor album to feature Tchort on bass, who went on to play with Carpathian Forest, Blood Red Throne, others. In 2005 Decibel Magazine adopted the album into their hall of fame, writing that "upon its release in 1995, In the Nightside Eclipse established Emperor as the reigning masters of a more complex, atmospheric style of “symphonic black metal", they called it "one of the most fascinating and sonically influential albums in the annals of extreme metal." In 2009, Loudwire named it the 18th best debut album of all time. In 2009, IGN included In the Nightside Eclipse in their "10 Great Black Metal Albums" list. Dimmu Borgir and Cradle of Filth owe a huge debt to this album." In July 2014, In the Nightside Eclipse was listed at number three in Guitar World magazine's list of "Superunknown: 50 Iconic Albu
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Terje Vik Schei, better known by his stage name Tchort, is a Norwegian musician. He is known for his time spent playing bass for the black metal band Emperor and for leading the progressive metal band Green Carnation, he has played with Carpathian Forest and Blood Red Throne and Einherjer. Tchort is known to have a son and a daughter. Tchort is a Slavonic word meaning Devil, he was in prison for 2 years. Tchort with fellow Green Carnation performer Kjetil Nordhus, established his own record label, Sublife Productions in Kristiansand, Norway, on 1 July 2005; the label has signed Green Carnation, Chain Collector, Harm, are looking to sign more. Sublife Productions acts as a booking agent for these artists as well as Carpathian Forest and Blood Red Throne; the company is turning its eye to cover design, has stated that "various artists will present their work on Sublifeproductions.com in the near future" Green Carnation - Hallucinations of Despair Demo Emperor - In the Nightside Eclipse Green Carnation - Journey to the End of The Night − CD Carpathian Forest - Strange Old Brew Blood Red Throne - Monument of Death Carpathian Forest - Morbid Fascination of Death Green Carnation - Light of Day, Day of Darkness Blood Red Throne - Affiliated With the Suffering Carpathian Forest - Defending the Throne of Evil Green Carnation - A Blessing in Disguise Carpathian Forest - We're Going to Hollywood for This - Live Perversions DVD Green Carnation - The Trilogy − Box set Green Carnation - Alive and Well...
In Krakow − DVD Blood Red Throne - Altered Genesis Green Carnation - The Quiet Offspring Green Carnation - The Burden Is Mine... Alone − EP Carpathian Forest - Fuck You All!!!! Caput tuum in ano est Green Carnation - The Acoustic Verses Blood Red Throne - Come Death Green Carnation - A Night Under the Dam − DVD Green Carnation - The Rise and Fall of Mankind Blood Red Throne - Souls of Damnation Tchort on Myspace Sublife Productions Green Carnation Official Website
A synthesizer or synthesiser is an electronic musical instrument that generates audio signals that may be converted to sound. Synthesizers may imitate traditional musical instruments such as piano, vocals, or natural sounds such as ocean waves, they are played with a musical keyboard, but they can be controlled via a variety of other devices, including music sequencers, instrument controllers, guitar synthesizers, wind controllers, electronic drums. Synthesizers without built-in controllers are called sound modules, are controlled via USB, MIDI or CV/gate using a controller device a MIDI keyboard or other controller. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals. Among the most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, wavetable synthesis, frequency modulation synthesis, phase distortion synthesis, physical modeling synthesis and sample-based synthesis. Synthesizers were first used in pop music in the 1960s. In the late 1970s, synths were used in progressive rock and disco.
In the 1980s, the invention of the inexpensive Yamaha DX7 synth made digital synthesizers available. 1980s pop and dance music made heavy use of synthesizers. In the 2010s, synthesizers are used in many genres, such as pop, hip hop, metal and dance. Contemporary classical music composers from the 20th and 21st century write compositions for synthesizer; the beginnings of the synthesizer are difficult to trace, as it is difficult to draw a distinction between synthesizers and some early electric or electronic musical instruments. One of the earliest electric musical instruments, the Musical Telegraph, was invented in 1876 by American electrical engineer Elisha Gray, he accidentally discovered the sound generation from a self-vibrating electromechanical circuit, invented a basic single-note oscillator. This instrument used steel reeds with oscillations created by electromagnets transmitted over a telegraph line. Gray built a simple loudspeaker device into models, consisting of a vibrating diaphragm in a magnetic field, to make the oscillator audible.
This instrument was a remote electromechanical musical instrument that used telegraphy and electric buzzers that generated fixed timbre sound. Though it lacked an arbitrary sound-synthesis function, some have erroneously called it the first synthesizer. In 1897 Thaddeus Cahill was granted his first patent for an electronic musical instrument, which by 1901 he had developed into the Telharmonium capable of additive synthesis. Cahill's business was unsuccessful for various reasons, but similar and more compact instruments were subsequently developed, such as electronic and tonewheel organs including the Hammond organ, invented in 1935. In 1906, American engineer Lee de Forest invented the first amplifying vacuum tube, the Audion whose amplification of weak audio signals contributed to advances in sound recording and film, the invention of early electronic musical instruments including the theremin, the ondes martenot, the trautonium. Most of these early instruments used heterodyne circuits to produce audio frequencies, were limited in their synthesis capabilities.
The ondes martenot and trautonium were continuously developed for several decades developing qualities similar to synthesizers. In the 1920s, Arseny Avraamov developed various systems of graphic sonic art, similar graphical sound and tonewheel systems were developed around the world. In 1938, USSR engineer Yevgeny Murzin designed a compositional tool called ANS, one of the earliest real-time additive synthesizers using optoelectronics. Although his idea of reconstructing a sound from its visible image was simple, the instrument was not realized until 20 years in 1958, as Murzin was, "an engineer who worked in areas unrelated to music". In the 1930s and 1940s, the basic elements required for the modern analog subtractive synthesizers — electronic oscillators, audio filters, envelope controllers, various effects units — had appeared and were utilized in several electronic instruments; the earliest polyphonic synthesizers were developed in the United States. The Warbo Formant Orgel developed by Harald Bode in Germany in 1937, was a four-voice key-assignment keyboard with two formant filters and a dynamic envelope controller.
The Hammond Novachord released in 1939, was an electronic keyboard that used twelve sets of top-octave oscillators with octave dividers to generate sound, with vibrato, a resonator filter bank and a dynamic envelope controller. During the three years that Hammond manufactured this model, 1,069 units were shipped, but production was discontinued at the start of World War II. Both instruments were the forerunners of the electronic organs and polyphonic synthesizers. In the 1940s and 1950s, before the popularization of electronic organs and the introductions of combo organs, manufacturers developed various portable monophonic electronic instruments with small keyboards; these small instruments consisted of an electronic oscillator, vibrato effect, passive filters. Most were designed for conventional ensembles, rather than as experimental instruments for electronic music studios, but contributed to the evolution of modern synthesizers; these instruments include the Solovox, Multimonica and Clavioline.
In the late 1940s, Canadian inventor and composer, Hugh Le Caine invented the Electronic Sackbut, a voltage-controlled electronic musical instrument that provided the earliest real-time control of three aspects of sound —corresponding to today's touch-sensitive keyboard and modulation controllers. The controllers were impl
Ihsahn is a Norwegian composer, multi-instrumentalist, vocalist. He is best known for his work with Norwegian black metal band Emperor, he has appeared in Thou Shalt Suffer, played in Peccatum with his wife and fellow musician Heidi Solberg Tveitan, now devotes himself to his solo albums. His instructional videos on music have appeared in online publications such as Guitar World. In style terms, his solo work and work with other artists have shown multiple musical forms from classical music to industrial metal to progressive metal and more. In terms of his personal beliefs, he has expressed support for Satanism and social Darwinism thought while showing respect to concepts such as meditation, stewardship of the environment, traditional paganism as well as condemning acts of criminality and religious intolerance such as church arson. Born in the town of Notodden, Tveitan began playing piano at seven and guitar at ten and began recording songs shortly thereafter, his influences include heavy metal, classical and techno.
He grew up on a large farm in rural Norway. Tveitan first met Tomas Haugen, at the age of thirteen at a music seminar. Tveitan gained Haugen's attention with his Iron Maiden patches. In 1990 Tveitan joined Haugen's band Xerasia, a death metal band where he served as guitarist and keyboardist, they changed their name to Embryonic sometime that year. A four-track demo titled The Land of the Lost Souls was released in November. In 1991 they changed their name again to Thou Shalt Suffer. Several releases under this name were produced before Haugen left the band, leaving Tveitan the sole remaining member. After the departure of Haugen from Thou Shalt Suffer, the two formed Emperor, where Tveitan again took on the role of guitarist. Emperor had a much more refined black metal sound which showcased Tveitan's developing keyboard skills, a distinct feature that would appear in many of his releases; the band at this time received much support and encouragement from black metal pioneer Euronymous and after several demos, the Emperor EP was released in 1993 to much acclaim.
Shortly afterwards, bandmates Haugen, Bård Eithun and Terje Schei were arrested and imprisoned, leaving Tveitan to his own devices. He retreated to a property owned by his family to compose much of what would become Anthems to the Welkin at Dusk, recorded after the parole of Haugen. In 1995 the cult album Blood Must be Shed, by Zyklon-B was released featuring members of Emperor and Satyricon. In 1998 Tveitan and his wife Heidi Tveitan—who at the time used the stage name Ihriel—formed the experimental band Peccatum. Peccatum would come to feature Tveitan's trademark synth sound as well as clean and black vocals becoming his main project until its termination on March 4, 2006. In 1999 Emperor released IX Equilibrium, Tveitan's third studio album with the group. Two years in 2001, Peccatum released their second studio album, Amor Fati. In the same year, Emperor released their fourth and final studio album, Prometheus: The Discipline of Fire & Demise.'Prometheus' was composed by Tveitan and featured more complex orchestration than previous works.
It was at this time Emperor mutually decided to dissolve, leaving Tveitan and his bandmates with more time to focus on their various side projects. In December 2002, Ihsahn won the "Notodden Kommunes Kulturpris", a culture prize given by his home city, populated to about 12,500 inhabitants, he won the prize because he is considered the best-known inhabitant of Notodden, a great musician, a music teacher, he arranges a lot of concerts for unknown bands. The fact that his band sold more than 500,000 copies was a reason for getting the prize. 2002 saw Tveitan contribute guest vocals to the song "Radical Cut", off Arcturus' album The Sham Mirrors. 2004 saw the release of Peccatum's third and final studio album, Lost in Reverie, with an EP titled The Moribund People following the year after. On September 30, 2005, Emperor made a surprise return at Scream magazine's 15-year anniversary party in Oslo at Rockefeller, a rock concert venue; the move was kept top secret, was only known by a handful of people, they only played three songs.
This was to announce the reuniting of the band for a few shows around Europe and America in 2006, namely at Wacken and Inferno Festival. In April 2006, Tveitan released The Adversary; the album was composed, performed and produced by him, with the exception of drums contributed by Asgeir Mickelson, guest vocals on the track "Homecoming" by Kristoffer Rygg of Ulver. The album showcases his progressive influences as well as heavy metal, black metal and classical music; the Adversary was recorded at Symphonique Studios in Norway and was released on his label Mnemosyne Productions, which he founded in 2003 with Starofash. A video was made for the opening track, "Invocation". Tveitan lent his voice in 2007 to an animated character from the Adult Swim cartoon Metalocalypse, Eric von Wiechlinghammer, in the episode "Dethfashion". Grimen, the only album by side project'Hardingrock' was released the same year, he released his second studio album, titled angL, the following year, featuring Lars K. Norberg on bass, Asgeir Mickelson on drums, guest vocals from Mikael Åkerfeldt on the track "Unhealer".
2008 saw Tveitan start a column in the magazine Guitar World, titled "Left Hand Path". In March 2009, Tveitan performed some of his solo material live for the first time, in a one-off performance opening for Opeth in Norway, he has since m
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro