The North Atlantic Treaty Organization called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries. The organization implements the North Atlantic Treaty, signed on 4 April 1949. NATO constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's Headquarters are located in Haren, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons, Belgium. Since its founding, the admission of new member states has increased the alliance from the original 12 countries to 29; the most recent member state to be added to NATO is Montenegro on 5 June 2017. NATO recognizes Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Ukraine as aspiring members. An additional 21 countries participate in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programs; the combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total.
Members have committed to reach or maintain defense spending of at least 2% of GDP by 2024. On 4 March 1947 the Treaty of Dunkirk was signed by France and the United Kingdom as a Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance in the event of a possible attack by Germany or the Soviet Union in the aftermath of World War II. In 1948, this alliance was expanded to include the Benelux countries, in the form of the Western Union referred to as the Brussels Treaty Organization, established by the Treaty of Brussels. Talks for a new military alliance which could include North America resulted in the signature of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949 by the member states of the Western Union plus the United States, Portugal, Norway and Iceland; the North Atlantic Treaty was dormant until the Korean War initiated the establishment of NATO to implement it, by means of an integrated military structure: This included the formation of Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe in 1951, which adopted the Western Union's military structures and plans.
In 1952 the post of Secretary General of NATO was established as the organization's chief civilian. That year saw the first major NATO maritime exercises, Exercise Mainbrace and the accession of Greece and Turkey to the organization. Following the London and Paris Conferences, West Germany was permitted to rearm militarily, as they joined NATO in May 1955, in turn a major factor in the creation of the Soviet-dominated Warsaw Pact, delineating the two opposing sides of the Cold War. Doubts over the strength of the relationship between the European states and the United States ebbed and flowed, along with doubts over the credibility of the NATO defense against a prospective Soviet invasion – doubts that led to the development of the independent French nuclear deterrent and the withdrawal of France from NATO's military structure in 1966. In 1982 the newly democratic Spain joined the alliance; the collapse of the Warsaw Pact in 1989–1991 removed the de facto main adversary of NATO and caused a strategic re-evaluation of NATO's purpose, nature and focus on the continent of Europe.
This shift started with the 1990 signing in Paris of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe between NATO and the Soviet Union, which mandated specific military reductions across the continent that continued after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991. At that time, European countries accounted for 34 percent of NATO's military spending. NATO began a gradual expansion to include newly autonomous Central and Eastern European nations, extended its activities into political and humanitarian situations that had not been NATO concerns. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in Germany in 1989, the organization conducted its first military interventions in Bosnia from 1992 to 1995 and Yugoslavia in 1999 during the breakup of Yugoslavia. Politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, most of which joined the alliance in 1999 and 2004. Article 5 of the North Atlantic treaty, requiring member states to come to the aid of any member state subject to an armed attack, was invoked for the first and only time after the September 11 attacks, after which troops were deployed to Afghanistan under the NATO-led ISAF.
The organization has operated a range of additional roles since including sending trainers to Iraq, assisting in counter-piracy operations and in 2011 enforcing a no-fly zone over Libya in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 1973. The less potent Article 4, which invokes consultation among NATO members, has been invoked five times following incidents in the Iraq War, Syrian Civil War, annexation of Crimea; the first post-Cold War expansion of NATO came with German reunification on 3 October 1990, when the former East Germany became part of the Federal Republic of Germany and the alliance. As part of post-Cold War restructuring, NATO's military structure was cut back and reorganized, with new forces such as the Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps established; the changes brought about by the collapse of the Soviet Union on the military balance in Europe were recognized in the Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty, signed in 1999. The policies of French President Nicolas Sarkozy resulted in a major reform of France's military position, culminating with the return to full membership on 4 April 2009, which included France rejoining the NATO Military Command Structure, while maintaining an independent nuclear deterrent.
Between 1994 and 1997, wider forums for regional co
First Division 7 December
The First Division 7 December was a division of the Royal Netherlands Army, active from at least 1946 to 2004. It was sent to Indonesia in 1946 to restore "peace and security" after the proclamation of Indonesian Independence in 1945; the division was named after the speech of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands in London on 7 December 1942: "I imagine, without prejudice to the government conference's advice, that they will focus on a National Association, which the Netherlands, Indonesia and Curaçao will have participated together, while each in itself, its own autonomy in internal affairs and drawing on their own, but together with the will to assist, will represent. It will be difference of treatment based on race or national character have no place, but will only have the personal ability of citizens and the needs of different populations for the decisive policy of the Government." The division was withdrawn from the East Indies in 1949–1950 and spent the remainder of the Cold War as part of NATO Northern Army Group's I Corps as a deterrent against a Soviet attack on West Germany.
In 1985, it had its headquarters at Schaarsbergen, divisional troops included the 102nd Reconnaissance Battalion at Hoogland. The 11th Mechanised Brigade included the 12th and 48th Mechanised Battalions, the 101st Tank Battalion, the 11th Field Artillery Battalion; the 12th Mechanised Brigade was headquartered at Nunspeet and the 13th Armoured Brigade was at Oirschot. After the end of the Cold War, it became part of the I. German/Dutch Corps for a period; the division was disbanded on 1 January 2004 and the title of'7 December' was transferred to the 11 Luchtmobiele Brigade. 1e Divisie "7 December", Arnhem, NL Staff and Staff Company, Arnhem 102nd Reconnaissance Battalion "Huzaren van Boreel", Amersfoort 11e Pantserinfanteriebrigade, Arnhem, NL Staff and Staff Company, Arnhem 101st Pantser Battalion "Regiment Huzaren Prins Alexander", Soesterberg 12th Pantserinfanterie Battalion "Garde Regiment Jagers", Arnhem 48th Pantserinfanterie Battalion "Regiment van Heutsz",'s-Hertogenbosch 11th Horse Artillery Battalion "Gele Rijders", Arnhem 11th Armored Anti-Tank Company, Ermelo 11th Armored Engineer Company, Ermelo 11th Brigade Supply Company, Stroe 11th Brigade Maintenance Company, Arnhem 11th Brigade Medical Company, Stroe 12e Pantserinfanteriebrigade, Vierhouten, NL Staff and Staff Company, Vierhouten 59th Pantser Battalion "Regiment Huzaren Prins Oranje",'t Harde 11th Pantserinfanterie Battalion "Garde Regiment Grenadiers", Arnhem 13th Pantserinfanterie Battalion "Garde Fusiliers Princess Irene", Schalkhaar 14th Field Artillery Battalion, Vierhouten 12th Armored Anti-Tank Company, Vierhouten 12th Armored Engineer Company, Vierhouten 13th Brigade Supply Company, Vierhouten 12th Brigade Maintenance Company, Uddel 12th Brigade Medical Company, Vierhouten 13e Pantserbrigade, Oirschot, NL Staff and Staff Company, Oirschot 11th Pantser Battalion "Huzaren van Sytzama", Oirschot 49th Pantser Battalion "Huzaren van Sytzama", Oirschot 17th Pantserinfanterie Battalion "Regiment Infanterie Chasse", Oirschot 12th Field Artillery Battalion, Oirschot 13th Armored Engineer Company, Oirschot 12th Brigade Supply Company, Oirschot 13th Brigade Maintenance Company, Oirschot 13th Brigade Medical Company, Oirschot Alfred van Sprang Wij werden geroepen: de geschiedenis van de 7 December Divisie, met zweten en zwoegen geschreven door twintigduizend Nederlandse mannen Herinneringsalbum 1e infanterie brigadegroep C Divisie "7 December" 1e deel 1 September 1946 - 1 mrt.
1947, 2e deel mrt. 1947 - sept 1947, 3e deel sept. 1947 - mrt. 1948 en 4e deel 1 mrt. 1948 – Demobilisatie. Uitgegeven door A. W. Sijthoff's uitgeversmij N. V. te Leiden Arthur ten Cate De laatste divisie: de geschiedenis van 1 Divisie'7 December' na de val van de Muur 1989-2004 ISBN 90-12-10669-9 Blog Indonesië 1947 - 1950 7 December Divisie in Nederlands-Indië van 1946-1950 Fusie tussen het Duitse en Nederlandse leger
Northern Army Group
The Northern Army Group was a NATO military formation comprising four Western European Army Corps, during the Cold War as part of NATO's forward defence in the Federal Republic of Germany. The Army Group headquarters was established on 1 November 1952 in Bad Oeynhausen, but was relocated in 1954 to Rheindahlen; the HQ complex near Mönchengladbach contained three other command posts. 21st Army Group had been on the left flank of the Allied advance into Germany, had advanced into the North German Plain. This may have been the reason that a four-corps sized formation - which would be considered an army - was given the title of'Army group'. During the construction of the main Joint Headquarters building, a Frankish battle ax was found, it was the badge NORTHAG chose because the Franks were a West-European tribe fighting against attackers from the East. In the year 451 AD the Franks defeated an army under the leadership of Attila at Châlons-sur-Marne and thus ended a conquest of Western Europe by the Huns.
In the NATO command structure NORTHAG belonged to Allied Forces Central Europe, which in turn reported to Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. NORTHAGs responsibility was the defense of the North German plains from south of the river Elbe to the city of Kassel; the defense north of the Elbe was the task of Allied Land Forces Command Schleswig-Holstein and Jutland, while south of Kassel it was the task of CENTAG. Commander in Chief of NORTHAG was the commanding General of the British Army of the Rhine. Chief of Staff was a German Major General, with a Belgian or Dutch Major General as alternates. Northern Army Group was assigned the following formations: I Dutch Corps I German Corps I British Corps I Belgian Corps III French Corps as reserve corps III Corps was assigned as reserve corps. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Armoured Division was forward deployed at Garlstedt. The rest of 2nd Armored Division, along with 1st Cavalry Division, 5th Infantry Division, 212th Field Artillery Brigade and 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment would join NORTHAG through OPERATION REFORGER within days after an outbreak of hostilities.
They would draw their equipment from POMCUS depots in the Netherlands and North Rhine-Westphalia. These organizations fell in peacetime under their respective national command authorities. Only in the case of attack did operational control over the Corps automatically transfer to NORTHAG. Air support was provided by 2 ATAF. During peacetime NORTHAG multi-national staff commanded the following units: 13th Belgian Telecommunications Company 28th Signal Regiment, Royal Signals German Telecommunications Battalion 840 Dutch telecommunications company NORTHAG telecommunications company, which consisted of soldiers from all four nations. In the case of war the headquarters of the 2nd ATAF and NORTHAG would be relocated to the JOC, a bunker complex in the St. Pietersberg in Maastricht area. In the NATO defense plan, NORTHAG was assigned the area between Hamburg and Kassel and the German-Dutch, Belgian to the inner-German border to defend against a potential threat from the Warsaw Pact; the locations of NORTHAG forces were accordingly in this area.
In the north the command bordered Allied Forces Northern Europe and in the south the Central Army Group. Under General Sir Nigel Bagnall, NORTHAG tried to reorientate its defensive plans from a static defence to a more mobile approach. By 1986, this plan envisioned the formation of armor-heavy reserves held under army group command. Ground operations relating to the crisis in former Yugoslavia began in late 1992. In November 1992, the United Nations Protection Force in Bosnia-Herzegovina was provided with an operational headquarters drawn from HQ NORTHAG, including a staff of some 100 personnel, equipment and initial financial support. On 24 June 1993, the headquarters of NORTHAG and 2 ATAF disbanded during a military ceremony; the last commander of NORTHAG was General Sir Charles Guthrie, KCB LVO OBE. The last Chief of Staff was Major General Helmut Willmann commander of the Eurocorps. "Army Group North brochure Editor: HQ NORTHAG 1987 "The five headquarters in Mönchengladbach", brochure monk Koblenz-Verlag, 1987 "The History of the Northern Army Group", Editor: HQ NORTHAG, 1993 David G. Haglund and Olaf Mager, Homeward bound?: allied forces in the new Germany, Westview Press, 1992.
Xi, 299 p.: ill.. ISBN 0-8133-8410-9. I Dutch Corps Order of Battle, 1985
Royal Netherlands Army
The Royal Netherlands Army is the land forces element of the military of the Netherlands. Though the Royal Netherlands Army was raised on 9 January 1814, its origins date back to 1572, when the Staatse Leger was raised -- making the Dutch standing army one of the oldest in the world, it fought in the Napoleonic Wars, World War II, the Indonesian War of Independence, the Korean War and served with NATO on the Cold War frontiers in Germany from the 1950s to the 1990s. Since 1990, the army has been sent into the Iraqi War and into the War in Afghanistan, as well as deployed in several United Nations' peacekeeping missions. Two of the three brigades of the present Dutch Army are now under German command. In 2014, the 11th Airmobile Brigade was integrated into the Rapid Forces Division; this Dutch-German military co-operation is seen as a harbinger of a European defensive union. The Royal Netherlands Army was raised on 9 January 1814, but its origins date back to the founding of the Staatse Leger in 1572: the creation of one of the first modern standing armies.
One of the best-organised and best-trained armies of the 17th and early 18th centuries, this army of the Dutch Republic saw action in the Eighty Years' War, the Dano-Swedish War, the Franco-Dutch War, the Nine Years' War, the War of Spanish Succession, the War of Austrian Succession, the French Revolutionary Wars. With the French conquest of the Netherlands, the Staatse Leger was replaced by the army of the Batavian Republic in 1795, which in turn was replaced by the army of the Kingdom of Holland in 1806; this army fought beside the French, to repel the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in 1799 and to wage several campaigns in Germany and Spain between 1800 and 1810. The independent army was disbanded in 1810, when Napoleon decided to integrate the Netherlands into France: Dutch military units became part of the Grande Armée. Dutch military elements participated in the disastrous French invasion of Russia in 1812, the actions of the Pontonniers company under Captain Benthien at the Berezina River are noteworth.
New research points out that, contrary to long-held belief, around half of the Dutch contingent of the Grande Armée survived the Russian Campaign. An independent Dutch army was resurrected by the new Kingdom of the United Netherlands in 1814, following the Orangist uprising against Napoleonic rule in 1813; this new force, the Netherlands Mobile Army, formed an integral part of the allied army during the Hundred Days campaign that culminated in the Battle of Waterloo. Units such as Baron Chassé's were key in securing victory for the allied army; the army has been involved in various conflicts since 1814, including the Waterloo campaign, different colonial wars, the Belgian Revolution. At the beginning of the Second World War, the I Corps was the force strategic reserve and was located in the Vesting Holland, around The Hague, Haarlem and in the Westland; the Royal Netherlands Army was defeated in May 1940 and only began to rise again with the formation of the Princess Irene Brigade Group in exile.
In the Far East, the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army was defeated by the Japanese in 1942. Today's army grew out of the wartime force, starting with the liberation of parts of the Netherlands in 1944; the army fought in the Indonesian War of Independence 1945–1949, in Korea in 1950-53, the war with Indonesia over New Guinea, 1960–1962. The Royal Netherlands Navy and an army battalion were sent to Korea between 1950 and 1954. In total, 3,972 Soldiers were sent to fight the war in Korea, 123 died in combat; the I Corps stood watch alongside its NATO allies in Germany during the Cold War. The corps consisted of three divisions during the 1980s, the 1st, 4th, 5th divisions, it was part of the NATO Northern Army Group. The corps's war assignment, as formulated by Commander, Northern Army Group, would be to: Assume responsibility for its corps sector and relieve 1st German Corps forces as soon as possible. Fight the covering force battle in accordance with COMNORTHAG's concept of operations. In the main defensive battle: hold and destroy the forces of the enemy's leading armies conventionally as far east as possible, maintaining cohesion with 1 Corps.
Maintain cohesion with LANDJUT and secure NORTHAG's left flank in the Forward Combat Zone. During the early 1990s I Corps was reduced to the First Division 7 December, which became part of I. German/Dutch Corps, later the division headquarters itself was disbanded. Since the end of the Cold War, the army concentrates on peace-keeping and peace-enforcing operations and has been involved in several operations (in Lebanon between 1979 and 1985, a
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
West Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, referred to by historians as the Bonn Republic, was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the western portion of Germany was part of the Western bloc during the Cold War. It was created during the Allied occupation of Germany in 1949 after World War II, established from eleven states formed in the three Allied zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France, its capital was the city of Bonn. At the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided among the Eastern blocs. Germany was de facto divided into two countries and two special territories, the Saarland and divided Berlin; the Federal Republic of Germany claimed an exclusive mandate for all of Germany, considering itself to be the democratically reorganised continuation of the 1871–1945 German Empire. It took the line. Though the GDR did hold regular elections, these were not fair. From the West German perspective, the GDR was therefore illegitimate.
Three southwestern states of West Germany merged to form Baden-Württemberg in 1952, the Saarland joined the Federal Republic of Germany in 1957. In addition to the resulting ten states, West Berlin was considered an unofficial de facto 11th state. While not part of the Federal Republic of Germany, as Berlin was under the control of the Allied Control Council, West Berlin politically-aligned itself with West Germany and was represented in its federal institutions; the foundation for the influential position held by Germany today was laid during the Wirtschaftswunder of the 1950s when West Germany rose from the enormous destruction wrought by World War II to become the world's third-largest economy. The first chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who remained in office until 1963, had worked for a full alignment with NATO rather than neutrality, he not only secured a membership in NATO but was a proponent of agreements that developed into the present-day European Union. When the G6 was established in 1975, there was no question whether the Federal Republic of Germany would be a member as well.
Following the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe in 1989, symbolised by the opening of the Berlin Wall, there was a rapid move towards German reunification. East Germany voted to dissolve itself and accede to the Federal Republic in 1990, its five post-war states were reconstituted along with the reunited Berlin, which ended its special status and formed an additional Land. They formally joined the Federal Republic on 3 October 1990, raising the number of states from 10 to 16, ending the division of Germany; the reunion did not result in a brand-new country. The expanded Federal Republic retained West Germany's political culture and continued its existing memberships in international organisations, as well as its Western foreign policy alignment and affiliation to Western alliances like UN, NATO, OECD and the European Union; the official name of West Germany, adopted in 1949 and unchanged since is Bundesrepublik Deutschland. In East Germany, the terms Westdeutschland or westdeutsche Bundesrepublik were preferred during the 1950s and 1960s.
This changed once under its 1968 constitution, when the idea of a single German nation was abandoned by East Germany, as a result West Germans and West Berliners were considered foreigners. In the early 1970s, starting in the East German Neues Deutschland, the initialism "BRD" for the "Federal Republic of Germany" began to prevail in East German usage. In 1973, official East German sources adopted it as a standard expression and other Eastern Bloc nations soon followed suit. In reaction to this move, in 1965 the West German Federal Minister of All-German Affairs Erich Mende issued the Directives for the appellation of Germany, recommending avoiding the initialism. On 31 May 1974, the heads of West German federal and state governments recommended always using the full name in official publications. From on West German sources avoided the abbreviated form, with the exception of left-leaning organizations which embraced it. In November 1979 the federal government informed the Bundestag that the West German public broadcasters ARD and ZDF had agreed to refuse to use the initialism.
The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code of West Germany was "DE", which has remained the country code of Germany after reunification. ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 are the most used country codes, the "DE" code is notably used as country identifier extending the postal code and as the Internet's country code top-level domain.de. Accordingly the less used ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 country code of West Germany was "DEU", which has remained the country code of reunified Germany; the now deleted codes for East Germany, on the other hand, was "DD" in ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 and "DDR" in ISO 3166-1 alpha-3. The colloquial term "West Germany" or its equivalent was used in many languages. "Westdeutschland" was a widespread colloquial form used in German-speaking countries without political overtones. On 4–11 February 1945 leaders from the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union held the Yalta Conference where future arrangements as regards post-war Europe and strategy against Japan in the Pacific were negotiated.
The conference agreed that post-war Germany would be divided into four occupation zones: a French Zone in the far west.
Arnhem is a city and municipality situated in the eastern part of the Netherlands. It is the capital of the province of Gelderland and located on both banks of the rivers Nederrijn and Sint-Jansbeek, the source of the city's development. Arnhem is one of the larger cities of the Netherlands; the municipality is part of the Arnhem-Nijmegen Metropolitan Area which has a combined 736,500 inhabitants. Arnhem is home to the Hogeschool van Arnhem en Nijmegen, ArtEZ Institute of the Arts, Netherlands Open Air Museum, Airborne Museum'Hartenstein', Royal Burgers' Zoo, NOC*NSF and National Sports Centre Papendal; the north corner of the municipality is part of the Hoge Veluwe National Park. It is 55 square kilometers in area, consisting of heathlands, sand dunes, woodlands; the oldest archeological findings of human activity around Arnhem are two firestones of about 70,000 years ago. These come from the stone age. In Schuytgraaf, remnants of a hunters camp from around 5000 BC have been discovered. In Schaarsbergen, twelve grave mounds were found from 2400 BC, which brought the so-called Neolithic Revolution to the area of Arnhem, which meant the rise of the farmers.
The earliest settlement in Arnhem dates from 1500 BC, of which traces have been found on the Hoogkamp, where the Van Goyenstraat is located. In the inner city, around the Sint-Jansbeek, traces of settlement have been found from around 700 BC, while the first traces south of the Rhine have been found dating to around 500 BC, in the Schuytgraaf. Though the early tracks of settlements did show that the early residents of Arnhem descended from the forests on the hills, Arnhem was not built on the banks of the river Rhine, but a little higher along the Sint-Jansbeek. Arnhem arose on the location where the road between Utrecht and Zutphen split. Seven streams provided the city with water, only when the flow of the Rhine was changed in 1530, was the city located on the river. Arnhem was first mentioned as such in 893 as Arentheym. In 1233, Count Otto II of Guelders from Zutphen, conferred city rights on the town, which had belonged to the abbey of Prüm, settled in, fortified it. Arnhem entered the Hanseatic League in 1443.
In 1473, it was captured by Charles the Bold of Burgundy. In 1514, Charles of Egmond, duke of Guelders, took it from the dukes of Burgundy; as capital of the so-called "Kwartier van Veluwe" it joined the Union of Utrecht during the Eighty Years' War in 1579. After its capture from the Spanish forces by Dutch and English troops in 1585 the city became part of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces of the Netherlands; the French occupied the town from 1672 to 1674. From 1795 to 1813, it was reoccupied by both revolutionary and imperial forces. In the early 19th century, the former fortifications were completely dismantled, to give space for town expansion; the Sabelspoort is the only remaining part of the medieval walls. In the 19th century, Arnhem was a genteel resort town famous for its picturesque beauty, it was known as "het Haagje van het oosten" because a number of rich former sugar barons or planters from the Indies settled there, as they did in The Hague. Now the city is famous for its parks and greenery.
The urbanization in the north on hilly terrain is quite unusual for the Netherlands. In the Second World War, during Operation Market Garden, the British 1st Airborne Division, under the command of Major-General Roy Urquhart, the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade were given the task of securing the bridge at Arnhem. Glider infantry and paratrooper units were landed into the area on 17 September and later; the bulk of the force never met their objective. A small element of the British 1st Airborne, the 2nd Parachute Battalion under Lieutenant Colonel John D. Frost, managed to make its way as far as the bridge but was unable to secure both sides; the British troops encountered stiff resistance from the German 9th and 10th SS Panzer Divisions, stationed in and around the city. The British force at the bridge ran out of ammunition and was captured on 21 September, a full withdrawal of the remaining forces was made on 26 September; these events were dramatized in the 1977 movie A Bridge Too Far..
As a tribute, the rebuilt bridge was renamed'John Frost Bridge' after the commander of the paratroopers. The official commemoration is 17 September; the current bridge is the third almost-identical bridge built at the same spot. The Dutch Army destroyed the first bridge when the German Army invaded the Netherlands in 1940; the second bridge was destroyed by the United States Army Air Forces shortly after the 1944 battle. A second battle of Arnhem took place in April 1945 when the city was liberated by the British 49th Infantry Division fighting as part of the First Canadian Army. Just outside Arnhem, in the town of Oosterbeek the Commonwealth War Graves Commission built the Arnhem Oosterbeek War Cemetery which contains the graves of most of those killed during the September landings, many of those killed in fighting in the area; the municipality of Arnhem consists of the city of Arnhem and the following surrounding suburbs and former villages: Elden, Netherlands (former village, now surro