Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play, mime, etc, performed in a theatre, or on radio or television. Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the dramatic mode has been contrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes since Aristotle's Poetics —the earliest work of dramatic theory; the term "drama" comes from a Greek word meaning "action", derived from "I do". The two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy. In English, the word "play" or "game" was the standard term used to describe drama until William Shakespeare's time—just as its creator was a "play-maker" rather than a "dramatist" and the building was a "play-house" rather than a "theatre"; the use of "drama" in a more narrow sense to designate a specific type of play dates from the modern era. "Drama" in this sense refers to a play, neither a comedy nor a tragedy—for example, Zola's Thérèse Raquin or Chekhov's Ivanov. It is this narrower sense that the film and television industries, along with film studies, adopted to describe "drama" as a genre within their respective media.
"Radio drama" has been used in both senses—originally transmitted in a live performance, it has been used to describe the more high-brow and serious end of the dramatic output of radio. The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production and a collective form of reception; the structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception. Mime is a form of drama. Drama can be combined with music: the dramatic text in opera is sung throughout. Musicals include songs. Closet drama describes a form, intended to be read, rather than performed. In improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance. Western drama originates in classical Greece; the theatrical culture of the city-state of Athens produced three genres of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Their origins remain obscure, though by the 5th century BC they were institutionalised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating the god Dionysus.
Historians know the names of many ancient Greek dramatists, not least Thespis, credited with the innovation of an actor who speaks and impersonates a character, while interacting with the chorus and its leader, who were a traditional part of the performance of non-dramatic poetry. Only a small fraction of the work of five dramatists, has survived to this day: we have a small number of complete texts by the tragedians Aeschylus and Euripides, the comic writers Aristophanes and, from the late 4th century, Menander. Aeschylus' historical tragedy The Persians is the oldest surviving drama, although when it won first prize at the City Dionysia competition in 472 BC, he had been writing plays for more than 25 years; the competition for tragedies may have begun as early as 534 BC. Tragic dramatists were required to present a tetralogy of plays, which consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play. Comedy was recognized with a prize in the competition from 487 to 486 BC. Five comic dramatists competed at the City Dionysia.
Ancient Greek comedy is traditionally divided between "old comedy", "middle comedy" and "new comedy". Following the expansion of the Roman Republic into several Greek territories between 270–240 BC, Rome encountered Greek drama. From the years of the republic and by means of the Roman Empire, theatre spread west across Europe, around the Mediterranean and reached England. While Greek drama continued to be performed throughout the Roman period, the year 240 BC marks the beginning of regular Roman drama. From the beginning of the empire, interest in full-length drama declined in favour of a broader variety of theatrical entertainments; the first important works of Roman literature were the tragedies and comedies that Livius Andronicus wrote from 240 BC. Five years Gnaeus Naevius began to write drama. No plays from either writer have survived. While both dramatists composed in both genres, Andronicus was most appreciated for his tragedies and Naevius for his comedies. By the beginning of the 2nd century BC, drama was established in Rome and a guild of writers had been formed.
The Roman comedies that have survived are all fabula palliata (comedies b
Violeta Went to Heaven
Violeta Went to Heaven is a 2011 Chilean biopic about singer and folklorist Violeta Parra, directed by Andrés Wood. The film is based on a biography by Violeta's son with Luis Cereceda Arenas, he collaborated on the film. The film was selected as the Chilean entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 84th Academy Awards, but it did not make the final shortlist, it was awarded the World Cinema Jury Prize at the 2012 Sundance Film Festival. The film depicts Violeta del Carmen Parra Sandoval's road to becoming considered one of Chile's greatest folklorists and artists, it chronicles her guitar playing at a young age, the ambience of her musician father's haunts, the rural settings of southern Chile in the Ñuble Province. The film follows Parra in her project of studying Chilean folk music in order to preserve and carry forward in an original way traditional composition styles to form the genre now known as Nueva Canción Chilena, it shows her asking them to sing or strum the songs they knew. It covers her invitations abroad to Warsaw and Paris, France.
During this trip Parra travelled through the Soviet Union and parts of Europe. The movie portrays the events in Chile leading up to the tragic death of her baby daughter Rosita during her absence; the film covers her tumultuous relationship with Swiss flautist, Gilbert Favre whom she met when he accompanied an anthropologist specializing in Chilean folklore to Chile. It follows the diversification of her artistic output, including her oil painting, mixed media tapestry called arpilleras or Hessian; the film follows Parra and Favre's stay in Geneva and Paris, portraying her visit to Musée du Louvre, which resulted in the honor of being the first Latin American woman to have a solo exhibition there. Upon their return to South America and Parra broke up, provoked by his desire to live in Bolivia where he was part of a successful Bolivian music act, Los Jairas. Parra's energy was invested in reviving a unique version of a Peña, a community center for the arts and political activism. Parra's Peña was a tent that she set up on a 30 x 30 meter piece of land in the Parque La Quintrala, in today's La Reina municipality of Santiago, in the area once known as la Cañada.
Her tent hosted musical spectacles and she and her children lived on the same land. The movie chronicles her dealings with the mayor of the area at the time, Fernando Castillo Velasco, who helped her establish the site. Favre returns with his group, but declines to stay, although a once proud Parra humbly begs him to, because in the meantime he had established a life and married in Bolivia; the film depicts the alternating atmosphere of the tent, at times, lively with artists during the day, music and political activism at night. Parra was the hostess, cooking beans over an open fire to share, participating with the other artists. At other times, the tent was desolate, or it was too rainy and cold to be hospitable, Parra suffered from poverty and loneliness; the film concludes with Parra's suicide, on 5 February 1967. Francisca Gavilán as Violeta Parra Gabriela Aguilera as Hilda Parra Daniel Antivilo as Sr. Mayer Stephania Barbagelata as Carmen Luisa Eduardo Burlé Pablo Costabal Juan Quezada as Don Guillermo Sergio Piña as Mario Cristián Quevedo as Nicanor Parra Francisco Acuña as the young Nicanor Parra Thomas Durand as Gilbert Favre Roberto Farías as Luis Arce Vanesa González as Blonde Model Luis Machín as Interviewer Some parts of the film were shot in Argentina.
The scene at the Musée du Louvre in Paris, France was shot there. The film was released on 11 August in Chile in 17 cinemas. About 6,000 people saw the film on the day of its release. There were not many copies, so the film was not shown in major cities such as Chillán. After its box office success and an outcry by the press, it was shown more widely, it was released on 27 October in Argentina. The film was seen 391,465 times in 2011, making it the most watched Chilean film of 2011; the following year it was released at the Sundance Film Festival in the United States and premiered in New York City at the Latinbeat film series held by The Film Society of Lincoln Center. In 2012, it was released in Brazil, the Netherlands, Peru Germany and Belgium, it appeared at a variety of festivals including Paris Cinéma, Biarritz International Festival of Latin American Cinema, Hamburg Film Festival, the Stockholm International Film Festival. The film was positively reviewed by critics in Chile. Daniel Villalobos from the newspaper, La Tercera, highlighted the way Violeta Parra is represented in the film and said "this could be the most eye-catching and agile film its director has released."
René Naranjo focused on Francisa Gavilán's acting, referring to it as "emotional and outstanding, a Violeta full of qualities that gave unity to the ensemble and shed light on a personality, marked by contrasts." Ana Josefa Silva of La Segunda wrote "in the end, it is a story brimming with truth, with passion, with happiness, with profound sadness. Intensely vital and awesome". Violeta Went to Heaven was selected by the National Council of Culture and the Arts as the Chilean entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 84th Academy Awards, but it did not make the final shortlist. Violeta se fue a los cielos was nominated for eight other awards in 2012. At the Argentinean Film Critics Association Awards it was nominated for the Silver Condor in the category of Best Foreign Film, Spanish language. At the Ariel Awards in Mexico it was nominated for the Silver Ariel for the Best Latin-American Film. At the Goya Awards it was nominated f
Thriller film known as suspense film or suspense thriller, is a broad film genre that involves excitement and suspense in the audience. The suspense element, found in most films' plots, is exploited by the filmmaker in this genre. Tension is created by delaying what the audience sees as inevitable, is built through situations that are menacing or where escape seems impossible; the cover-up of important information from the viewer, fight and chase scenes are common methods. Life is threatened in thriller film, such as when the protagonist does not realize that they are entering a dangerous situation. Thriller films' characters conflict with each other or with an outside force, which can sometimes be abstract; the protagonist is set against a problem, such as an escape, a mission, or a mystery. Thriller films are hybridized with other genres. Thriller films share a close relationship with horror films, both eliciting tension. In plots about crime, thriller films focus less on the criminal or the detective and more on generating suspense.
Common themes include, political conspiracy and romantic triangles leading to murder. In 2001, the American Film Institute made its selection of the top 100 greatest American "heart-pounding" and "adrenaline-inducing" films of all time; the 400 nominated films had to be American-made films whose thrills have "enlivened and enriched America's film heritage". AFI asked jurors to consider "the total adrenaline-inducing impact of a film's artistry and craft". One of the earliest thriller films was Harold Lloyd's comedy Safety Last!, with a character performing a daredevil stunt on the side of a skyscraper. Alfred Hitchcock's first thriller was his third silent film, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog, a suspenseful Jack the Ripper story, his next thriller was Blackmail and Britain's first sound film. His notable 1930s thrillers include The Man Who Knew Too Much, The 39 Steps and The Lady Vanishes, the latter two ranked among the greatest British films of the 20th century. One of the earliest spy films was Fritz Lang's Spies, the director's first independent production, with an anarchist international conspirator and criminal spy character named Haghi, pursued by good-guy Agent No. 326 —this film would be an inspiration for the future James Bond films.
The German film M, directed by Fritz Lang, starred Peter Lorre as a criminal deviant who preys on children. Hitchcock continued his suspense-thrillers, directing Foreign Correspondent, the Oscar-winning Rebecca, Suspicion and Shadow of a Doubt, Hitchcock's own personal favorite. Notable non-Hitchcock films of the 1940s include The Spiral Sorry, Wrong Number. In the late 1940s, Hitchcock added Technicolor to his thrillers, now with exotic locales. Hitchcock's first Technicolor film was Rope, he reached the zenith of his career with a succession of classic films such as, Strangers on a Train, Dial M For Murder with Ray Milland, Rear Window and Vertigo. Non-Hitchcock thrillers of the 1950s include The Night of the Hunter —Charles Laughton's only film as director—and Orson Welles's crime thriller Touch of Evil. Director Michael Powell's Peeping Tom featured Carl Boehm as a psychopathic cameraman. After Hitchcock's classic films of the 1950s, he produced Psycho about a lonely, mother-fixated motel owner and taxidermist.
J. Lee Thompson's Cape Fear, with Robert Mitchum, had a menacing ex-con seeking revenge. A famous thriller at the time of its release was Wait Until Dark by director Terence Young, with Audrey Hepburn as a victimized blind woman in her Manhattan apartment; the 1970s saw an increase of violence in the thriller genre, beginning with Canadian director Ted Kotcheff's Wake in Fright, which completely overlapped with the horror genre, Frenzy, Hitchcock's first British film in two decades, given an R rating for its vicious and explicit strangulation scene. One of the first films about a fan's being disturbingly obsessed with their idol was Clint Eastwood's directorial debut, Play Misty for Me, about a California disc jockey pursued by a disturbed female listener. John Boorman's Deliverance followed the perilous fate of four Southern businessmen during a weekend's trip. In Francis Ford Coppola's The Conversation, a bugging-device expert systematically uncovered a covert murder while he himself was being spied upon.
Alan Pakula's The Parallax View told of a conspiracy, led by the Parallax Corporation, surrounding the assassination of a presidential-candidate US Senator, witnessed by investigative reporter Joseph Frady. Peter Hyam's science fiction thriller Capricorn One proposed a government conspiracy to fake the first mission to Mars. Brian De Palma had themes of guilt, voyeurism and obsession in his films, as well as such plot elements as killing off a main character early on, switching points of view, dream-like sequences, his notable films include Sisters. In the early 1990s, thrillers had recurring elements of obsession and trapped protagonists who must find a way to escape the clutches of the villain—these devices influenced a number of thrillers in the following years. Rob Reiner's Misery, based on a book by Stephen King, featured Kath
Paulina García Alfonso, better known as Pali García, is a Chilean actress, theatre director and playwright. García debuted on television with a small role in the telenovela Los títeres, but she was soon known for her theatre direction and for her various performances in films such as Tres noches de un sábado, Casa de remolienda and Gloria. García has received four nominations for the Altazor Awards, winning on one occasion, three for the APES Awards — the Chilean Arts and Entertainment Critics Awards—winning twice. In February, 2013 she won the prestigious Silver Bear for Best Actress at the Berlin International Film Festival for her performance in the movie Gloria, directed by Sebastián Lelio. In 2016, she appeared in Ira Sachs' film, Little Men. Born in Santiago, García studied acting at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, where she graduated with a degree in theatre arts and with diplomas in theatre direction and writing. García made her debut at Catholic University's theatre in 1983 in ¿Dónde estará la Jeanette? by Luis Rivano, a work for which she received an APES Award for best actress.
Since she has acted in over thirty productions including Cariño malo, by Inés Margarita Stranger, El tío Vania, by Chekhov, The Trojan Women, by Euripides, El lugar común, Las analfabetas and BBB-Up. The year following her theatre debut, García appeared on television as Adriana Godán in the TV series Los títeres, a role she shared with actress Gloria Münchmeyer; the first work she directed was El continente negro by Marco Antonio de la Parra for which she received an APES Award nomination for best director in 1996. A grant from the National Arts Development Fund allowed for the financing of productions such as Lucrecia y Judith by the same author, Look Back in Anger by John Osborne, she has directed at national theatre festivals on three occasions, directing works by authors such as Alberto Fuguet and Celeste Gómez. García has taught acting at the theatre school of the University of Chile, at Fernando González night school, at the University for the Arts and Communication and the University for Development.
Between 1997 and 2001, she formed a part of the Theatre Directors Association. In television, of note is her performance in Cárcel de Mujeres as Raquel, a role for which García received both an APES Award and the Altazor Award for best actress. In 2002, García received an Andes Foundation grant to undertake research on conjugal violence, Golpes extraños al amor, which led to the work Peso negro, selected for the Unipersonales de Galpón 7 Festival, Frágil, a work presented at Matucana 100 Cultural Center under her direction. In film, García debuted in the 2002 movie Tres noches de un sábado by Joaquín Eyzaguirre, receiving a nomination for the Altazor Awards for her interpretation of the character Mathilde, she appeared in the 2004 film Cachimba by Silvio Caiozzi, in Casa de remolienda by Eyzaguirre in 2007, in Gloria, by Sebastián Lelio, for which she received the Silver Bear for Best Actress at the Berlin International Film Festival. ¿Dónde estará la Jeanette?, comedy by Luis Rivano Cariño malo, by Inés Stranger.
Gloria (2013 film)
Gloria is a 2013 Chilean-Spanish drama film directed by Sebastián Lelio. The film premiered in competition at the 63rd Berlin International Film Festival, where Paulina García won the Silver Bear for Best Actress, it was shown at the 2013 Toronto International Film Festival. The film was selected as the Chilean entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 86th Academy Awards, but it was not nominated, it won Best Ibero-American Film at the 1st Platino Awards. Sebastián Lelio remade Gloria in 2018 as Gloria Bell, starring John Turturro. In Santiago, 10 years after her divorce and with her children grown up, 58 year-old Gloria decides she does not want to spend her days alone, she starts going to singles discos, where she meets and starts an affair with Rodolfo, who operates an adventure centre in the hills that includes a paintball zone. Seven years older and divorced only a year ago, he is still close to his two grown-up daughters, they do not work, relying on his financial support, Rodolfo never switches off his mobile phone, answering it if a daughter calls regardless of where he is.
Gloria introduces Rodolfo to her family at a birthday dinner for her son, attended by her ex-husband, with whom she gets far too friendly after a few glasses of wine. When people ask Rodolfo about his career, he says he was in the Chilean Navy and a silence falls over the party, he does not return. Furious at this, Gloria breaks off the relationship with him. After many efforts, Rodolfo succeeds in getting Gloria to accompany him to a luxury hotel beside the sea at Viña del Mar. On arriving at their room, one of Rodolfo's daughters rings to say that her mother has had an accident and Rodolfo must come straight away. To stop him, Gloria makes love to him; the two go down to dinner, where she asks to see his mobile phone and drops it into his soup. Rodolfo leaves the table, which Gloria assumes for the mens' room, never returns. An upset Gloria heads for the bar for a wild night at the casino the disco, through the city streets, wakes up with a terrible hangover on the beach next morning; when the hotel receptionist tells her that Rodolfo has checked out with her things and the room is no longer available, she rings her cleaning lady to come and fetch her, many hours by bus.
Back home, Rodolfo makes numerous attempts to call Gloria at her home without success. Gloria retrieves one of Rodolfo's paintball guns from her trash bin and puts it back in her car and, driving to his house, splatters the front of his car with green paintballs as he happens to be entering; when he protests, she splatters him as well, sending him slumped to the ground as his family runs out in horror. Headed to a wedding she is invited to, she turns down invitations to dance at the reception; the DJ puts on her theme tune, Gloria by Umberto Tozzi, she takes the dance floor, allowing herself to dance away. Paulina García as Gloria Cumplido Sergio Hernández as Rodolfo Fernández Diego Fontecilla as Pedro Fabiola Zamora as Ana Alejandro Goic as Daniel Coca Guazzini as Luz Hugo Moraga as Hugo Luz Jiménez as Victoria Cristián Carvajal as Vecino Liliana García as Flavia Antonia Santa María as María Eyal Meyer as Theo Marcial Tagle as Marcial Marcela Said as Marcela Pablo Krögh as Pablo The film received excellent reviews when it premiered at the 2013 Berlin International Film Festival, topping both Screen International's Screen jury poll of international critics, IndieWire's critics poll of the best films screened at Berlin in 2013.
The film holds a 99% of positive reviews in the film critics site Rotten Tomatoes, being classified as "Certified Fresh" based on 122 critic reviews, with an average rating of 7.9/10. The general critical consensus is "Marvelously directed by Sebastian Lelio and beautifully led by a powerful performance from Paulina Garcia, Gloria takes an honest, sweetly poignant look at a type of character that's all too neglected in Hollywood." The film holds a 100% of positive reviews from Top Critics. On Metacritic, the film holds a score of 83 out of 100, based on reviews from 30 critics, indicating "universal acclaim". David Rooney of The Hollywood Reporter writes "it’s hard to imagine anyone with a heart and a brain not responding to the quiet delights and stunning intimacy of Chilean director Sebastian Lelio’s account of the personal evolution of a 58-year-old divorcee, played with scrupulous honesty and intelligence by the wonderful Paulina Garcia" and "Funny and uplifting, Sebastian Lelio's enormously satisfying spell inside the head and heart of a middle-aged woman never puts a foot wrong".
Variety writes "Perceptive and unerringly sympathetic,'Gloria' has the makings of an arthouse sleeper". Mark Adams of Screen International writes "A delightfully astute and compassionate delve into the life of a 58 year-old divorcee looking for company and even love, director Sebastián Lelio’s engaging and oddly uplifting Gloria is a film that will strike a chord with audiences of a certain age, it is driven by a quite wonderful performance from Paulina Garcia, who should snag best actress awards at every festival the film plays at."Eric Kohn of IndieWire gave the film an A and describes it as a "breakthrough" for actress Paulina Garcia. List of submissions to the 86th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Chilean submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Cinema of Chile Official website Gloria on IMDb Gloria at Rotten Tomatoes
Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, joining in 2010, it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognize