Names of God
A number of traditions have lists of many names of God, many of which enumerate the various qualities of a Supreme Being. The English word "God" is used by multiple religions as a noun or name to refer to different deities, or to the Supreme Being, as denoted in English by the capitalized and uncapitalized terms "god" and "God". Ancient cognate equivalents for the biblical Hebrew Elohim, one of the most common names of God in the Bible, include proto-Semitic El, biblical Aramaic Elah, Arabic'ilah; the personal or proper name for God in many of these languages may either be distinguished from such attributes, or homonymic. For example, in Judaism the tetragrammaton is sometimes related to the ancient Hebrew ehyeh. In the Hebrew Bible, the personal name of God is revealed directly to Moses, namely: "Yahweh". Correlation between various theories and interpretation of the name of "the one God", used to signify a monotheistic or ultimate Supreme Being from which all other divine attributes derive, has been a subject of ecumenical discourse between Eastern and Western scholars for over two centuries.
In Christian theology the word must be a proper name of God. On the other hand, the names of God in a different tradition are sometimes referred to by symbols; the question whether divine names used by different religions are equivalent has been raised and analyzed. Exchange of names held sacred between different religious traditions is limited. Other elements of religious practice may be shared when communities of different faiths are living in close proximity but usage of the names themselves remains within the domain of a particular religion, or may help define one's religious belief according to practice, as in the case of the recitation of names of God. Guru Gobind Singh's Jaap Sahib; the Divine Names, the classic treatise by Pseudo-Dionysius, defines the scope of traditional understandings in Western traditions such as Hellenic, Christian and Islamic theology on the nature and significance of the names of God. Further historical lists such as The 72 Names of the Lord show parallels in the history and interpretation of the name of God amongst Kabbalah and Hebrew scholarship in various parts of the Mediterranean world.
The attitude as to the transmission of the name in many cultures was surrounded by secrecy. In Judaism, the pronunciation of the name of God has always been guarded with great care, it is believed that, in ancient times, the sages communicated the pronunciation only once every seven years. The nature of a holy name can be described as either attributive. In many cultures it is difficult to distinguish between the personal and the attributive names of God, the two divisions shading into each other. El comes from a root word meaning might, power. Sometimes referring to God and sometimes the mighty when used to refer to the God of Israel, El is always qualified by additional words that further define the meaning that distinguishes him from false gods. A common title of God in the Hebrew Bible is Elohim; the root Eloah is used in poetry and late prose and ending with the masculine plural suffix "-im" ים creating a word like ba`alim ("owner" and adonim that may indicate a singular identity. In the Book of Exodus, God commands Moses to tell the people that'I AM' sent him, this is revered as one of the most important names of God according to Mosaic tradition.
Moses said to God, “Suppose I go to the Israelites and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ Then what shall I tell them?” God said to Moses, "I am. This is what you are to say to the Israelites: ‘I am has sent me to you.'" God said to Moses, “Say to the Israelites, ‘The Lord, the God of your fathers—the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob—has sent me to you.’ This is my name forever, the name you shall call me from generation to generation". In Exodus 6:3, when Moses first spoke with God, God said, "I used to appear to Abraham and Jacob as El Shaddai, but I did not make myself known to them by my name YHWH." YHWH is the proper name of God in Judaism. Neither vowels nor vowel points were used in ancient Hebrew writings and the original vocalisation of YHWH has been lost. Commentaries additionally suggested that the true pronunciation of this name is composed of vowels, such as the Greek Ιαουε. However, this is put into question by the fact that vowels were only distinguished in the time-period by their absence due to the lack of explicit vowels in the Hebrew script.
The resulting substitute made from semivowels and glottals, known as the tetragrammaton, is not ordinarily permitted to be pronounced aloud in prayer. The prohibition on misuse of this name is the primary subject of the command not to take the name of the Lord in vain. Instead of pronouncing YHWH during prayer, Jews say "Adonai". Halakha requires that secondary rules be placed around the primary law, to reduce the chance that the main law will be broken; as such, it is common religious practice to restrict the use of the word "Adonai" to prayer only. In conversation, many Jewish people when not speaking Hebrew, will call God HaShem, Hebrew for "the Name". All Orthodox Jews avoid using either Yahweh or Jehovah altogether on the basis that the actual pronun
The English word god continues the Old English god, derived from Proto-Germanic *ǥuđán. The Proto-Germanic meaning of *ǥuđán and its etymology is uncertain, it is agreed that it derives from a Proto-Indo-European neuter passive perfect participle *ǵʰu-tó-m. This is similar to Persian word for Khudan; this form within Proto-Indo-European itself was ambiguous, thought to derive from a root *ǵʰeu̯- "to pour, libate", or from a root *ǵʰau̯- "to call, to invoke". Sanskrit hutá = "having been sacrificed", from the verb root hu = "sacrifice", but a slight shift in translation gives the meaning "one to whom sacrifices are made." Depending on which possibility is preferred, the pre-Christian meaning of the Germanic term may either have been "libation" or "that, libated upon, idol" — or, as Watkins opines in the light of Greek χυτη γαια "poured earth" meaning "tumulus", "the Germanic form may have referred in the first instance to the spirit immanent in a burial mound" — or "invocation, prayer" or "that, invoked".
A significant number of scholars have connected this root with the names of three related Germanic tribes: the Geats, the Goths and the Gutar. These names may be derived from an eponymous chieftain Gaut, subsequently deified, he sometimes appears in early Medieval sagas as a name of Odin or one of his descendants, a former king of the Geats, an ancestor of the Gutar, of the Goths and of the royal line of Wessex and as a previous hero of the Goths. Some variant forms of the name Odin such as the Lombardic Godan may point in the direction that the Lombardic form comes from Proto-Germanic *ǥuđánaz. Wōdanaz or Wōđinaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of a god of Germanic paganism, known as Odin in Norse mythology, Wōden in Old English, Wodan or Wotan in Old High German and Godan in the Lombardic language. Godan was shortened to God over time and was adopted/retained by the Germanic peoples of the British isles as the name of their deity, in lieu of the Latin word Deus used by the Latin speaking Christian church, after conversion to Christianity.
During the complex christianization of the Germanic tribes of Europe, there were many linguistic influences upon the Christian missionaries. One example post downfall of the western Roman Empire are the missionaries from Rome led by Augustine of Canterbury. Augustine's mission to the Saxons in southern Britain was conducted at a time when the city of Rome was a part of a Lombardic kingdom; the translated Bibles which they brought on their mission were influenced by the Germanic tribes they were in contact with, chief among them being the Lombards and Franks. The translation for the word deus of the Latin Bible was influenced by the current usage by the tribes for their highest deity, namely Wodan by Angles and Franks of north-central and western Europe, Godan by the Lombards of south-central Europe around Rome. There are many instances where Wodan are contracted to God and Wod. One instance is the wild hunt; the earliest uses of the word God in Germanic writing is cited to be in the Gothic Bible or Wulfila Bible, the Christian Bible as translated by Ulfilas into the Gothic language spoken by the Eastern Germanic, or Gothic, tribes.
The oldest parts of the Gothic Bible, contained in the Codex Argenteus, is estimated to be from the fourth century. During the fourth century, the Goths were converted to Christianity through the efforts of Bishop Ulfilas, who translated the Bible into the Gothic language in Nicopolis ad Istrum in today's northern Bulgaria; the words guda and guþ were used for God in the Gothic Bible. In 19th-century scholarship, there were a number of alternative etymologies suggested. Morgan Kavanagh in The Origin of Language and Myths claimed that the word god was taken from the Buddha's patriarchal name of Gotama. Henry Scadding, Henry Le Mesurier in his book Mer-cur-ius, or The Word Maker connected Lombard Guodan to Gotama Buddha; the connection of Gwydion with Wotan is due to Jacob Grimm. The word God was used to represent Greek Theos and Latin Deus in Bible translations, first in the Gothic translation of the New Testament by Ulfilas. For the etymology of deus, see *dyēus. Greek "θεός " means god in English.
It is connected with Greek "θέω", "run", "θεωρέω", "to look at, to see, to observe", Latin feriae "holidays", fanum "temple", Armenian di-k` "gods". Alternative suggestions connect *dhu̯es- "smoke, spirit", attested in Baltic and Germanic words for "spook" and cognate with Latin fumus "smoke." The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek te-o, written in Linear B syllabic script. The development of English orthography was dominated by Christian texts. Capitalized, "God" was first used to refer to the Judeo-Christian concept and may now signify any monotheistic conception of God, including the translations of the Arabic Allāh, Persian Khuda, Indic Ishvara and the Maasai Ngai. In the English language, capitalization is used for names by which a god is known, including'God', its capitalized form is not used for multiple gods or when referring to the generic idea of a deity. Pronouns referring to a god are often capitalized by adherents to a religion as an indication of reverence, are traditionally in the masculine gende
A Hyang is an unseen spiritual entity that has supernatural power in ancient Indonesian mythology. This spirit can be either ancestral; the reverence for this spiritual entity can be found in Sunda Wiwitan and Balinese Hinduism. In the modern Indonesian this term tends to be associated with gods, God; the realm where the hyangs reside is called kahyangan. Hindu Balinese spiritualism describes hyang as a venerated spiritual existence, that deserves a special reverence. Hyang is described as a sacred and luminous personal form, it is the name for a spiritual existence that has supernatural powers, portrayed like the sun in a dream. His arrival in a person's life gives contentment without a pause for a long time, indistinguishable between dream and reality. Indonesians recognize this term to refer the cause of beauty, the cause of all existence, or to refer God; the term "hyang" now associated with Balinese Hinduism developed in ancient Java and Bali more than a millennium ago. However this term has an older origin, it has its root in the indigenous animism and dynamism beliefs of Austronesian people that inhabit the Indonesian archipelago.
Native pre-Hindu Buddhist and pre-Islamic Indonesians venerated and revered ancestral spirits, they believed that some spirits may inhabit certain places such as large trees, forests, mountains, or any sacred places. The "hyang" concept indigenously developed in the archipelago and not considered to have originated from Indian dharmic religions. Before the adoption of Hinduism and Islam, the natives of the Indonesian archipelago believed in powerful but unseen spiritual entities that can be both benevolent or malevolent, they believed that the deceased ancestor is not gone away or disappeared completely. The ancestral spirit may gain god-like spiritual power and remain involved in their offspring's worldly affairs; that is why the veneration and reverence to honor ancestors is an important element in the belief system of native ethnic groups, such as Nias, Toraja, Papuan ethnic groups, as well as many ethnic groups in Indonesia. In ancient Sundanese and Balinese society, this unseen spiritual entity is identified as "hyang".
These ancestral divine spirits are believed to inhabit high places, such as mountains and volcanoes. These mountainous regions are considered sacred realms, as the abode of gods and the resting place for the soul of the ancestors. Several ancient Indonesian inscriptions dated from Hindu-Buddhist period, mentioned hyang either as the name of sanctuary or the name of deity revered in that temple. In Sundanese, the term "nga-hyang" means "disappear" or "unseen", it is suggested that the word "hyang" has linguistic relation with the Malay word: "hilang" which means "disappear". In its development, the term "hyang" become the root word for many terms that still known and used in modern Indonesian: Reverence. If the word "hyang" is attached with prefixes attribute Sang-, Dang-, Ra-. For example, Sanghyang Sri Pohaci and Sang Hyang Widhi refer to gods, while the stylized name Rahyang Dewa Niskala refer to the name of late king of Sunda kingdom; the term Danghyang or Danyang is refer to the guardian spirits of certain haunted places.
The name of Srivijayan empire founder, Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa contained the name "hyang" which suggested that he possessed supernatural power. Place. Kahyangan — kayangan, from the word ka-hyang-an — is the realm where hyangs resides; because of the belief that hyang prefer high places, some mountainous regions is considered as the abode of hyang. For example, Parahyangan refer to mountainous region of West Java. Originated from combined words para-hyang-an; the term kahyangan is used as the type of Pura or Balinese temple. Pura kahyangan jagad is Balinese temple that located in mountainous region as the counterparts of pura segara. Dieng Plateau in Central Java shared the same origin, it is from the combined words di-hyang which means "hyang's place". Activity; the word sembahyang in Malay is synonymous with the Islamic salat ritual. It originated from the combined word sembah-hyang which means "worship the hyang"; the Balinese Sanghyang Dedari sacred dance involved some pre-pubescent girls dances in trance condition.
Through complex rituals to summons the hyangs spirits, it is believed that the spirits possessed the girls and made them unconsciously dance with complex movements. Sanghyang Jaran is Balinese name for Kuda Lumping dance that involving performer being entranced by spirit. Hyang are said to only move in straight lines. Accordingly, traditional Balinese buildings have a wall called an aling-aling just inside the doorway, which keeps the spirits out because they only move in straight lines, hence bounce off. Similar walls can be seen at the entrance of some Javanese cemeteries. Parallel beliefs are found in other spiritual traditions, as in British corpse roads
Haneullim or Haneulnim spelled Hanunim, Hwanin called Sangje known as Haneul or Cheon, or Cheonsin, is the concept of the sky God peculiar to Korean shamanism, religions rooted in Korean shamanism. In some of these religions he is called Okhwang Sangje. Dangun is traditionally considered to be the son of Hwanin, the "Heavenly King", founder of the Korean nation; this myth is reputed to be older than that of the mother goddess. Myths similar to that of Dangun are found in Siberian cultures; the myth starts with son of Hwanin. The prince asked his father to grant him governance over Korea. Hwanin accepted, Hwanung was sent to Earth bearing three Heavenly Seals and accompanied by three thousand followers; the prince arrived under the holy tree of sandalwood on the holy mountain, where he founded his holy city. At the time of his reign, Ungnyeo or Ungnye —who was a she-bear—and a tiger were living in a cave near the holy city, praying earnestly that their wish to become part of mankind might be fulfilled.
Ungnyeo patiently endured weariness and hunger, after twenty-one days she was transformed into a beautiful woman, while the tiger ran away for it could not tolerate the effort. The woman Ungnyeo was overjoyed, visiting the sandalwood city she prayed that she might become the mother of a child. Ungnye's wish was fulfilled, so that she became the queen and gave birth to a prince, given the royal name of Dangun, the "Sandalwood King". Dangun reigned as the first human king of Korea, giving to his kingdom the name of Joseon, "Land of the Morning Calm". According to some scholars, the name Dangun is related to the Siberian Tengri, while the bear is a symbol of the Big Dipper, itself a symbol of the supreme God in many Eurasian cultures, including Chinese theological thought. In the myth, Dangun becomes the Sansin, the "Mountain God". Amenominakanushi Chinese theology Tian—Shangdi Tao Three Pure Ones Tengri Didier, John C.. "In and Outside the Square: The Sky and the Power of Belief in Ancient China and the World, c. 4500 BC – AD 200".
Sino-Platonic Papers. Victor H. Mair. Volume I: The Ancient Eurasian World and the Celestial Pivot, Volume II: Representations and Identities of High Powers in Neolithic and Bronze China, Volume III: Terrestrial and Celestial Transformations in Zhou and Early-Imperial China. Lee, Chi-ran. "The Emergence of National Religions in Korea". Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Lee, Jung Young. Korean Shamanistic Rituals. Mouton De Gruyter. ISBN 9027933782. Hong, Sung-wook. Naming God in Korea. Wipf & Stock. ISBN 160608626X
Deus is Latin for "god" or "deity". Latin deus and dīvus are descended from Proto-Indo-European *deiwos, "celestial" or "shining", from the same root as *Dyēus, the reconstructed chief god of the Proto-Indo-European pantheon. In Classical Latin, deus was a general noun referring to a deity, while in technical usage a divus or diva was a figure who had become divine, such as a divinized emperor. In Late Latin, Deus came to be used for the Christian God, it was inherited by the Romance languages in French Dieu, Spanish Dios and Galician Deus, Italian Dio, etc. and by the Celtic languages in Welsh Duw and Irish Dia. Latin deus translates Greek θεός theos in both the Vetus Latina and Jerome's Vulgate. In the Septuagint, Greek theos in turn renders Hebrew Elohim; the word de-us is the root of deity, thereby of deism and polydeism, all of which are theories in which any divine figure is absent from intervening in human affairs. This curious circumstance originates from the use of the word "deism" in the 17th and 18th centuries as a contrast to the prevailing "theism", belief in an intervening God: The new religion of reason would be known as Deism.
It had no time for the imaginative disciplines of mythology. It turned its back on the myth of revelation and on such traditional "mysteries" as the Trinity, which had for so long held people in the thrall of superstition. Instead it declared allegiance to the impersonal "Deus". Followers of these theories, followers of pantheism, may sometimes refer to God as "Deus" or "the Deus" to make clear that the entity being discussed is not a theistic "God". Arthur C. Clarke picks up this usage in his novel 3001: The Final Odyssey. William Blake said of the Deists that they worship "the Deus of the Heathen, The God of This World, & the Goddess Nature, Babylon the Great, The Druid Dragon & hidden Harlot". In Cartesian philosophy, the phrase deus deceptor is sometimes used to discuss the possibility of an evil God that seeks to deceive us; this character is related to a skeptical argument as to how much we can know if an evil demon were attempting to thwart our knowledge. Another is the deus otiosus, a creator god who retires from the world and is no longer involved in its daily operation.
A similar concept is that of the deus absconditus of Thomas Aquinas. Both refer to a deity whose existence is not knowable by humans through either contemplation or examination of divine actions; the concept of deus otiosus suggests a god who has grown weary from involvement in this world and, replaced by younger, more active gods, whereas deus absconditus suggests a god who has consciously left this world to hide elsewhere. Nobiscum deus was a battle cry of the late Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Empire; the name Amadeus translates to "for love of God". The genitive/dative dei occurs in such phrases as Roman Catholic organization Opus Dei, Agnus Dei and Dei Gratia. Agnus Dei Deus ex machina Deus otiosus/Deus absconditus Deus sive Natura Deus vult Munificentissimus Deus Opus Dei Providentissimus Deus Rector Potens, Verax Deus Regnator omnium deus Rerum Deus Tenax Vigor Rex Deus Sublimus Dei Te Deum Unigenitus dei filius Vox populi, vox Dei God
Jacob wrestling with the angel
Jacob wrestling with the angel is an episode from Genesis. The account includes the renaming of Jacob as Israel; the "angel" in question is referred to as "man" in Genesis, while Hosea references an "angel", but the episode is often referenced as Jacob's "wrestling with God". In the Genesis narrative, Jacob spent the night alone on a riverside during his journey back to Canaan, he encounters a "man". In the end, Jacob is given the name "Israel" and blessed, while the "man" refuses to give his own name. Jacob names the place where they wrestled Penuel; the Masoretic text reads as follows: The same night he arose and took his two wives, his two female servants, his eleven children, crossed the ford of the Jabbok. He took them and sent them across the stream, everything else that he had, and Jacob was left alone. And a man wrestled with him until the breaking of the day; when the man saw that he did not prevail against Jacob, he touched his hip socket, Jacob's hip was put out of joint as he wrestled with him.
He said, “Let me go, for the day has broken.” But Jacob said, “I will not let you go unless you bless me.” And he said to him, “What is your name?” And he said, “Jacob.” He said, “Your name shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel, for you have striven with God and with men, have prevailed.” Jacob asked him, “Please tell me your name.” But he said, “Why is it that you ask my name?” And there he blessed him. So Jacob called the name of the place Peniel, saying, “For I have seen God face to face, yet my life has been delivered.” The sun rose upon him. Therefore to this day the people of Israel do not eat the sinew of the thigh, on the hip socket, because he touched the socket of Jacob's hip on the sinew of the thigh; the account contains several plays on the meaning of Hebrew names — Peniel, Israel — as well as similarity to the root of Jacob's name and its compound. The limping of Jacob, may mirror the name of the river and Nahmanides gives the etymology "one who walks crookedly" for the name Jacob.
The Hebrew text states that it is a "man" with whom Jacob wrestles, but this "man" is identified with God by Jacob. Hosea 12:4 furthermore references an "angel". Following this, the Targum of Onkelos offers "because I have seen the Angel of the Lord face to face", the Targum of Palestine gives "because I have seen the Angels of the Lord face to face"; the identity of Jacob's wrestling opponent is a matter of debate, named variously as a dream figure, a prophetic vision, an angel, a protective river spirit, Jesus, or God. In Hosea 12:4, Jacob's opponent is described as malakh "angel": "Yes, he had power over the angel, prevailed: he wept, made supplication to him: he found him in Bethel, there he spoke with us; the relative age of the text of Genesis and of Hosea is unclear, as both are part of the Hebrew Bible as redacted in the Second Temple Period, it has been suggested that malakh may be a late emendation of the text, would as such represent an early Jewish interpretation of the episode.
Maimonides believed that the incident was "a vision of prophecy", while Rashi believed Jacob wrestled with the guardian angel of Esau, his elder twin brother. Zvi Kolitz referred to Jacob "wrestling with God"; as a result of the hip injury Jacob suffered while wrestling, Jews are prohibited from eating the meat tendon attached to the hip socket, as mentioned in the account at Genesis 32:32. The interpretation that "Jacob wrestled with God" is common in Protestant theology, endorsed by both Martin Luther and John Calvin, as well as writers such as Joseph Barker or Peter L. Berger. Other commentaries treat the expression of Jacob's having seen "God face to face" as referencing the Angel of the Lord as the "Face of God"; the proximity of the terms "man" and "God" in the text in some Christian commentaries has been taken as suggestive of a Christophany. J. Douglas MacMillan suggests that the angel with whom Jacob wrestles is a "pre-incarnation appearance of Christ in the form of a man."According to one Christian commentary of the Bible incident described, "Jacob said,'I saw God face to face'.
Jacob's remark does not mean that the'man' with whom he wrestled is God. Rather, as with other, similar statements, when one saw the'angel of the Lord,' it was appropriate to claim to have seen the face of God." This story is discussed in Muslim commentaries. The commentaries employ the story in explaining other events in the Hebrew Bible that are discussed in the Quran that have parallels, like Moses being attacked by an angel, to explain Jewish eating customs. Like some Jewish commentators, Islamic commentators described the event as punishment for Jacob failing to give tithes to God but making an offering like a tithe to Esau. In an analysis of Marxist philosopher Ernst Bloch's 1968 book Atheism in Christianity, Roland Boer says that Bloch sees the incident as falling into the category of "myth, or at least legend". Boer calls this an example of "a bloodthirsty, vengeful God... outdone by cunning human beings keen to avoid his fury". The wrestling incident on the bank of a stream has been compared to the Greek mythology stories of Achilles' duel with the
Ik Onkar Ik Omkar, is the symbol that represents the one supreme reality and is a central tenet of Sikh religious philosophy. Ik Onkar has a prominent position at the head of the Mul Mantar and the opening words of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Ik means one and only one, who cannot be compared or contrasted with any other, Onkar is the one universal flowing divine melody and existential unstruck, never-ending sound of God. To simplify Ik means one, Oang the creator and Kar means the creation. So the creator and his creation are not different and He the supreme creator resides everywhere and in everything; the sound is Oang and Kar is the never ending continuation of Oang sound. This melody leads to protect and preserve. Everything gets merged back into this sound, it is a symbol of the unity of God in Sikhism, meaning God is One or One God, is found in all religious scriptures and places such as gurdwaras. Derived from Punjabi, Ik Onkār is the first phrase in the Mool Mantar referring to the existence of "one constant divine melody", proved by Gurbani itself in: It is found in the Gurmukhi script and is also part of the Sikh morning prayer, Japji Sahib.
It is a combination of two characters, the numeral ੧, Ikk and the first letter of the word Onkar - which happens to be the first letter of the Gurmukhī script - an ūṛā, ੳ, coupled with a specially adapted vowel symbol hōṛā, yielding ਓ. It is the opening phrase of the Mul Mantar, present as opening phrase in the Guru Granth Sahib, the first composition of Guru Nanak. Further, the Mul Mantar is at the beginning of the Japji Sahib, followed by 38 hymns and a final Salok at the end of this composition. Punjabi: ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥ ਜਪੁ।। ਆਦਿ ਸਚੁ ਜੁਗਾਦਿ ਸਚੁ ਹੈ ਭੀ ਸਚੁ।। ਨਾਨਕ ਹੋਸੀ ਭੀ ਸਚੁ।।:Simplified transliteration: Ik Oankaar Satnaam Kartaa Purakh Nirbhau Nirvair Akaal Moorat Ajoonee Saibhan Gur Prasaad English: One universal Creator God who created the universe with the sound "Oang", Truth and eternal is the name, Creative being, Without Fear, Without Enmity and deathless Form, Not affected by the circle of life and death - unborn, Self-Existent, He can be realized by the grace of the true and eternal Guru who has the power to enlighten us.
Ik Onkar is the statement of oneness in Sikhism, that is'there is one God'. The phrase is a compound of the numeral one and onkar, states Doniger, canonically understood in Sikhism to refer to "absolute monotheistic unity of God". Ik Onkar has a prominent position at the head of the Mul Mantar and the opening words of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib; the Onkar of Sikhism is related to Om in Hinduism. Some Sikhs disagree. Onkar is, states Wazir Singh, a "variation of Om of the ancient Indian scriptures, implying the seed-force that evolves as the universe". Guru Nanak wrote a poem entitled Oankar in which, states Doniger, he "attributed the origin and sense of speech to the Divinity, thus the Om-maker", it is constituted of two components - Onkar. Ek means one, is written as a numerical figure'1'. Onkar stands for the Primal mystical Divine Name of God referred to as Brahman in the Vedic literature. In order to grasp the underlying spiritual significance and meaning of Ek-Onkar each of its components needs to be studied in depth, beginning with Onkar.
The root of Onkar is traceable to the Hindu sacred syllable Om written as Aum. In the beginning, Om was used as a reply of approval or consent. At a stage, with the evolution of Indian philosophic thought, the sages of Upanishads pronounced it as an adequate symbol of the Absolute Transcendent Reality, Brahman, it is considered as the unity of all sound to which all matters and energy are reduced in their primordial form, hence fit as a symbol for Atman or Brahman, the Supreme Being, the unity of all existence. These - and some other - considerations led the Vedic sages to accord to Om the highest Divine reverence and worship; as a sacred and powerful Mantra it forms part of daily worship and meditation by Hindu devotees. It is treated as the holiest symbol of Divinity calling it Nada Brahma or Shabda Brahma in the form of sound, its nearest equivalent in the West is Logos or the'Word'. St. John's Gospel expounds it thus: "in the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and the Word was God."
The Word was the true light that enlightens all men! Written in original, it is composed of three letters of Sanskrit alphabet, corresponding to A U M of English alphabet. According to certain interpretations, the three sounds represent three facets of Nirguna Parabrahm Paramatma - the One Formless Supreme Being; these facets namely are creation and destruction. Symbolically, these different facets of the One are sometimes represented in the Sagun forms of Brahma and Shiva. There always is consciousness in Hinduism, that these forms are representations of the One. Guru Nanak followed in the tradition of Nirguna Parabrahm Paramatma - One and Only One Formless Supreme Being, an Indivisible Entity; this belief in the unity of God he has re-iterated in various ways in his other compositions as well. At one place he emphatically affirms, Sahib mera Eko hai, Eko hai Bhai, eko hai. In English:'My Master is One, One only, Oh Brother, He is Sole.' So Guru Nanak's revealed Scripture place numerical figure'1' before Onkar thus enhancing his firm conviction in the unity of God.
Its main importance and underlying significance lies in the