"I Feel So Bad" is a blues song written and recorded by Chuck Willis, released in 1954. It rose to #8 on the Billboard Rhythm & Blues Chart in early 1954, appears on the album Chuck Willis Wails the Blues. Elvis Presley recorded the song on March 12, 1961 in RCA Studio B, in Nashville, TN and released it as a single on RCA Victor that year. Elvis Presley's version reached No.5 on the US Billboard Hot 100 in 1961 and No.15 on Billboard's Top 20 R&B Singles chart the same year. The song, released on a double A-side single in the UK, reached No.4 on the UK singles chart in 1961. Blues singer Little Milton recorded a soul blues version, titled "Feel So Bad," in 1967, it rose to #7 R&B and #91 pop. The band Cactus recorded it on their 1971 Atco release One Way... or Another. This song has since been covered by Foghat on their second album titled Foghat, Delbert McClinton, Rory Gallagher, & Big Dave & The Ultrasonics Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Convection is the heat transfer due to the bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock. Convection includes sub-mechanisms of advection, diffusion. Convection cannot take place in most solids because neither bulk current flows nor significant diffusion of matter can take place. Diffusion of heat takes place in rigid solids, but, called heat conduction. Convection, additionally may take place in soft solids or mixtures where solid particles can move past each other. Thermal convection can be demonstrated by placing a heat source at the side of a glass filled with a liquid, observing the changes in temperature in the glass caused by the warmer fluid circulating into cooler areas. Convective heat transfer is one of the major types of heat transfer, convection is a major mode of mass transfer in fluids. Convective heat and mass transfer takes place both by diffusion – the random Brownian motion of individual particles in the fluid – and by advection, in which matter or heat is transported by the larger-scale motion of currents in the fluid.
In the context of heat and mass transfer, the term "convection" is used to refer to the combined effects of advective and diffusive transfer. Sometimes the term "convection" is used to refer to "free heat convection" where bulk-flow in a fluid is due to temperature-induced differences in buoyancy, as opposed to "forced heat convection" where forces other than buoyancy move the fluid. However, in mechanics, the correct use of the word "convection" is the more general sense, different types of convection should be further qualified, for clarity. Convection can be qualified in terms of being natural, gravitational, granular, or thermomagnetic, it may be said to be due to combustion, capillary action, or Marangoni and Weissenberg effects. Heat transfer by natural convection plays a role in the structure of Earth's atmosphere, its oceans, its mantle. Discrete convective cells in the atmosphere can be seen as clouds, with stronger convection resulting in thunderstorms. Natural convection plays a role in stellar physics.
The convection mechanism is used in cooking, when using a convection oven, which uses fans to circulate hot air around food in order to cook the food faster than a conventional oven. The word convection may have different but related usages in different scientific or engineering contexts or applications; the broader sense is in fluid mechanics, where convection refers to the motion of fluid regardless of cause. However, in thermodynamics "convection" refers to heat transfer by convection. Convection occurs on a large scale in atmospheres, planetary mantles, it provides the mechanism of heat transfer for a large fraction of the outermost interiors of our sun and all stars. Fluid movement during convection may be invisibly slow, or it may be obvious and rapid, as in a hurricane. On astronomical scales, convection of gas and dust is thought to occur in the accretion disks of black holes, at speeds which may approach that of light. Convective heat transfer is a mechanism of heat transfer occurring because of bulk motion of fluids.
Heat is the entity of interest being advected, diffused. This can be contrasted with conductive heat transfer, the transfer of energy by vibrations at a molecular level through a solid or fluid, radiative heat transfer, the transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves. Heat is transferred by convection in numerous examples of occurring fluid flow, such as wind, oceanic currents, movements within the Earth's mantle. Convection is used in engineering practices of homes, industrial processes, cooling of equipment, etc; the rate of convective heat transfer may be improved by the use of a heat sink in conjunction with a fan. For instance, a typical computer CPU will have a purpose-made fan to ensure its operating temperature is kept within tolerable limits. A convection cell known as a Bénard cell is a characteristic fluid flow pattern in many convection systems. A rising body of fluid loses heat because it encounters a colder surface. In liquid, this occurs. In the example of the Earth's atmosphere, this occurs.
Because of this heat loss the fluid becomes denser than the fluid underneath it, still rising. Since it cannot descend through the rising fluid, it moves to one side. At some distance, its downward force overcomes the rising force beneath it, the fluid begins to descend; as it descends, it warms again and the cycle repeats itself. Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, is a means by which thermal energy is distributed on the surface of the Earth, together with the much slower ocean circulation system; the large-scale structure of the atmospheric circulation varies from year to year, but the basic climatological structure remains constant. Latitudinal circulation occurs because incident solar radiation per unit area is highest at the heat equator, decreases as the latitude increases, reaching minima at the poles, it consists of two primary convection cells, the Hadley cell and the polar vortex, with the Hadley cell experiencing stronger convection due to the release of latent heat energy by condensation of water vapor at higher altitudes during cloud formation.
Longitudinal circulation, on the other hand, comes about because the ocean has a higher specific heat capacity than land (and thermal condu
Max Krook was an American mathematician and astrophysicist. Krook was born in the son of Pesach Israel Krook and Leah Krook. An undergraduate at the University of the Witwatersrand, Krook received a doctorate in mathematics from Cambridge University in England in 1938 under the supervision of Arthur Eddington, he was subsequently recruited to Birmingham University by Rudolf Peierls. Krook came to the United States in 1950 as a research associate in physics at the Indiana University, soon moving to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, he was additionally appointed a research fellow at the Harvard College Observatory in 1952. In 1956, he became a lecturer in astronomy, and, in 1959, a professor in the Harvard's Division of Applied Sciences and the department of astronomy. Robert May was one of his first postdoctoral students. Krook was for decades a regular at Cambridge's Legal Sea Foods restaurant, where a particular table was held for him at lunchtime. Krook married Gulielma Penn-Gaskel White, 1952 graduate of Radcliffe College, successful photographer, in 1956.
Although divorced, they continued to share a residence in Arlington, Massachusetts until the time of his death. Krook is remembered for his contribution to the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model. Functions of a Complex Variable: Theory and Technique, by George F. Carrier, Max Krook, Carl E. Pearson, SIAM, 2005, ISBN 0-89871-595-4. P. L. Bhatnagar, E. P. Gross, M. Krook, "A Model for Collision Processes in Gases. I. Small Amplitude Processes in Charged and Neutral One-Component Systems", Phys. Rev. 94, 511-525