Stephen Edwin King is an American author of horror, supernatural fiction, science fiction, fantasy. His books have sold more than 350 million copies, many of which have been adapted into feature films, television series, comic books. King has published six non-fiction books, he has written 200 short stories, most of which have been published in book collections. King has received Bram Stoker Awards, World Fantasy Awards, British Fantasy Society Awards. In 2003, the National Book Foundation awarded him the Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters, he has received awards for his contribution to literature for his entire oeuvre, such as the World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement, the Grand Master Award from the Mystery Writers of America. In 2015, King was awarded with a National Medal of Arts from the United States National Endowment for the Arts for his contributions to literature, he has been described as the "King of Horror". King was born September 1947, in Portland, Maine, his father, Donald Edwin King, was a merchant seaman.
Donald was born under the surname Pollock, but as an adult, used the surname King. King's mother was Nellie Ruth; when Stephen King was two years old, his father left the family. King's mother raised Stephen and his older brother, David, by herself, sometimes under great financial strain; the family moved to De Pere, Fort Wayne and Stratford, Connecticut. When King was 11, his family returned to Durham, where his mother cared for her parents until their deaths, she became a caregiver in a local residential facility for the mentally challenged. King lost his belief in organized religion while in high school. While no longer religious, King chooses to believe in the existence of God; as a child, King witnessed one of his friends being struck and killed by a train, though he has no memory of the event. His family told him that after leaving home to play with the boy, King returned, speechless and in shock. Only did the family learn of the friend's death; some commentators have suggested that this event may have psychologically inspired some of King's darker works, but King makes no mention of it in his memoir On Writing.
King related in detail his primary inspiration for writing horror fiction in his non-fiction Danse Macabre, in a chapter titled "An Annoying Autobiographical Pause." King compares his uncle's dowsing for water using the bough of an apple branch with the sudden realization of what he wanted to do for a living. That inspiration occurred while browsing through an attic with his elder brother, when King uncovered a paperback version of an H. P. Lovecraft collection of short stories he remembers as The Lurker in the Shadows, that had belonged to his father. King told Barnes & Noble Studios during a 2009 interview, "I knew that I'd found home when I read that book."King attended Durham Elementary School and graduated from Lisbon Falls High School, in Lisbon Falls, Maine. He displayed an early interest in horror as an avid reader of EC's horror comics, including Tales from the Crypt, he began writing for fun while still in school, contributing articles to Dave's Rag, the newspaper his brother published with a mimeograph machine, began selling to his friends stories based on movies he had seen.
The first of his stories to be independently published was "I Was a Teenage Grave Robber". That story was published the following year in a revised form as "In a Half-World of Terror" in another fanzine, Stories of Suspense, edited by Marv Wolfman; as a teen, King won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award. From 1966, King studied at the University of Maine, graduating in 1970 with a Bachelor of Arts in English; that year, his daughter Naomi Rachel was born. He wrote a column, Steve King's Garbage Truck, for the student newspaper, The Maine Campus, participated in a writing workshop organized by Burton Hatlen. King held a variety of jobs to pay for his studies, including janitor, gas pump attendant, worker at an industrial laundry. King met his future wife, fellow student Tabitha Spruce, at the University's Fogler Library after one of Professor Hatlen's workshops. King sold his first professional short story, "The Glass Floor," to Startling Mystery Stories in 1967. After graduating from the University of Maine, King earned a certificate to teach high school but, unable to find a teaching post initially supplemented his laboring wage by selling short stories to men's magazines such as Cavalier.
Many of these early stories have been republished in the collection Night Shift. The short story The Raft was published in a men's magazine. After being arrested for driving over a traffic cone, he was fined $250 and had no money to pay the petty larceny fine. However, payment arrived for the short story The Raft, King was able to pay the fine. In 1971, King was hired as a teacher at Hampden Academy in Maine, he worked on ideas for novels. In 1973, King's novel Carrie was accepted by publishing house Doubleday. Carrie was King's fourth novel, it was written on a portable typewriter. The novel began as a short story intended for Cavalier magazine, but King tossed the first three pages of his work in the garbage can. Tabith
Pet Sematary is a 1983 horror novel by American writer Stephen King. The novel was nominated for a World Fantasy Award for Best Novel in 1986, adapted into two films: one in 1989 and one in 2019. In November 2013, PS Publishing released Pet Sematary in a limited 30th-anniversary edition. Louis Creed, a doctor from Chicago, is appointed director of the University of Maine's campus health service, he moves to a large house near the small town of Ludlow with his wife Rachel, their two young children and Gage, Ellie's cat, Church. From the moment they arrive, the family runs into trouble: Ellie hurts her knee and Gage is stung by a bee, their new neighbor, an elderly man named Jud Crandall, comes to help. He warns Rachel about the highway that runs past their house. Jud and Louis become close friends. Since Louis's father died when he was three, he sees Jud as a surrogate father. A few weeks after the Creeds move in, Jud puts the friendship on the line when he takes the family on a walk in the woods behind their home.
A well-tended path leads to a pet cemetery where the children of the town bury their deceased animals. The outing provokes a heated argument between Rachel the next day. Rachel disapproves of discussing death, she worries about how Ellie may be affected by what she saw at the "sematary". Louis himself has a traumatic experience during the first week of classes. Victor Pascow, a student, fatally injured in an automobile accident, addresses his dying words to Louis even though the two men are strangers. On the night following Pascow's death, Louis experiences what he believes is a vivid dream in which he meets Pascow, who leads him to the deadfall at the back of the "sematary" and warns Louis to not "go beyond, no matter how much you feel you need to." Louis wakes up in bed the next morning convinced it was, in fact, a dream—until he finds his feet and bedsheets covered with dried mud and pine needles. Louis dismisses the dream as the product of the stress he experienced during Pascow's death, coupled with his wife's lingering anxieties about the subject of death.
Louis is forced to confront the subject of death at Halloween, when Jud's wife, suffers a near-fatal heart attack. Thanks to Louis's prompt attention, Norma makes a quick recovery. Jud is grateful for Louis's help and decides to repay him after Church is run over outside his home at Thanksgiving. Rachel and the kids are visiting Rachel's parents in Chicago, but Louis frets over breaking the bad news to Ellie. Sympathizing with Louis, Jud takes him to the pet sematary to bury Church, but instead of stopping there, Jud leads Louis farther on a frightening journey to "the real cemetery": an ancient burial ground, once used by the Miꞌkmaq Tribe. There Louis buries the cat on Jud's instruction. Louis thinks -- until the next afternoon when Church returns home, it is obvious. While he used to be vibrant and lively, he now acts ornery and "a little dead" in Louis's words. Church hunts for mice and birds much more but he rips them apart without eating them; the cat smells so bad that Ellie no longer wants him in her room at night.
Jud confirms that this condition is the rule, rather than the exception, for animals who have been resurrected in this fashion. Louis is disturbed by Church's resurrection and begins to wish that he had never done it. Several months two-year-old Gage is killed by a speeding truck in a horrible accident. Overcome with despair, Louis considers bringing his son back to life with the help of the burial ground. Jud, guessing what Louis is planning, attempts to dissuade him by telling him the gruesome story of the last person, resurrected by the burial ground, Timmy Baterman. Timmy Baterman was killed in action during World War II. Timmy's body was shipped back to the U. S. and his father Bill buried Timmy in that cemetery. Timmy came back malevolent and hellish, terrorizing the people of the town with secrets that Jud asserts he had no earthly way of knowing. Jud and the men fled in horror, it is revealed to Louis that Timmy was stopped by Bill. The traumatised Bill set their house on fire before shooting himself.
Jud states that he believes that whatever came back was not Timmy, but a "demon" that had possessed his corpse. He concludes that "Sometimes, dead is better" and states that "the place has a power... its own evil purpose," and may have caused Gage's death because Jud introduced Louis to it. Despite Jud's warning and his own reservations about the idea, Louis's grief and guilt spur him to carry out his plan. Louis inters him in the burial ground. Gage returns from the dead different from the child he was, he is demonic and more vicious than Timmy, speaking as if not Gage at all but something else. He kills both Rachel. After killing Church, Louis confronts his son and sends him back to the grave with a lethal injection of chemicals from his medical supply stock. After burning the Crandall house down, Louis returns to the burial ground with his wife's corpse, thinking that if he buries the body faster than he did Gage's there will be a different result. Following all of these tragic events, Louis has aged in physical appearance, with white hair and wrinkles.
Cosmopolitan is an international fashion magazine for women, titled The Cosmopolitan. The Cosmopolitan magazine is one of the best-selling magazines and is directed toward women readers. Jessica Pels is an appointed editor-in-chief of Cosmopolitan magazine; the magazine was first distributed in 1886 in the US as a family magazine. Referred to as Cosmo, its content as of 2011 includes articles discussing relationships, health, self-improvement, fashion and beauty. Published by Hearst Corporation, Cosmopolitan has 64 international editions, including Armenia, Croatia, Finland, Greece, Latin America, the Middle East, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, South Africa, Spain and the United Kingdom and is printed in 35 different languages and distributed in over 110 countries. Cosmopolitan began as a family magazine, launched in March 1886 by Schlicht & Field of New York as The Cosmopolitan. Authors and their writings in the first issue included: Paul Schlicht told his first-issue readers inside of the front cover that his publication was a "first-class family magazine" adding, "There will be a department devoted to the concerns of women, with articles on fashions, on household decoration, on cooking, the care and management of children, etc.
There was a department for the younger members of the family."Cosmopolitan's circulation reached 25,000 that year, but by November 1888, Schlicht & Field were no longer in business. John Brisben Walker acquired the magazine in 1889; that same year, he dispatched Elizabeth Bisland on a race around the world against Nellie Bly to draw attention to the magazine. Under John Brisben Walker's ownership, E. D. Walker with Harper's Monthly, took over as the new editor, introducing colour illustrations and book reviews, it became a leading market for fiction, featuring such authors as Annie Besant, Ambrose Bierce, Willa Cather, Theodore Dreiser, Rudyard Kipling, Jack London, Edith Wharton, H. G. Wells; the magazine's press run climbed to 100,000 by 1892. In 1897, Cosmopolitan announced plans for a free correspondence school: "No charge of any kind will be made to the student. All expenses for the present will be borne by the Cosmopolitan. No conditions, except a pledge of a given number of hours of study."
When 20,000 signed up, Walker could not fund the school and students were asked to contribute 20 dollars a year. In 1897, H. G. Wells' The War of the Worlds was serialized, as was his The First Men in the Moon. Olive Schreiner contributed a lengthy two-part article about the Boer War in the September and October issues of 1900. In 1905, William Randolph Hearst purchased the magazine for US$400,000 and brought in journalist Charles Edward Russell, who contributed a series of investigative articles, including "The Growth of Caste in America", "At the Throat of the Republic" and "What Are You Going to Do About It?". Other contributors during this period included O. Henry, A. J. Cronin, Alfred Henry Lewis, Bruno Lessing, Sinclair Lewis, O. O. McIntyre, David Graham Phillips, George Bernard Shaw, Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell. Jack London's novella, "The Red One", was published in the October 1918 issue, a constant presence from 1910–18 was Arthur B. Reeve, with 82 stories featuring Craig Kennedy, the "scientific detective".
Magazine illustrators included Francis Attwood, Dean Cornwell, Harrison Fisher, James Montgomery Flagg. Hearst formed Cosmopolitan Productions, a film company based in New York City from 1918 to 1923 Hollywood until 1938; the vision for this film company was to make films from stories published in the magazine. Cosmopolitan magazine was titled as Hearst's International Combined with Cosmopolitan from 1925 until 1952, but was referred to as Cosmopolitan. In 1911, Hearst had bought a middling monthly magazine called World To-Day and renamed it Hearst's Magazine in April 1912. In June 1914 it was shortened to Hearst's and was titled Hearst's International in May 1922. In order to spare serious cutbacks at San Simeon, Hearst merged the magazine Hearst's International with Cosmopolitan effective March 1925, but while the Cosmopolitan title on the cover remained at a typeface of eight-four points, over time span the typeface of the Hearst's International decreased to thirty-six points and to a legible twelve points.
After Hearst died in 1951, the Hearst's International disappeared from the magazine cover altogether in April 1952. With a circulation of 1,700,000 in the 1930s, Cosmopolitan had an advertising income of $5,000,000. Emphasizing fiction in the 1940s, it was subtitled The Four-Book Magazine since the first section had one novelette, six or eight short stories, two serials, six to eight articles and eight or nine special features, while the other three sections featured two novels and a digest of current non-fiction books. During World War II, sales peaked at 2,000,000; the magazine began to run less fiction during the 1950s. Circulation dropped to over a million by 1955, a time when magazines were overshadowed during the rise of paperbacks and television; the Golden Age of magazines came to an end as mass market, general interest publications gave way to special interest magazines targeting specialized audiences. Cosmo was known as a "bland" and boring magazine by critics. Cosmopolitan's circulation continued to decline for another decade until Helen Gurley Brown became
Elementary school is a school for students in their first school years, where they get primary education before they enter secondary education. The exact ages vary by country. In the United States, elementary schools have 6 grades with pupils aged between 6 and 13 years old, but the age can be up to 10 or 14 years old as well. In Japan, the age of pupils in elementary school ranges from 6 to 12, after which the pupils enter junior high school. Elementary school is only one part of compulsory education in Western countries. Elementary school were first established in 1870. Most of these schools were converted into Primary schools during the late 1940s. Elementary school: were first promoted in 1647 in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Today, there are approximately 92,858 elementary schools Elementary schools in Japan were first established by 1875. National Center for Education Statistics Elementary Schools with Education and Crime Statistics Educational stage Primary school Grammar school Virtual reality in primary education
A sports car, or sportscar, is a small two-seater automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. The term "sports car" was used in The Times, London in 1919. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, USA's first known use of the term was in 1928. Sports cars started to become popular during the 1920s. Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious. Sports cars are aerodynamically shaped, have a lower center of gravity than standard models. Steering and suspension are designed for precise control at high speeds. Traditionally sports cars were open roadsters, but closed coupés started to become popular during the 1930s, the distinction between a sports car and a grand tourer is not absolute. Attributing the definition of'sports car' to any particular model can be controversial or the subject of debate among enthusiasts. Authors and experts have contributed their own ideas to capture a definition. A car may be a sporting automobile without being a sports car. Performance modifications of regular, production cars, such as sport compacts, sports sedans, muscle cars, pony cars and hot hatches are not considered sports cars, yet share traits common to sports cars.
Certain models can "appeal to both muscle car and sports car enthusiasts, two camps that acknowledged each other's existences." Some models are called "sports cars" for marketing purposes to take advantage of greater marketplace acceptance and for promotional purposes. High-performance cars of various configurations are grouped as Sports and Grand tourer cars or just as performance cars; the drivetrain and engine layout influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to sports cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, the Chevrolet Corvette. More many such sports cars have a front mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used; the rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, powers only the rear wheels.
Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout. Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-wheel-drive layout; the motor's distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, but the significant mass behind the rear wheels makes it more prone to oversteer in some situations. Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic stability control to counteract these inherent design shortcomings; the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout, the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, modern production cars in general, is not used for sports cars. This layout is advantageous for small, lower power sports cars, as it avoids the extra weight, increased transmission power loss, packaging problems of a long driveshaft and longitudinal engine of FR vehicles. However, its conservative handling effect understeer, the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it.
The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, Berkeley cars are sports cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had traditionally added a lot of weight. With its improvement in traction in adverse weather conditions, four-wheel drive is no longer uncommon in high-powered sports cars, e.g. Porsche and the Bugatti Veyron. Traditional sports cars were two-seat roadsters. Although the first sports cars were derived from fast tourers, early sporting regulations demanded four seats, two seats became common from about the mid-1920s. Modern sports cars may have small back seats that are really only suitable for luggage or small children. Over the years, some manufacturers of sports cars have sought to increase the practicality of their vehicles by increasing the seating room. One method is to place the driver's seat in the center of the car, which allows two full-sized passenger seats on each side and behind the driver; the arrangement was considered for the Lamborghini Miura, but abandoned as impractical because of the difficulty for the driver to enter/exit the vehicle.
McLaren used the design in their F1. Another British manufacturer, TVR, took a different approach in their Cerbera model; the interior was designed in such a way that the dashboard on the passenger side swept toward the front of the car, which allowed the passenger to sit farther forward than the driver. This gave the rear seat passenger extra room and made the arrangement suitable for three adult passengers and one child seated behind the driver; some Matra sports cars had three seats squeezed next to each other. The definition of a sports car is not precise, but from the earliest first automobiles "people have found ways to make them go faster, round corners better, look more beautiful" than the ordinary models inspiring an "emotional relationship" with a car, fun to drive and use for the sake of driving; the basis for the sports car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars a
Cycle of the Werewolf
Cycle of the Werewolf is a short horror novel by American writer Stephen King, featuring illustrations by comic-book artist Bernie Wrightson. Each chapter is a short story unto itself, it tells the story of a werewolf haunting a small town as the moon turns full once every month. It was published as a limited-edition hardcover in 1983 by Land of Enchantment, in 1985 as a mass-market trade paperback by Signet. King wrote the screenplay for its film adaptation, Silver Bullet; the book is dedicated to the author Davis Grubb: "In memory of Davis Grubb, all the voices of Glory." Marty Coslaw Marty Coslaw is a 10-year-old paraplegic, he serves as the novella’s protagonist. He hears the werewolf howling in March and is attacked by the beast in July, where he blinds it in one eye with a package of Black Cat firecrackers, he discovers the identity of the creature to be Reverend Lester Lowe in October and kills him with a silver bullet in December. Nan Coslaw Marty’s mother, she tries to treat him as if he were no different from any other 10-year-old boy.
Herman Coslaw Marty’s father, he is uncomfortable interacting with his disabled son, speaking to him in a patronizing voice. He is the coach at Tarker’s Mills High School. Kate Coslaw Marty’s 14-year-old sister, she seems jealous of all the attention Marty gets throughout much of the novella. Grandpa Coslaw Marty’s paternal grandfather, he lives with the family. Marty has a good relationship with his grandfather, described as being the typical grandfather, he is noted for being a heavy sleeper. Uncle Al Marty’s wild-living maternal uncle, he always seems to be in the doghouse with his sister. Al treats Marty better than anyone else in the story, buys him the fireworks Marty uses to blind the werewolf in one eye after the Fourth of July fireworks are cancelled, he supplies Marty with the silver bullets and the gun he uses to kill the beast in December. Reverend Lester Lowe, the werewolf, is first mentioned in the story in April, preaching a sermon about the coming of spring. Around May, he has a dream in which his entire congregation—and himself—transforms into werewolves before he awakens.
The next morning, he finds a custodian, dead on the pulpit at his church. He is seen as a pillar of the community and has been viewed that way for years, coming to call Tarker’s Mills home. Lowe has not been a werewolf his entire life, nor has he been a werewolf since he first arrived in Tarker’s Mills. In fact, he has no idea about how he became a werewolf, but he suspects that it has something to do with some flowers he picked at a cemetery on Sunshine Hill months prior to his first transformation, he went to put them in vases at the church vestry, but they turned black and died before he could finish the quick job. He has no reason to pinpoint this event as the beginning of his curse, but he believes that this was the beginning of the events; as the werewolf, he serves as the primary antagonist of the novella. Lowe comes to realize that he is the werewolf after having awakened with fresh blood on his fingernails and mouth, he discovers his clothes are missing or sometimes finds scratches and bruises, which appear to have come from running through the woods.
The dream in May serves as a further omen to his curse, but he doesn't realize his curse until July 5, when he awakens with his left eye blasted out. After Halloween, he began getting anonymous letters from someone who knows his secret, suspecting that it is the person whom he attacked in July and failed to kill, the person who blasted his left eye out. In November, he acknowledges that he is the werewolf and decides that he cannot risk going out in the woods, as he could be killed by the group of vigilantes who had taken to the woods that month. To avoid the vigilantes, he travels to Portland, where he kills Tarker’s Mills resident Milt Sturmfuller outside a cheap motel. After returning home, he decides to find out whom he attacked in July, confront that person. Marty signs his name to the last letter he sends in December, shortly before the next full moon. Lowe is killed by Marty on New Year’s Eve. Arnie Westrum Arnie is a railroad employee killed sometime in the wee hours of the morning on New Year’s Day in January.
He was snowbound in a blizzard after trying to clear snowdrifts off the tracks which had blocked the trains. Westrum manages to hit the werewolf with a pick axe. Stella Randolph Stella is a virginal seamstress. On Valentine’s Day in February, she sends herself cards from 1980s heartthrobs and longs for a lover, she sees the werewolf watching her from outside her window and lets it in, believing she is dreaming. The werewolf kills Stella in her bed; the drifter A drifter killed on St. Patrick’s Day in March, he is found by an employee of the Electric and Gas Company while searching for downed lines, his body is surrounded by wolf prints. Brady Kincaid Brady Kincaid is an 11-year-old boy killed while flying his kite on April Fool’s Day, he stayed out too late as he became fascinated by it. He is found the next day and disemboweled in the town park. Clyde Corliss Corliss is found dead in the Grace Baptist Church by Reverend Lowe on Homecoming Sunday in May, he had done janitorial work at the church since the late 1970s.
Alfie Knopfler Knopfler is the owner of the town's only diner. He is killed after high-school graduation in June in his diner, he sees the werewolf transform in front of him. Constable Lander Neary Neary is the town constable and is frustrated by his inability to solve the case and by his patronizing treatment by the Maine State Police. Neary reveals that Marty wa
Horror is a genre of speculative fiction, intended to frighten, disgust, or startle its readers by inducing feelings of horror and terror. Literary historian J. A. Cuddon defined the horror story as "a piece of fiction in prose of variable length... which shocks, or frightens the reader, or induces a feeling of repulsion or loathing". It creates an frightening atmosphere. Horror is supernatural, though it can be non-supernatural; the central menace of a work of horror fiction can be interpreted as a metaphor for the larger fears of a society. The horror genre has ancient origins with roots in folklore and religious traditions, focusing on death, the afterlife, the demonic and the principle of the thing embodied in the person; these were manifested in stories of beings such as witches, vampires and ghosts. European horror fiction became established through works by Ancient Romans; the well-known 19th century novel about Frankenstein was influenced by the story of Hippolytus, where Asclepius revives him from death.
Euripides wrote plays based on Hippolytos Kalyptomenos and Hippolytus. Plutarch's "The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans: Cimon describes the spirit of a murderer, who himself was murdered in a bathhouse in Chaeronea. Pliny the Younger tells the tale of Athenodorus Cananites. Athenodorus was cautious. While writing a book on philosophy, he was visited by a spectre bound in chains; the figure disappeared in the courtyard. The earliest recording of an official accusation of Satanism by the Church took place in Toulouse in AD 1022 against a couple of clerics. Werewolf stories were popular in medieval French literature. One of Marie de France's twelve lais is a werewolf story titled "Bisclavret"; the Countess Yolande commissioned a werewolf story titled "Guillaume de Palerme". Anonymous writers penned two werewolf stories, "Biclarel" and "Melion". Much horror fiction derives from the cruellest personages of the 15th century. Dracula can be traced to the Prince of Wallachia Vlad III whose alleged war crimes were published in German pamphlets.
A 1499 pamphlet published by Markus Ayrer is most notable for its woodcut imagery. The alleged serial killer spree of Giles de Rais have been seen as the inspiration for "Bluebeard"; the motif of the vampiress is most notably derived from the real life noblewoman and murderess, Elizabeth Bathory, helped usher in the emergence of horror fiction in the 18th century, such as through László Turóczi's 1729 book Tragica Historia. The 18th century saw the gradual development of the Gothic horror genre, it drew on the written and material heritage of the Late Middle Ages, finding its form with Horace Walpole's seminal and controversial 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto. In fact, the first edition was published disguised as an actual medieval romance from Italy and republished by a fictitious translator. Once revealed as modern, many found it anachronistic, reactionary, or in poor taste — but it proved popular. Otranto inspired Vathek by William Beckford, A Sicilian Romance, The Mysteries of Udolpho and The Italian by Ann Radcliffe and The Monk by Matthew Lewis.
A significant amount of horror fiction of this era was written by women and marketed towards a female audience, a typical scenario being a resourceful female menaced in a gloomy castle. The Gothic tradition blossomed into the genre modern readers call horror literature in the 19th century. Influential works and characters that continue resonating in fiction and film today saw their genesis in the Brothers Grimm's "Hänsel und Gretel", Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Washington Irving's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Jane C. Loudon's "The Mummy!: Or a Tale of the Twenty-Second Century", Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Thomas Peckett Prest's Varney the Vampire, Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter, the works of Edgar Allan Poe, the works of Sheridan Le Fanu, Robert Louis Stevenson's Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray, H. G. Wells' The Invisible Man, Bram Stoker's Dracula; each of these works created an enduring icon of horror seen in re-imaginings on the page and screen.
A proliferation of cheap periodicals around turn of the century led to a boom in horror writing. For example, Gaston Leroux serialized his Le Fantôme de l'Opéra before it was a novel in 1910. One writer who specialized in horror fiction for mainstream pulps such as All-Story Magazine was Tod Robbins, whose fiction deals with themes of madness and cruelty. Specialist publications emerged to give horror writers an outlet, prominent among them Weird Tales and Unknown Worlds. Influential horror writers of the early 20th century made inroads in these mediums; the venerated horror author H. P. Lovecraft, his enduring Cthulhu Mythos pioneered the genre of cosmic horror, M. R. James is credited with redefining the ghost story in that era; the serial murderer became a recurring theme. Yellow journalism and sensationalism of various murderers, such as Jack the Ripper, lesser so, Carl Panzram, Fritz Haarman, Albert Fish, all perpetuated this phenomenon; the trend continued in the postwar era renewed after the murders committed by Ed Gein.
In 1959, Robert Bloch, inspired by the murders, wrote Psycho. The crimes committed in 1969 by the Manson family influenced the slasher theme in horror fiction of the 1970s. In 1981, Thomas Harris wrote Red Dragon. In 1988, the sequel to tha