The Pepsi Challenge is an ongoing marketing promotion run by PepsiCo since 1975. It is the name of a cross country ski race at Giant's Ridge Ski Area in Biwabik, Minnesota, an event sponsored by Pepsi; the challenge took the form of a single blind taste test. At malls, shopping centers, other public locations, a Pepsi representative sets up a table with two white cups: one containing Pepsi and one with Coca-Cola. Shoppers are encouraged to taste both colas, select which drink they prefer; the representative reveals the two bottles so the taster can see whether they preferred Coke or Pepsi. The results of the test leaned toward a consensus. In his book Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking, author Malcolm Gladwell presents evidence that suggests Pepsi's success over Coca-Cola in the "Pepsi Challenge" is a result of the flawed nature of the "sip test" method, his research shows that tasters will prefer the sweeter of two beverages based on a single sip if they prefer a less sweet beverage over the course of an entire can.
When the preference in blind tests is compared to tests wherein cups are labeled with arbitrary labels or brand names, the ratings of preference change. Scientific findings do support a perceptible difference between Coca-Cola and Pepsi, but not between Pepsi and RC Cola. In his book, Bad Habits, humorist Dave Barry describes the Pepsi challenge as, "Pepsi’s ongoing misguided attempt to convince the general public that Coke and Pepsi are not the same thing, which of course they are." In 1981, Pepsi ran a "Pepsi Challenge Payoff" contest that would hand out a large prize to anyone who could gather Pepsi bottle caps that spelled out the words "Pepsi Challenge". Cola Wars New Coke Pepsi Stuff Koenigs, M. Tranel, D.. Prefrontal cortex damage abolishes brand-cued changes in cola preference. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3, 1-6. Pronko, N. H. Herman, D. T.. Identification of cola beverages. IV. Postscript. Journal of Applied Psychology, 34, 68-69. Woolfolk, ME. "Pepsi versus Coke: Labels, not tastes, prevail".
Psychological Reports. 52: 185–186. Doi:10.2466/pr0.19220.127.116.11. Archived from the original on 2006-09-14. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown
Gary Anthony James Webb, known professionally as Gary Numan, is an English singer, songwriter and record producer. Born in West London, he first entered the music industry as frontman of the new wave band Tubeway Army. After releasing two albums with the band, Numan released his debut solo LP The Pleasure Principle in 1979, topping the UK Albums Chart, he achieved his peak of mainstream popularity in the late 1970s and early 1980s with the No. 1 singles "Are'Friends' Electric?" and "Cars", but maintains a cult following. Numan is considered a pioneer of commercial electronic music, his signature sound consists of heavy synthesiser hooks fed through guitar effects pedals, he is known for his distinctive voice and androgynous "android" persona. In 2017 he received an Ivor Novello Award, the Inspiration Award, from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors. Gary Anthony James Webb was born on 8 March 1958 in Hammersmith, West London, the son of a British Airways bus driver based at Heathrow Airport.
He was educated at Town Farm Junior School in Stanwell, Ashford County Grammar School Slough Grammar School in Berkshire, followed by Brooklands Technical College in Surrey. He joined the Air Training Corps as a teenager, he briefly held various jobs including forklift truck driver, air conditioning ventilator fitter, accounts clerk. When Numan was 15 years old, his father bought him a Gibson Les Paul, which he regards as his most treasured possession, he played in various bands, including Mean Street and the Lasers, before forming Tubeway Army with his uncle, Jess Lidyard, Paul Gardiner. His initial pseudonym was "Valerian" in reference to the hero in French science fiction comic series Valérian and Laureline, he picked the surname "Numan" from an advert in the Yellow pages for a plumber whose surname was "Neumann". Numan came to prominence at the mid of the 1970s as lead singer and record producer for Tubeway Army. After recording an album's worth of punk-influenced demo tapes, he was signed by Beggars Banquet Records in 1978 and released two singles, "That's Too Bad" and "Bombers", neither of which charted.
A self-titled, new wave-oriented debut album that same year sold out its limited run and introduced Numan's fascination with dystopian science fiction and synthesisers. Tubeway Army's third single, the dark-themed and slow-paced "Down in the Park" failed to chart, but it would prove to be one of Numan's most enduring and oft-covered songs, it was featured with other contemporary hits on the soundtrack for the 1980 film Times Square, a live version of the song can be seen in the 1982 film Urgh! A Music War. Following exposure in a television advertisement for Lee Cooper jeans with the jingle "Don't Be a Dummy", Tubeway Army released the single "Are'Friends' Electric?" in May 1979. The single took seven weeks before reaching No. 1 at the end of June. A few months Numan found success in the charts on both sides of the Atlantic with "Cars", which peaked at No. 1 in the UK in 1979, No. 1 in Canada and No. 9 in the U. S. in 1980. "Cars" and the 1979 album The Pleasure Principle were both released under Numan's own stage name.
The album reached number-one in the UK, a sell-out tour followed. The Pleasure Principle was a rock album with no guitars. A second single from the album, "Complex", made it to No. 6 on the UK Singles Chart. In 1980, Numan topped the album charts for a third time with Telekon, with the singles "We Are Glass", "I Die: You Die" released prior to the album reaching No. 5 and No. 6. "This Wreckage" taken from the album in December entered the Top 20. Telekon, the final studio album that Numan retrospectively termed the "Machine" section of his career, reintroduced guitars to Numan's music and featured a wider range of synthesisers; the same year he embarked on his second major tour with an more elaborate stage show than the Touring Principle the previous year. He announced his retirement from touring with a series of sell-out concerts at Wembley Arena in April 1981, supported by experimental musician Nash the Slash and Shock, a rock/mime/burlesque troupe whose members included Barbie Wilde and Tok, Carole Caplin.
A live two album set from the 1979 and 1980 tours released at this time reached No. 2 in the charts. Both albums individually released as Living Ornaments'79 and Living Ornaments'80 charted; the decision to retire would be short-lived. Departing from the pure electropop that he had been associated with, Numan began experimenting with jazz and ethereal, rhythmic pop, his first album after his 1981 farewell concerts was Dance. The album charted as high as No. 3 on the UK charts, with an eight-week chart run and produced one hit single reaching No. 6. The album featured several distinguished guest players. With his former backing band, Chris Payne, Russell Bell, Ced Sharpley now reformed as Dramatis, Numan contributed vocals to the minor hit "Love Needs No Disguise" from the album For Future Reference and lent vocals to the first single release by his long-term bassist Paul Gardiner, "Stormtrooper in Drag", which made the charts. However, Numan's career had begun to experience a gradual decline, he was eclipsed by acts s
John Joseph Travolta is an American actor, film producer and singer. Travolta first became known in the 1970s, appearing on the television series Welcome Back and starring in the box office successes Saturday Night Fever and Grease, his acting career declined through the 1980s, but enjoyed a resurgence in the 1990s with his role in Pulp Fiction, he has since starred in films such as Get Shorty, Broken Arrow, Face/Off, Swordfish, Be Cool, Wild Hogs and The Taking of Pelham 123. Travolta was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor for performances in Saturday Night Fever and Pulp Fiction, he won his first and only Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy for his performance in Get Shorty and has received a total of six nominations, the most recent being in 2011. In 2010, he received the IIFA Award for Outstanding Achievement in International Cinema. In 2016, Travolta received his first Primetime Emmy Award, as a producer of the first season of the anthology series American Crime Story, subtitled The People v. O. J. Simpson.
He received an additional Emmy nomination and a Golden Globe nomination for his portrayal of lawyer Robert Shapiro in the series. Travolta, the youngest of six children, was born and raised in Englewood, New Jersey, an inner-ring suburb of Bergen County, New Jersey, his father, Salvatore Travolta, was a semi-professional American football player turned tire salesman and partner in a tire company. His mother, Helen Cecilia, was an actress and singer who had appeared in The Sunshine Sisters, a radio vocal group, acted and directed before becoming a high school drama and English teacher, his siblings, Ellen, Ann and Sam Travolta, inspired by their mother's love of theatre and drama, have all acted. His father was a second-generation Italian American and his mother was Irish American, he was raised Roman Catholic, but converted to Scientology in 1975. Travolta attended Dwight Morrow High School, but dropped out as a junior at age 17 in 1971. After attending Dwight Morrow High School, Travolta moved across the Hudson River to New York City and landed a role in the touring company of the musical Grease and on Broadway in Over Here!, singing the Sherman Brothers' song "Dream Drummin'".
He moved to Los Angeles for professional reasons. Travolta's first screen role in California was as a fall victim in Emergency!, in September 1972, but his first significant movie role was as Billy Nolan, a bully, goaded into playing a prank on Sissy Spacek's character in the horror film Carrie. Around the same time, he landed his star-making role as Vinnie Barbarino in the TV sitcom Welcome Back, Kotter, in which his sister, Ellen occasionally appeared; the show aired on ABC. Travolta had a hit single titled "Let Her In", peaking at number 10 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in July 1976. In the next few years, he starred in The Boy in the Plastic Bubble and two of his most noted screen roles: Tony Manero in Saturday Night Fever and Danny Zuko in Grease; the films were among the most commercially successful pictures of the decade and catapulted Travolta to international stardom. Saturday Night Fever earned him an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor, making him, at age 24, one of the youngest performers nominated for the Best Actor Oscar.
His mother and his sister Ann appeared briefly in Saturday Night Fever and his sister Ellen played a waitress in Grease. Travolta performed several of the songs on the Grease soundtrack album. In 1980, Travolta inspired a nationwide country music craze that followed on the heels of his hit film Urban Cowboy, in which he starred with Debra Winger. After Urban Cowboy, Travolta starred in a series of commercial and critical failures that sidelined his acting career; these included Two of a Kind, a romantic comedy reteaming him with Olivia Newton-John, Perfect, co-starring Jamie Lee Curtis. He starred in Staying Alive, the 1983 sequel to Saturday Night Fever, for which he trained rigorously and lost 20 pounds. During that time Travolta was offered, but declined, lead roles in what would become box-office hits, including American Gigolo and An Officer and a Gentleman, both of which went to Richard Gere. In 1989, Travolta starred with Kirstie Alley in Look Who's Talking, which grossed $297 million making it his most successful film since Grease.
Next came Look Who's Talking Too and Look Who's Talking Now but it was not until he played Vincent Vega in Quentin Tarantino's hit Pulp Fiction, for which he received an Academy Award nomination, that his career revived. The movie shifted him back onto the A-list, he was inundated with offers. Notable roles following Pulp Fiction include a movie-buff loan shark in Get Shorty, a corrupt US air force pilot in Broken Arrow, an FBI agent and terrorist in Face/Off, a desperate attorney in A Civil Action, a Bill Clinton-esque presidential candidate in Primary Colors, a military investigator in The General's Daughter. In 2000, Travolta starred in and co-produced the science fiction film Battlefield Earth, based on the novel of the same name by L. Ron Hubbard, in which he played the leader of a group of aliens that enslaves humanity on a bleak future Earth; the film had been a dream project for Travolta since the book's release in 1982, when Hubbard had written him to try to
Sir James Paul McCartney is an English singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, composer. He gained worldwide fame as the bass guitarist and singer for the rock band the Beatles considered the most popular and influential group in the history of popular music, his songwriting partnership with John Lennon remains the most successful in history. After the group disbanded in 1970, he pursued a solo career and formed the band Wings with his first wife and Denny Laine. McCartney is one of performers of all time. More than 2,200 artists have covered his Beatles song "Yesterday", making it one of the most covered songs in popular music history. Wings' 1977 release "Mull of Kintyre" is one of the all-time best-selling singles in the UK. A two-time inductee into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, an 18-time Grammy Award winner, McCartney has written, or co-written, 32 songs that have reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100, as of 2009 he had 25.5 million RIAA-certified units in the United States. McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr all received appointment as Members of the Order of the British Empire in 1965 and, in 1997, McCartney was knighted for services to music.
McCartney is one of the wealthiest musicians in the world, with an estimated net worth of US$1.2 billion. McCartney has released an extensive catalogue of songs as a solo artist and has composed classical and electronic music, he has taken part in projects to promote international charities related to such subjects as animal rights, seal hunting, land mines, vegetarianism and music education. He is the father of five children. James Paul McCartney was born on 18 June 1942 in Walton Hospital, England, where his mother, Mary Patricia, had qualified to practise as a nurse, his father, James McCartney, was absent from his son's birth due to his work as a volunteer firefighter during World War II. McCartney has one younger brother named a stepsister, Ruth; the children were baptised in their mother's Catholic faith though their father was a former Protestant, who had turned agnostic. Religion was not emphasised in the household. McCartney attended Stockton Wood Road Primary School in Speke from 1947 until 1949, when he transferred to Joseph Williams Junior School in Belle Vale because of overcrowding at Stockton.
In 1953, with only three others out of ninety examinees, he passed the 11-Plus exam, meaning he could attend the Liverpool Institute, a grammar school rather than a secondary modern school. In 1954, he met schoolmate George Harrison on the bus from his suburban home in Speke; the two became friends. McCartney's mother, was a midwife and the family's primary wage earner, she rode a bicycle to her patients. On 31 October 1956, when McCartney was 14, his mother died of an embolism. McCartney's loss became a point of connection with John Lennon, whose mother, had died when he was 17. McCartney's father was a trumpet pianist, who had led Jim Mac's Jazz Band in the 1920s, he kept an upright piano in the front room, encouraged his sons to be musical and advised McCartney to take piano lessons. However, McCartney preferred to learn by ear; when McCartney was 11, his father encouraged him to audition for the Liverpool Cathedral choir, but he was not accepted. McCartney joined the choir at St Barnabas' Church, Mossley Hill.
McCartney received a nickel-plated trumpet from his father for his fourteenth birthday, but when rock and roll became popular on Radio Luxembourg, McCartney traded it for a £15 Framus Zenith acoustic guitar, since he wanted to be able to sing while playing. He found it difficult to play guitar right-handed, but after noticing a poster advertising a Slim Whitman concert and realising that Whitman played left-handed, he reversed the order of the strings. McCartney wrote his first song, "I Lost My Little Girl", on the Zenith, composed another early tune that would become "When I'm Sixty-Four" on the piano. American rhythm and blues influenced him, Little Richard was his schoolboy idol. At the age of fifteen on 6 July 1957, McCartney met John Lennon and his band, the Quarrymen, at the St Peter's Church Hall fête in Woolton; the Quarrymen played a mix of rock and roll and skiffle, a type of popular music with jazz and folk influences. Soon afterwards, the members of the band invited McCartney to join as a rhythm guitarist, he formed a close working relationship with Lennon.
Harrison joined in 1958 as lead guitarist, followed by Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe on bass, in 1960. By May 1960 the band had tried several names, including Johnny and the Moondogs and the Silver Beetles, they adopted the name the Beatles in August 1960 and recruited drummer Pete Best shortly before a five-engagement residency in Hamburg. The Beatles were informally represented by Allan Williams. In 1961, Sutcliffe left McCartney reluctantly became their bass player. While in Hamburg, they recorded professionally for the first time and were credited as the Beat Brothers, who were the backing band for English singer Tony Sheridan on the single "My Bonnie"; this resulted in attention from Brian Epstein, w
Alan Thicke was a Canadian actor, comedian and talk show host. He is the father of singer Robin Thicke. In 2013, Thicke was inducted into Canada's Walk of Fame. Thicke was best known for playing Dr. Jason Seaver on the 1980s sitcom Growing Pains. Thicke died on December 13, 2016, in the Providence Saint Joseph Medical Center in Burbank, California, U. S. Thicke was born on March 1, 1947, in Kirkland Lake, the son of Shirley "Joan" Isobel Marie, a nurse, William Jeffrey, a stockbroker, they divorced in 1953. His mother remarried to Brian Thicke, a physician, they moved to Elliot Lake. Alan Thicke graduated from Elliot Lake Secondary School in 1965, was elected homecoming king, he went on to attend the University of Western Ontario, where he joined the Delta Upsilon fraternity. Thicke hosted a Canadian game show on CFCF-TV in Montreal called First Impressions in the late 1970s and the Saturday morning celebrity game show Animal Crack-Ups in the late 1980s. In 1997, he hosted a television version of the board game Pictionary.
In the early 2000s, he hosted. Norman Lear hired Thicke to produce and head the writing staff of Fernwood 2 Night, a tongue-in-cheek talk show based on characters from Lear's earlier show, Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman. In the late 1970s, he was a frequent guest host of The Alan Hamel Show, a popular daytime talk show on Canadian TV hosted by Alan Hamel; when the Hamel series ended in the early 1980s, it was replaced by The Alan Thicke Show. The show at one point spawned a prime-time spinoff, Prime Cuts, which consisted of edited highlights from the talk show. Thicke was signed to do an American syndicated late-night talk show, Thicke of the Night. Promoted prior to broadcast as a competitor to NBC's The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, Thicke of the Night was short-lived. In 2014 and 2015 Thicke hosted a traveling dance show Dancing Pros Live which toured the United States. Thicke had a successful career as a TV theme song composer collaborating with his then-wife Gloria Loring on these projects, which included the themes to the popular sitcoms Diff'rent Strokes and The Facts of Life.
He wrote a number of TV game show themes, including The Wizard of Odds, The Joker's Wild, Celebrity Sweepstakes, The Diamond Head Game, Animal Crack-Ups, Blank Check, Stumpers!, Whew!, the original theme to Wheel of Fortune. Thicke was a popular songwriter, he co-wrote "Sara", a solo included on the latter's Runaway album. Thicke produced a variety of television shows, including Anne Murray Christmas specials for the CBC, beginning in the late 1970s. Thicke played a psychiatrist and father, on the family sitcom Growing Pains; when the show began, Jason was moving his psychiatry practice into the home to be closer to the family's children while the family matriarch Maggie, played by Joanna Kerns, resumed her career as a reporter. Growing Pains debuted on ABC in 1985 and ran until 1992. Thicke reprised his role in two reunion TV movies, The Growing Pains Movie and Growing Pains: Return of the Seavers. Thicke co-hosted the Walt Disney World Very Merry Christmas Parade with Joan Lunden from 1983 to 1990, when he was succeeded by Regis Philbin.
Thicke hosted the Crystal Light National Aerobic Championship from 1987 to 1988. In 1988, he hosted the Miss USA Pageant in El Paso, replacing Bob Barker, he replaced Barker again as host of the 1988 Miss Universe Pageant in Taiwan. Thicke was replaced by Dick Clark as host of the 1989 Miss USA Pageant in Mobile, Alabama and by John Forsythe as host of the 1989 Miss Universe Pageant in Cancún, Mexico. Thicke continued hosting a wide range of variety TV events. In 1989 he co-hosted with SCTV alumnus Andrea Martin the TV special Opening of SkyDome in Toronto, which aired across Canada on the CBC. In 2004, he hosted the Miss Universe Canada Pageant in Ontario. In 1992, Thicke appeared as himself in the pilot episode of the sitcom Hangin' with Mr. Cooper, he appeared in the end-credits scene, alongside series star Mark Curry, humorously referencing the pilot episode being filmed on the same set used as the Seavers' home on Growing Pains. Thicke appeared on the American television series Hope & Gloria, which ran for 35 episodes.
He played a lead role in the Not Quite Human trilogy of made-for-TV movies. In April 2006, he hosted Celebrity Cooking Showdown on NBC, in which celebrities were teamed with famous chefs in a cooking competition. In August 2006 and 2007, Thicke made a few appearances as talk show host Rich Ginger on The Bold and the Beautiful. Thicke makes a cameo appearance in the 2007 movie Alpha Dog as the father of the lead character's girlfriend. In 2008, Thicke appeared in a major supporting role as Jim Jarlewski in the television series adaptation of Douglas Coupland's jPod; that same year, he had a cameo appearance in the How I Met Your Mother episode "Sandcastles in the Sand" as the dad in Robin Scherbatsky's second "Robin Sparkles" music video. He guest starred as himself in the episodes "The Rough Patch", "Glitter", "P. S. I Love You", "The Rehearsal Dinner". In February 2009, Thicke made a guest appearance on Adult Swim's Tim and Eric Awesome Show, Great Job. In the same month, he made a guest appearance on the web series Star-ving.
He had a role in the 2009 film, The Goods: Live Hard, Sell Hard. On July 10, 2009, Thicke appeared on the 1000th episode of Attack of the Show!, he sang a song with Kevin Pereira and Olivi
The Intellivision is a home video game console released by Mattel Electronics in 1979. The name Intellivision is a portmanteau of "intelligent television". Development of the console began in 1977, the same year as the introduction of its main competitor, the Atari 2600. In 1984 Mattel sold their video game assets to a former Mattel Electronics executive and investors that would become INTV Corporation. Games development continued until 1990 when the Intellivision was discontinued. From 1980 to 1983 over 3 million Intellivision units were sold. In 2009, video game website IGN named the Intellivision the No. 14 greatest video game console of all time. It remained Mattel's only video game console until the release of the HyperScan in 2006; the Intellivision was developed at Mattel in Hawthorne, California along with their Mattel Electronics line of handheld electronic games. Mattel's Design and Development group began investigating a home video game system in 1977, it was to have long lasting gameplay to distinguish itself from its competitors.
Mattel identified a new but expensive chipset from National Semiconductor and negotiated better pricing for a simpler design. Their consultant, APh Technological Consulting, suggested a General Instrument chipset, listed as the Gimini programmable set in the GI 1977 catalog; the GI chipset lacked Mattel worked with GI to implement changes. GI published an updated chipset in its 1978 catalog. After choosing National in August 1977, Mattel waited for two months before going with the proposed GI chipset in the fall of 1977. A team at Mattel, headed by David Chandler began engineering the hardware, including the famous hand controllers. In 1978, David Rolfe of APh developed the executive control software and, with a group of Caltech summer student hires, programmed the first games. Graphics were designed by a group of artists at Mattel led by Dave James; the Intellivision was test marketed in Fresno, California in 1979 with a total of four games available. It was released nationwide in 1980 with a price tag of US$299, a pack-in game: Las Vegas Poker & Blackjack and a library of ten cartridges.
Mattel Electronics would become a subsidiary in 1981. Though not the first system to challenge Warner Communications's Atari, it was the first to pose a serious threat to the market leader. A series of advertisements featuring George Plimpton were produced that demonstrated the superiority of the Intellivision's graphics and sound to those of the Atari 2600, using side-by-side game comparisons. One of the slogans of the television advertisements stated that Intellivision was "the closest thing to the real thing"; the other console's games had a blip sound and cruder graphics, while the Intellivision featured a realistic swing sound and striking of the ball, graphics that suggested a more 3D look. There was an advertisement comparing the Atari 2600 to it, featuring the slogan "I didn't know". In its first year, Mattel sold out its initial 175,000 production run of Intellivision "Master Components". In 1981, over one million Intellivision consoles were sold, five times as many as in 1980; the Intellivision Master Component was distributed by various companies.
Before Mattel shifted manufacturing to Hong Kong, Mattel Intellivisions were manufactured by GTE Sylvania. GTE Sylvania Intellivisions were produced along with Mattel's, with the brand name the only differentiation; the Sears Super Video Arcade, manufactured by Mattel in Hong Kong, has a restyled beige top cover and detachable controllers. The Sears Intellivision modified the default titlescreen by removing the "Mattel Electronics" captioning. In 1982 Radio Shack marketed the Tandyvision One, similar to the original Intellivision but with the gold plates replaced with more wood trim. In Japan Intellivisions were branded by Bandai in 1982, in Brazil there were Digimed and Digiplay Intellivisions manufactured by Sharp in 1983. Inside every Intellivision is 4K of ROM containing the Exec software, it provides two benefits: reusable code that can make a 4K cartridge an 8K game, a software framework for new programmers to develop games more and quickly. It allows other programmers to more review and continue another's project.
Under the supervision of David Rolfe and graphics supplied by Mattel artist Dave James, APh was able to create the Intellivision launch title library using summer students. The drawback is that to be flexible and handle many different types of games the Exec runs less efficiently than a dedicated program. Intellivision games that leverage the Exec run at a 20 Hz frame rate instead of the 60 Hz frame rate for which the Intellivision was designed. Using the Exec framework is optional, but all Intellivision games released by Mattel Electronics are 20 Hz; the limited ROM space meant there was no room for computer artificial intelligence and many early games required two players. All Intellivision games were programmed by the outside firm, APh Technological Consulting, with 19 cartridges produced before Christmas 1980. Once the Intellivision project became successful, software development would be brought in-house. Mattel formed its own software development group and began hiring programmers; the original five members of that Intellivision team were Mike Minkoff, Rick Levine, John Sohl, Don Daglow, manager Gabriel Baum.
Levine and Minkoff, a long-time Mattel Toys veteran, both came over from the hand-held Mattel games engineering team. During 1981 Mattel hired programmers as fast it could. Early in 1982 Mattel Electronics relocated from Mattel headquarters to an unused industrial building. Office renovation work happened as n
Xanadu is a 1980 American musical and fantasy film written by Richard Christian Danus and Marc Reid Rubel and directed by Robert Greenwald. The title is a reference to the nightclub in the film, which takes its name from Xanadu, the summer capital of Kublai Khan's Yuan Dynasty in China; this city appears in Kubla Khan by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, a poem, quoted in the film. The film is a remake of the film. Xanadu stars Olivia Newton-John, Gene Kelly and Michael Beck, features music by Newton-John, Electric Light Orchestra, Cliff Richard and The Tubes; the film features animation by Don Bluth. A box office flop, Xanadu earned mixed to negative critical reviews and was an inspiration for the creation of the Golden Raspberry Awards to recognize the worst films of the year. Despite the lackluster performance of the film, the soundtrack album became a huge commercial success around the world, was certified double platinum in the United States; the song "Magic" was a U. S. number one hit for Newton-John, the title track reached number one in the United Kingdom and several other countries around the world.
The film has since become a cult classic for the way it mixes the storyline from an old-fashioned 1940s fantasy with modern aesthetics featuring late 1970s rock and pop music on the soundtrack as well as for fans of Newton-John. The film opens with a large mural of the Nine Muses of Olympus coming to life, with the women emerging from the painting and flying into the sky. One of them returns to Earth. Sonny Malone is a talented artist who dreams of fame beyond his job, the non-creative task of painting larger versions of album covers for record-store window advertisements; as the film opens, Sonny is broke and on the verge of giving up his dream. Having quit his day job to try to make a living as a freelance artist, but having failed to make any money at it, Sonny returns to his old job at AirFlo Records. After some humorous run-ins with his imperious boss and nemesis Simpson, he resumes painting record covers. At work, Sonny is told to paint an album cover for a group called The Nine Sisters.
The cover features a beautiful woman in front of an art deco auditorium. Earlier that day, this same woman had collided with him, kissed him roller-skated away. Malone now discovers that no one knows who she is, he finds her at the same auditorium, now abandoned. She identifies herself as Kira. Unbeknownst to Sonny, Kira is one of the Muses. Walking near the beach, Sonny befriends Daniel "Danny" McGuire, a has-been big band orchestra leader turned construction mogul. Danny lost his muse in the 1940s, Sonny has not yet found his muse. Kira encourages the two men to form a partnership and open a nightclub at the old auditorium from the album cover, she falls in love with Sonny, this presents a problem because she is an Olympian Muse. The other eight women from the beginning of the film are her sisters and fellow goddesses, the Muses, the mural is a portal of sorts and their point of entry to Earth; when Sonny finds out that Kira is a muse, he gets upset. In a conversation between Danny and Kira it becomes apparent that Kira was Danny's muse years ago and that Danny had fallen in love with Kira, but when Danny discovered that Kira was a muse he had walked away from her, abandoned his music, went into construction, which he had always regretted.
Now Danny counsels Sonny not to be alone and regretful like he has become and to pursue his muse, telling him that if Kira can visit Earth, there must be a way Sonny can visit Kira's home, a forbidden place called Xanadu. Sonny realizes that the mural on the wall of the muses is a portal to Xanadu and he crashes through the portal by roller skating at high speed into the mural; the Muses visit Earth to help inspire others to pursue their dreams and desires, but in Kira's case, she has violated the rules by which Muses are supposed to conduct themselves, as she was only supposed to inspire Sonny but has ended up falling in love with him as well. Her parents the Greek gods Zeus and Mnemosyne, recall her to the timeless realm of the Olympian gods. Sonny professes his love for her. A short debate between Sonny and Zeus occurs, with Mnemosyne interceding on behalf of Kira and Sonny. Kira herself enters the discussion, saying the emotions she has toward Sonny are new to her. Zeus sends Sonny back to Earth.
After Kira expresses her feelings for Sonny and Mnemosyne decide to let Kira go to him for a "moment, or maybe forever." They cannot keep these straight because mortal time confuses them, the audience is left to wonder what her fate is to be. In the finale and the Muses perform for a packed house at Xanadu's grand opening, after the final song and the Muses all return to the realm of the gods in spectacular fashion. With their departure, Sonny is understandably depressed, but that changes when Danny asks for a drink for Sonny from one of the waitresses -- a waitress who looks like Kira. Sonny says he would just like to talk to her; the film ends with the two of them talking, in silhouette, as the credits begin