A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Oh My God (Kaiser Chiefs song)
"Oh My God" is a song by the English indie rock band the Kaiser Chiefs. It was released as their debut single by the Drowned In Sound label on 17 May 2004, reaching number 66 on the UK Singles Chart, it was re-released on 21 February 2005, just two weeks before the release of their debut album Employment. This time, it peaked at number six on the UK Singles Chart, which earned the band their first top 10 hit, as well as their highest-charting single at the time until it was succeeded by UK chart-topper "Ruby" on 25 February 2007; the song appeared on the soundtrack for the video game Driver: Parallel Lines. The original single release, now a rarity due to its limited run of 500 copies, features artwork by frontman Ricky Wilson, its B-sides were earlier versions of "Born to Be a Dancer" and "Caroline, Yes", both of which would appear on Employment. All of these tracks are different, earlier versions of the album editions. "Oh My God" "Born to Be a Dancer" "Caroline, Yes" 7" "Oh My God" "Brightest Star"CD "Oh My God" "Think About You"Mexican CD "Oh My God" "Hard Times Send Me" "Born To Be A Dancer" "Oh My God" In 2006, "Oh My God" was covered by Lily Allen on her second mixtape.
Allen re-recorded the track with Mark Ronson for his second studio album Version, went on to become the second single release from the album that same year. The single was number eight on the UK Singles Chart, it was released as the album's first single in Brazil, due to Lily Allen's success in that country. The music video was directed by Nima Nourizadeh, features a cartoon version of Allen performing the song and flirting in the Ink and Paint Club; the Kaiser Chiefs themselves make a cameo. Of notice is that, in the video, "Lily Allen" is the only toon present. Most of the toons that worked at the club have been replaced by real people; when Ronson performed at the BBC Electric Proms in 2007, Allen had been the intended singer of the song but cancelled at the last minute. Rather than not perform the song, Ricky Wilson, performing with the Kaiser Chiefs the next day, stepped in. Ronson and Wilson performed the song again on the last Friday Night with Jonathan Ross of 2007, which featured Candie Payne.
Daniel Merriweather, who appears on Ronson's debut single "Stop Me" has a cameo in this video. UK CD Single "Oh My God" "Oh My God" "Oh My God" "Pistol Of Fire"10" Vinyl "Oh My God" "Oh My God" European CD Single "Oh My God" "Oh My God" "Oh My God" "Oh My God" "Oh My God" "Oh My God" Digital Download "Oh My God" "Oh My God" "Oh My God" "Oh My God" "Oh My God" "Oh My God" "Pistol of Fire" Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Alexander Ridha, better known by his stage name Boys Noize, is a German electronic music producer and DJ. It is similar to the name of Ridha's label, Boysnoize Records, which he established in 2005. Ridha has remixed a number including Snoop Dogg and Depeche Mode. Ridha started producing and DJing from an early age, including a period in which he supported Felix Da Housecat and DJ Hell under the alias of Kid Alex. He's been anointed one of the "Top 10 DJ's Who Rule The World" by Rolling Stone, elected “Best Electronic Act” by Beatport 3 years in a row, awarded with the Independent Music Award in 2010, his music is known to merge various styles, with influences of hip-hop and disco roots as well as heavy noise and electro house sounds. Ridha released his early work on labels such as International Deejay Gigolos Records, Kitsuné Music and Turbo Recordings, he established Boysnoize Records in 2005. He remixed David Lynch, N. E. R. D, Depeche Mode, Snoop Dogg, Daft Punk and The Chemical Brothers amongst many other well-known artists and became a producer of note, having worked with Kelis, UK rapper Kano, The Black Eyed Peas, the South Korean band BIGBANG and has collaborated with the New York band Scissor Sisters on their album "Only The Horses".
Chilly Gonzales' "Ivory Tower" is his first produced and co-written album, released in August 2010. He has further collaborated with Erol Alkan: the first record "Death Suite" / "Waves" was released on Ridha's imprint BNR, followed by "Lemonade" / "Avalanche", which came out on Erol's label Phantasy Sound. In October 2010, the first release of the newly launched sublabel BNR TRAX was presented. In 2012, Boys Noize released his third studio album, Out of the Black. In 2012, Boys Noize formed a side project with Skrillex called Dog Blood, in the Electro genre. Dog Blood performed at the 2013 Miami Ultra Music Festival. Boysnoize Records celebrated its 100th release in 2013, with electronic dance heavyweights as The Chemical Brothers & Justice remixing BOYS NOIZE's "XTC" & "ICH R U". In 2014, Boys Noize did the music composition for a German movie named -- No System Is Safe. Ridha collaborated with Chilly Gonzales to form Octave Minds; the self-titled debut album was released on BNR with track premieres on Pitchfork Dazed & Confused and Fader.
Besides the album features a track called "Tap Dance", which features Chance the Rapper & the Social Experiment. Boys Noize released his "Go Hard" EP in a # 1 album release on Beatport. In August 2015 it was announced that Ridha had collaborated with Jean-Michel Jarre on the track "The Time Machine" from the album Electronica 1: The Time Machine. In 2016, Boys Noize released his fourth studio album, which included collaborations with Benga, Remy Banks, Poliça, Hudson Mohawke, Spank Rock, he described it as " signal against blind categorization and conformist synchronization", "a call for individuality and diversity", "a tribute to outsiders". It peaked at number 8 on Billboard's Top Dance/Electronic Albums chart. Bugged Out! Presents Suck My Deck I Love Techno 2008 Radio Soulwax Mix Mixmag Presents Electro Techno Thunder! South West Four Clapham Festival Preview FABRICLIVE 72: Boys Noize BNR10YR Bang Mix Official website Boys Noize discography at Discogs Boys Noize on Twitter
Employment is the debut studio album by English indie rock band Kaiser Chiefs, released in March 2005 on B-Unique Records. Employment takes its inspirations from the Britpop and new wave movements, 1970s-era punk rock and Beach Boys-esque West Coast music; the album charted at number three in the UK Albums Chart on 13 March 2005, but charted at number two a year after its release, due to the band's success at the Brit Awards. Employment went on to become the fourth best-selling album in the United Kingdom that year, it was Kaiser Chiefs themselves. According to Street he had been introduced to Nick Hodgson after an Ordinary Boys gig in which Kaiser Chiefs were the support act. Hodgson said that they would love to work with him; the band's new label B-Unique suggested. In mid-August 2004 they visited the producer at a basement studio space at Olympic Studios he was renting with engineer Cenzo Townsend and recorded "I Predict a Riot". According to manager James Sandom in an interview with HitQuarters, the album was recorded in a rush because the band were under tight time constraints and touring at the time.
As a result, they did not have enough time to get to relax in his company. The motorbike that appears at the beginning of "Saturday Night" is owned and'played' by Graham Coxon; the sleeve notes read "Graham Coxon's motorbike, appears courtesy of Transcopic Records". "Caroline, Yes" is named in reference to The Beach Boys' song "Caroline, No". The track's original working title was called "Hail to the Chief", according to Kaiser Chiefs' book A Record of Employment. A DVD titled Enjoyment, featuring music videos and live performances of the album's songs, was released. Rolling Stone - 4 stars out of 5 - "Danceable art-punk gems full of guitar fuzz, na-na-na choruses and boyish energy..." Spin - Ranked #19 in Spin's "40 Best Albums of 2005" - "A cohesive debut that recalls the glory days of Britpop and second-wave punk." Spin - "The quintet bash through nervy, synth-stoked guitar pop.... With a dedication to daffy English humor and bouncy music-hall folderol that creates the illusion of cultural import."
- Grade: B+ Entertainment Weekly - "The Leeds five have polished their ability to craft catchy songs." - Grade: B Uncut - 4 stars out of 5 - "Employment is a gem... In the smart-pop steeplechase, Hot Hot Heat have got serious competition." Yahoo Music - "finally, a worthy successor to Blur." - 8/10 Mojo - Ranked #50 in Mojo's "The 50 Best Albums Of 2005" - "Ricky Wilson's cheeky chappies proved the power of knowing daftness." Mojo - 4 stars out of 5 - "Employing ill-fitting suits, tongue-in-cheek lyricism and a jerky guitar attack that smelts the classic rock canon into an infectious, head-spinning punch." Allmusic - 3.5 stars out of 5 - "Employment is an uneven but still promising debut that suggests that one day the Kaiser Chiefs will pull off something more ambitious." All tracks written by Ricky Wilson, Andrew White, Simon Rix, Nick Baines, Nick Hodgson
Hezekiah was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the son of Ahaz and the 13th king of Judah. Edwin Thiele concluded that his reign was between c. 715 and 686 BC. He is considered a righteous king by the author of the Books of Kings, he is one of the most prominent kings of Judah mentioned in the Bible and is one of the kings mentioned in the genealogy of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew. According to the Bible, Hezekiah witnessed the destruction of the northern Kingdom of Israel by Sargon's Assyrians in c. 722 BC and was king of Judah during the siege of Jerusalem by Sennacherib in 701 BC. Hezekiah enacted sweeping religious reforms, including a strict mandate for the sole worship of Yahweh and a prohibition on venerating other deities within the Temple of Jerusalem. Isaiah and Micah prophesied during his reign; the name Hezekiah means "Yahweh Strengthens" in Hebrew. The main account of Hezekiah's reign is found in 2 Kings 18–20, Isaiah 36–39, 2 Chronicles 29–32 of the Hebrew Bible. Proverbs 25:1 mentions that it is a collection of King Solomon's proverbs that were "copied by the officials of King Hezekiah of Judah".
His reign is referred to in the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah and Micah. The books of Hosea and Micah record. Hezekiah was the son of King Abijah, his mother, was a daughter of the high priest Zechariah. Based on Thiele's dating, Hezekiah was born in c. 741 BC. He was married to Hephzi-bah, he died from natural causes at the age of 54 in c. 687 BC, was succeeded by his son Manasseh. According to the Bible, Hezekiah assumed the throne of Judah at the age of 25 and reigned for 29 years; some writers have proposed. His sole reign is dated by William F. Albright as 715–687 BC, by Edwin R. Thiele as 716–687 BC. Hezekiah purified and repaired the Temple, purged its idols, reformed the priesthood. In an effort to abolish idolatry from his kingdom, he destroyed the high places and the "bronze serpent", recorded as being made by Moses, which became objects of idolatrous worship. In place of this, he centralized the worship of God at the Jerusalem Temple. Hezekiah defeated the Philistines, "as far as Gaza and its territory", resumed the Passover pilgrimage and the tradition of inviting the scattered tribes of Israel to take part in a Passover festival.
He sent messengers to Ephraim and Manasseh inviting them to Jerusalem for the celebration of the Passover. The messengers, were not only not listened to, but were laughed at; the Passover was celebrated with great solemnity and such rejoicing as had not been in Jerusalem since the days of Solomon. Hezekiah is portrayed by the Bible as a good king. After the death of Assyrian king Sargon II in 705 BC, Sargon's son Sennacherib became king of Assyria. In 703 BC, Sennacherib began a series of major campaigns to quash opposition to Assyrian rule, starting with cities in the eastern part of the realm. In 701 BC, Sennacherib turned toward cities in the west. Hezekiah had to face the invasion of Judah. According to the Bible, Hezekiah did not rely on Egypt for support, but relied on God and prayed to Him for deliverance of his capital city Jerusalem; the Assyrians recorded that Sennacherib lifted his siege of Jerusalem after Hezekiah paid Sennacherib tribute. The Bible records that Hezekiah paid him three hundred talents of silver and thirty of gold as tribute sending the doors of the Temple to produce the promised amount, but after the payment was made, Sennacherib renewed his assault on Jerusalem.
Sennacherib sent his Rabshakeh to the walls as a messenger. The Rabshakeh addressed the soldiers manning the city wall in Hebrew, asking them to distrust Yahweh and Hezekiah, claiming that Hezekiah's righteous reforms were a sign that the people should not trust their god to be favorably disposed. 2 Kings 19:15 records that Hezekiah went to the Temple and there he prayed to God. Knowing that Jerusalem would be subject to siege, Hezekiah had been preparing for some time by fortifying the walls of the capital, building towers, constructing a tunnel to bring fresh water to the city from a spring outside its walls, he made at least two major preparations that would help Jerusalem to resist conquest: the construction of the Siloam Tunnel, construction of the Broad Wall. "When Sennacherib had come, intent on making war against Jerusalem, Hezekiah consulted with his officers about stopping the flow of the springs outside the city … for otherwise, they thought, the King of Assyria would come and find water in abundance".
The narratives of the Bible state. According to the biblical record, Sennacherib sent threatening letters warning Hezekiah that he had not desisted from his determination to take the Judean capital. Although they besieged Jerusalem, the biblical accounts state that the Assyrians did not so much as "shoot an arrow there... nor cast up a siege rampart against it", that God sent out an angel who, in one night, struck down "a hundred and eighty-five thousand in the camp of the Assyrians," sending Sennacherib back "with shame of face to his own land". Sennacherib's inscriptions make no mention of t
Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format, co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was adapted for storage of data. Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage, rewritable media, Video Compact Disc, Super Video Compact Disc, Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, Enhanced Music CD; the first commercially available audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB of data; the Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres. At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive, which would hold 10 MB. By 2010, hard drives offered as much storage space as a thousand CDs, while their prices had plummeted to commodity level. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs.
By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. From the early 2000s CDs were being replaced by other forms of digital storage and distribution, with the result that by 2010 the number of audio CDs being sold in the U. S. had dropped about 50% from their peak. In 2014, revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time. American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record digital information on an optical transparent foil, lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russell's patent application was filed in 1966, he was granted a patent in 1970. Following litigation and Philips licensed Russell's patents in the 1980s; the compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a focused laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were developed by Sony independently in the late 1970s. Although dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled.
In 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980. After their commercial release in 1982, compact discs and their players were popular. Despite costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United States between 1983 and 1984. By 1988, CD sales in the United States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, by 1992 CD sales surpassed those of prerecorded music cassette tapes; the success of the compact disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, which together agreed upon and developed compatible hardware. The unified design of the compact disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company, allowed the CD to dominate the at-home music market unchallenged. In 1974, Lou Ottens, director of the audio division of Philips, started a small group with the aim to develop an analog optical audio disc with a diameter of 20 cm and a sound quality superior to that of the vinyl record.
However, due to the unsatisfactory performance of the analog format, two Philips research engineers recommended a digital format in March 1974. In 1977, Philips established a laboratory with the mission of creating a digital audio disc; the diameter of Philips's prototype compact disc was set at 11.5 cm, the diagonal of an audio cassette. Heitaro Nakajima, who developed an early digital audio recorder within Japan's national public broadcasting organization NHK in 1970, became general manager of Sony's audio department in 1971, his team developed a digital PCM adaptor audio tape recorder using a Betamax video recorder in 1973. After this, in 1974 the leap to storing digital audio on an optical disc was made. Sony first publicly demonstrated an optical digital audio disc in September 1976. A year in September 1977, Sony showed the press a 30 cm disc that could play 60 minutes of digital audio using MFM modulation. In September 1978, the company demonstrated an optical digital audio disc with a 150-minute playing time, 44,056 Hz sampling rate, 16-bit linear resolution, cross-interleaved error correction code—specifications similar to those settled upon for the standard compact disc format in 1980.
Technical details of Sony's digital audio disc were presented during the 62nd AES Convention, held on 13–16 March 1979, in Brussels. Sony's AES technical paper was published on 1 March 1979. A week on 8 March, Philips publicly demonstrated a prototype of an optical digital audio disc at a press conference called "Philips Introduce Compact Disc" in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Sony executive Norio Ohga CEO and chairman of Sony, Heitaro Nakajima were convinced of the format's commercial potential and pushed further development despite widespread skepticism; as a result, in 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. Led by engineers Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi, the research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the task force produced the Red Book CD-DA standard. First published in 1980, the stand
Indie rock is a genre of rock music that originated in the United States and United Kingdom in the 1970s. Used to describe independent record labels, the term became associated with the music they produced and was used interchangeably with alternative rock; as grunge and punk revival bands in the US and Britpop bands in the UK broke into the mainstream in the 1990s, it came to be used to identify those acts that retained an outsider and underground perspective. In the 2000s, as a result of changes in the music industry and the growing importance of the Internet, some indie rock acts began to enjoy commercial success, leading to questions about its meaningfulness as a term. Sometimes used interchangeably with "guitar pop rock", in the mid-1980s, the term "indie" began to be used to describe the music produced on punk and post-punk labels; some prominent indie rock record labels were founded during the 1980s. During the 1990s, grunge bands broke into the mainstream, the term "alternative" lost its original counter-cultural meaning.
The term "indie rock" became associated with the bands and genres that remained dedicated to their independent status. By the end of the 1990s, indie rock developed several subgenres and related styles, including lo-fi, noise pop, slowcore, post-rock, math rock. In the 2000s, changes in the music industry and in music technology enabled a new wave of indie rock bands to achieve mainstream success. In the early 2000s, a new group of bands that played a stripped-down, back-to-basics version of guitar rock emerged into the mainstream; the commercial breakthrough from these scenes was led by four bands: The Strokes, The White Stripes, The Hives and The Vines. Emo broke into mainstream culture in the early 2000s. By the end of the decade, the proliferation of indie bands was being referred to as "indie landfill"; the term indie rock, which comes from "independent," describes the small and low-budget labels on which it is released and the do-it-yourself attitude of the bands and artists involved. Although distribution deals are struck with major corporate companies, these labels and the bands they host have attempted to retain their autonomy, leaving them free to explore sounds and subjects of limited appeal to large, mainstream audiences.
The influences and styles of the artists have been diverse, including punk, post-punk and country. The terms "alternative rock" and "indie rock" were used interchangeably in the 1980s, but after many alternative bands followed Nirvana into the mainstream in the early 1990s, "indie rock" began to be used to describe those bands, working in a variety of styles, that did not pursue or achieve commercial success. Aesthetically speaking, indie rock is characterized as having a careful balance of pop accessibility with noise, experimentation with pop music formulae, sensitive lyrics masked by ironic posturing, a concern with "authenticity," and the depiction of a simple guy or girl. Allmusic identifies indie rock as including a number of "varying musical approaches compatible with mainstream tastes". Linked by an ethos more than a musical approach, the indie rock movement encompassed a wide range of styles, from hard-edged, grunge-influenced bands, through do-it-yourself experimental bands like Pavement, to punk-folk singers such as Ani DiFranco.
In fact, there is an everlasting list of subgenres of indie rock. Many countries have developed an extensive local indie scene, flourishing with bands with enough popularity to survive inside the respective country, but unknown elsewhere. However, there are still indie bands that start off locally, but attract an international audience. Indie rock is noted for having a high proportion of female artists compared with preceding rock genres, a tendency exemplified by the development of the feminist-informed Riot Grrrl music of acts like Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, 7 Year Bitch, Team Dresch and Huggy Bear. However, Cortney Harding pointed out that this sense of equality is not reflected in the number of women running indie labels; the BBC documentary Music for Misfits: The Story of Indie pinpoints the birth of indie as the 1977 self-publication of the Spiral Scratch EP by Manchester band Buzzcocks. Although Buzzcocks are classified as a punk band, it has been argued by the BBC and others that the publication of Spiral Scratch independently of a major label led to the coining of the name "indie".
"Indie pop" and "indie" were synonymous. In the mid-1980s, "indie" began to be used to describe the music produced on post-punk labels rather than the labels themselves; the indie rock scene in the US was prefigured by the college rock that dominated college radio playlists, which included key bands like R. E. M. from the US and The Smiths from the UK. These two bands rejected the dominant synthpop of the early 1980s, helped inspire guitar-based jangle pop. In the United States, the term was associated with the abrasive, distortion-heavy sounds of the Pixies, Hüsker Dü, Meat Puppets, Dinosaur Jr. and The Replacements. In the United Kingdom the C86 cassette, a 1986 NME compilation featuring Primal Scream, The Pastels, The Wedding Present and other bands, was a document of the UK indie scene at the start of 1986, it gave its name to the indie pop scene that followed, a major influence on the development of the British indie scene as a whole. Major precursors of indie pop included Postcard bands Josef K and Orange Juice, significant labels included Creation and Glass.
The Jesus and Mary Chain's sound combined the Velvet