Irene Dunne was an American film actress and singer of the 1930s, 1940s and early 1950s. Dunne was nominated five times for the Academy Award for Best Actress, for her performances in Cimarron, Theodora Goes Wild, The Awful Truth, Love Affair, in 1985, Dunne was given Kennedy Center Honors for her services to the arts. Born in Louisville, Kentucky, to Joseph John Dunn, an inspector for the United States government, and Adelaide Henry. Irene Dunne would write, No triumph of either my stage or screen career has ever rivalled the excitement of trips down the Mississippi on the boats with my father. She was fourteen when her father died on April 6,1913 and she saved all of his letters and often remembered and lived by what he told her the night before he died, Happiness is never an accident. It is the prize we get when we choose wisely from lifes great stores, following her fathers death, her mother, and her younger brother Charles moved to her mothers hometown of Madison, Indiana. Dunnes mother taught her to play the piano as a small girl.
According to Dunne, Music was as natural as breathing in our house, Dunne was raised as a devout Roman Catholic. Nicknamed Dunnie, she took piano and voice lessons, sang in local churches, Dunne earned a diploma to teach art, but took a chance on a contest and won a prestigious scholarship to the Chicago Musical College, where she graduated in 1926. With a soprano voice, she had hopes of becoming an opera singer, after adding an e to her surname, turned to musical theater. She toured several cities in 1921–22 playing the lead role in the popular play Irene. The following year, Dunne played a season of opera in Atlanta. Though in her own words Dunne created no great furor, by 1929 she had a successful Broadway career playing leading roles, grateful to be at center stage rather than in the chorus line. On July 16,1927, Dunne married Francis Griffin, a New York dentist, despite differing opinions and battles that raged furiously, Dunne eventually agreed to marry him and leave the theater. She was discovered by Hollywood while starring with the company of Show Boat in 1929.
She signed a contract with RKO and appeared in her first movie in 1930, already in her thirties when she made her first film, she would be in competition with younger actresses for roles, and found it advantageous to evade questions that would reveal her age. Her publicists encouraged the belief that she was born in 1901 or 1904, Dunne moved to Hollywood with her mother and brother and maintained a long-distance marriage with her husband in New York until he joined her in California in 1936. That year, she re-created her role as Magnolia in what is considered the film version of the famous musical Show Boat
Greta Garbo, was a Swedish-born American film actress during the 1920s and 1930s. Garbo was nominated three times for the Academy Award for Best Actress and received an Academy Honorary Award in 1954 for her luminous, Garbo launched her career with a secondary role in the 1924 Swedish film The Saga of Gosta Berling. Her performance caught the attention of Louis B, chief executive of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, who brought her to Hollywood in 1925. She immediately stirred interest with her first silent film, released in 1926, a later, her performance in Flesh. Garbos first talking film was Anna Christie, MGM marketers enticed the public with the catch-phrase Garbo talks. That same year she starred in Romance, for her performances in these films she received the first of three Academy Award nominations for Best Actress. In 1932, her popularity allowed her to dictate the terms of her contract and her success continued in films such as Mata Hari and Grand Hotel. Many critics and film historians consider her performance as the doomed courtesan Marguerite Gautier in Camille to be her finest, the role gained her a second Academy Award nomination.
Garbos career soon declined and she was one of the many stars labeled Box Office Poison in 1938, from on, Garbo declined all opportunities to return to the screen. Shunning publicity, she began a life, and neither married nor had children. Greta Lovisa Gustafsson was born in Södermalm, Stockholm and she was the third and youngest child of Anna Lovisa —a housewife who worked at a jam factory—and Karl Alfred Gustafsson, a laborer. Garbo had a brother, Sven Alfred, and an older sister. Her parents met in Stockholm where her father visited from Frinnaryd and he moved to Stockholm to become independent and worked in various odd jobs—street cleaner, factory worker and butchers assistant. He married Anna, who had moved from Högsby. The Gustafssons were impoverished and lived in a three-bedroom cold-water flat at Blekingegatan No.32 and they brought up their three children in a working class district regarded as the citys slum. Garbo would recall, It was eternally grey—those long winters nights and my father would be sitting in a corner, scribbling figures on a newspaper.
On the other side of the room my mother is repairing ragged old clothes and we children would be talking in very low voices, or just sitting silently. We were filled with anxiety, as if there were danger in the air, such evenings are unforgettable for a sensitive girl
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B.
Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical.
In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946
I Remember Mama (musical)
I Remember Mama is a musical with a book by Thomas Meehan, lyrics by Martin Charnin and Raymond Jessel, and music by Richard Rodgers. The musical ran on Broadway in 1979, I Remember Mama originated as a memoir by Kathryn Forbes titled Mamas Bank Account. It was adapted for the stage by John Van Druten as a play, Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II were the producers. It was filmed in 1948, and served as the basis for a 1950s television series, every incarnation basically was the same, a series of heartwarming vignettes centering on a family of Norwegian immigrants living in San Francisco in the early 20th Century. It is through Katrins eyes the struggles and dreams of the Hansens unfold, the musical adaptation was beset with problems from the beginning. Rodgers and Charnin had composed a score before the libretto was written. The original director, was replaced by Cy Feuer after tryouts in Philadelphia, the original choreographer, Graciela Daniele, was replaced by Danny Daniels. The musical, produced by Alexander H.
Cohen and Hildy Parks opened on Broadway on May 31,1979 at the Majestic Theatre, directed by Cy Feuer, the opening cast featured Liv Ullmann, George Hearn, Dolores Wilson, and George S. Irving. The spectacular and clever set was designed by the late David Mitchell, by 1979, Broadway audiences had become accustomed to edgier musicals such as Sweeney Todd and Evita. Critics found Mama to be old-fashioned and corny, and all were quick to describe the musically disinclined Ullmann as miscast, miss Ullman is unsuited to it. An original cast album was never recorded, but a recording with Hearn and Irving reprising their stage roles. The first Canadian production of the came in 2004. Produced by the Toronto Civic Light Opera Company, the production was designed and directed by Joe Cascone, starring Caroline Moro-Dalicandro as Mama, David Haines as Papa, Larry Westlake as Uncle Chris and Andrea Strayer as Katrin. This production took a few liberties with the script and score. The show ran over the Christmas season and garnered rave reviews, quoted one member of the original Broadway production staff, The show is a hit at last.
Not Since Carrie, Forty Years of Broadway Musical Flops, internet Broadway Database Listing Listing with history and production information at RNH official site I Remember Mama Summary and Musical Numbers at guidetomusicaltheatre. com
The Merchant of Venice
The Merchant of Venice is a 16th century play by William Shakespeare in which a merchant in Venice must default on a large loan provided by an abused Jewish moneylender. It is believed to have written between 1596 and 1599. Also notable is Portias speech about the quality of mercy, critic Harold Bloom listed it among Shakespeares great comedies. Bassanio, a young Venetian of noble rank, wishes to woo the beautiful, having squandered his estate, he needs 3,000 ducats to subsidise his expenditures as a suitor. Bassanio approaches his friend Antonio, a merchant of Venice who has previously and repeatedly bailed him out. Antonio has already antagonized Shylock through his outspoken antisemitism, and because Antonios habit of lending money without interest forces Shylock to charge lower rates, Shylock is at first reluctant to grant the loan, citing abuse he has suffered at Antonios hand. He finally agrees to lend the sum to Bassanio without interest upon one condition, if Bassanio is unable to repay it at the specified date, Shylock may take a pound of Antonios flesh.
Bassanio does not want Antonio to accept such a condition, Antonio is surprised by what he sees as the moneylenders generosity. With money at hand, Bassanio leaves for Belmont with his friend Gratiano, Gratiano is a likeable young man, but is often flippant, overly talkative, and tactless. Bassanio warns his companion to exercise self-control, and the two leave for Belmont, meanwhile, in Belmont, Portia is awash with suitors. Her father left a will stipulating each of her suitors must choose correctly from one of three caskets – one each of gold and lead, if he picks the right casket, he gets Portia. The first suitor, the Prince of Morocco, chooses the gold casket, interpreting its slogan, Who chooseth me shall gain what many men desire, as referring to Portia. The second suitor, the conceited Prince of Arragon, chooses the silver casket, both suitors leave empty-handed, having rejected the lead casket because of the baseness of its material and the uninviting nature of its slogan, Who chooseth me must give and hazard all he hath.
The last suitor is Bassanio, whom Portia wishes to succeed, as Bassanio ponders his choice, members of Portias household sing a song which says that fancy is engendred in the eyes, With gazing fed, Bassanio chooses the lead casket and wins Portias hand. At Venice, Antonios ships are reported lost at sea so the merchant cannot repay the bond, Shylock has become more determined to exact revenge from Christians because his daughter Jessica eloped with the Christian Lorenzo and converted. She took an amount of Shylocks wealth with her, as well as a turquoise ring which Shylock had been given by his late wife. Shylock has Antonio brought before court, at Belmont, Bassanio receives a letter telling him that Antonio has been unable to repay the loan from Shylock. Portia and Bassanio marry, as do Gratiano and Portias handmaid Nerissa and Gratiano leave for Venice, with money from Portia, to save Antonios life by offering the money to Shylock
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
I Remember Mama (play)
I Remember Mama is a play by John Van Druten based on Kathryn Forbes novel Mamas Bank Account, which was loosely based on her childhood. It is a study of life centered on a Norwegian immigrant family in San Francisco early in the 20th century. The play premiered on Broadway on October 19,1944 at the Music Box Theatre in New York City, the cast included Mady Christians, Oscar Homolka, and Joan Tetzel. Marlon Brando played a role, making his Broadway debut as Nels. The play revolves around the life of a loving Norwegian immigrant family, told through the nostalgic eye of Katrin, one of three daughters, it is the story of a working-class family trying to live the American dream. Papa Hanson is a worker, he and Mama attempt to raise their four children so that they understand the difference between right and wrong, between selfishness and selflessness. They are assisted by Mamas uncle, Uncle Chris, whose gruff exterior hides his inner charm and Papa believe in hard work and a good education. They struggle to put their son, through high school and they are warm and affectionate to each other, but very frugal in their use of funds.
The three aunts, Jenny and Trina, offer a counterpoint, as the first two are usually selfish and petty, while Aunt Trina is mostly kind. Through their hard work, wise financial decisions, and creative sense and Papa manage to raise. The play opened at the Music Box Theatre in New York City on October 19,1944, starring Mady Christians, Richard Biship, Joan Tetzel, the production marked the Broadway debut of a young actor by the name of Marlon Brando. I Remember Mama was a production, running for 713 performances before it closed on June 29,1946. While they did not win any Oscars, Ellen Corby did win the Golden Globe for Best Performance by an Actress In A Supporting Role in a Motion Picture. In 1979, Richard Rodgers transformed the play, which he had co-produced with Oscar Hammerstein III in 1944, into a musical. It would be Rogers last work prior to his death in December of that year, the play was produced at the Majestic Theatre, where it previewed on April 26,1979, and officially opened on May 31.
The production ran for 108 performances, closing on September 2, and starred Liv Ullmann, George Hearn, Rodgers wrote the music, with lyrics by Martin Charnin, and book by Thomas Meehan. Mama, a CBS Television series starring Peggy Wood, ran from 1949 until 1957, after the success of the screen adaptation, Dunne and Bel Geddes reprised their roles in a Lux Radio Theater adaptation of the film. There was a British Independent Television production in 1961, Mamas Bank Account Summary & Study Guide - bookrags. com
Norwegians are a Germanic ethnic group native to Norway. They share a culture and speak the Norwegian language. Towards the end of the 3rd millennium BC, Proto-Indo-European speaking Battle-Axe peoples migrated to Norway bringing domesticated horses, cattle, during the Viking age, Harald Fairhair unified the Norse petty kingdoms after being victorious at the Battle of Hafrsfjord in the 880s. Two centuries of Viking expansion tapered off following the decline of Norse paganism with the adoption of Christianity in the 11th century, during The Black Death, approximately 60% of the population died and in 1397 Norway entered a union with Denmark. In 1814, following Denmark-Norways defeat in the Napoleonic Wars, Norway entered a union with Sweden, rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained officially neutral in World War I, the country was allied with the Entente powers. In World War II Norway proclaimed its neutrality, but was occupied for five years by Nazi Germany.
In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO, discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norways economic fortunes but in referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include integration of a fast growing immigrant population, maintaining the countrys generous social safety net with an aging population, as with many of the people from European countries, Norwegians are spread throughout the world. There are more than 100,000 Norwegian citizens living abroad permanently, mostly in the U. S, Norwegian Vikings travelled north and west and founded vibrant communities in the Faroe Islands, Orkney, Ireland and northern England. They conducted extensive raids in Ireland and founded the cities of Cork, Dublin, in 947, a new wave of Norwegian Vikings appeared in England when Erik Bloodaxe captured York. Apart from Britain and Ireland, Norwegian Vikings established settlements in largely uninhabited regions, the first known permanent Norwegian settler in Iceland was Ingólfur Arnarson.
In the year 874 he settled in Reykjavík, after his expulsion from Iceland Erik the Red discovered Greenland, a name he chose in hope of attracting Icelandic settlers. Viking settlements were established in the fjords of the southern and western coast. Eriks relative Leif Eriksson discovered North America, during the 17th and 18th centuries, many Norwegians emigrated to the Netherlands, particularly Amsterdam. The Netherlands was the second most popular destination for Norwegian emigrants after Denmark, loosely estimated, some 10% of the population may have emigrated, in a period when the entire Norwegian population consisted of some 800,000 people. The Norwegians left with the Dutch trade ships that when in Norway traded for timber, herring, young women took employment as maids in Amsterdam. Young men took employment as sailors, large parts of the Dutch merchant fleet and navy came to consist of Norwegians and Danes
Potrero Hill is a residential neighborhood in San Francisco, California. It is known for its views of the San Francisco Bay and city skyline, its proximity to many destination spots, its sunny weather. A working-class neighborhood until gentrification in the 1990s, it is now an upper-middle-class, Potrero Hill is located on the eastern side of the city, east of the Mission District and south of SOMA and the newly designated district Showplace Square. It is bordered by 16th Street to the north, Potrero Avenue and U. S. Route 101 to the west and Cesar Chavez Street to the south. The city of San Francisco considers the area below 20th Street between Potrero Ave and Route 101 to be part of Potrero Hill as well, as outlined in the Eastern Neighborhood Plan, the area east of Highway 280 is Dogpatch. Dogpatch was originally part of Potrero Nuevo and its history is tied to Potrero Hill. Some consider Dogpatch to be its own neighborhood while others disagree, Dogpatch has its own neighborhood association but shares merchant association, Democratic caucuses, and general neighborhood matters with Potrero Hill.
Potrero Hill is one of the sunniest neighborhoods in San Francisco, located on the side of the peninsula. It is insulated from the fog and chill of the Pacific Ocean that is typical on the side of the city. It is a neighborhood and not considered a tourist destination. Despite being surrounded by busy neighborhoods, and featuring a commercial area on 18th St. Potrero Hill is generally quiet. Potrero Hill started as a Caucasian working-class neighborhood in the 1850s and its central location attracted many working professionals during the dot-com era in the 1990s. Today, it is mostly an upper-middle-class family-oriented neighborhood, in addition to the 101 and 280 Interstate freeways, Caltrain runs through this area, making it popular with commuters. Many homes in Potrero Hill have views of the downtown skyline, Potrero Hill has a North and a South Slope, with the North Slope generally more coveted due to its proximity to downtown. There is no dividing line between North and South as the hill apexes in various places.
The demographics of the two are similar with the exception of two public housing projects situated on the South Slope. The projects occupy over one third of the South Slope, the poorly designed and diagonal grids of the housing projects isolate their residents from the greater neighborhood. Industry first arrived at Dogpatch in the mid-1850s, the earliest residents were mostly European immigrants
An autobiography is a self-written account of the life of a person. The word autobiography was first used deprecatingly by William Taylor in 1797 in the English periodical The Monthly Review, when he suggested the word as a hybrid, its next recorded use was in its present sense, by Robert Southey in 1809. Despite only being named early in the century, first-person autobiographical writing originates in antiquity. Autobiography thus takes stock of the life from the moment of composition. While biographers generally rely on a variety of documents and viewpoints. The memoir form is associated with autobiography but it tends, as Pascal claims, to focus less on the self. See also, List of autobiographies and Category, Autobiographies for examples, in a classic essay on American autobiography James M. Autobiographical works are by nature subjective. The inability—or unwillingness—of the author to accurately recall memories has in certain cases resulted in misleading or incorrect information, some sociologists and psychologists have noted that autobiography offers the author the ability to recreate history.
Spiritual autobiography is an account of a struggle or journey towards God, followed by conversion a religious conversion. The author re-frames his or her life as a demonstration of divine intention through encounters with the Divine, the spiritual autobiography works as an endorsement of his or her religion. A memoir is slightly different in character from an autobiography, while an autobiography typically focuses on the life and times of the writer, a memoir has a narrower, more intimate focus on his or her own memories and emotions. Memoirs have often written by politicians or military leaders as a way to record. One early example is that of Julius Caesars Commentarii de Bello Gallico, in the work, Caesar describes the battles that took place during the nine years that he spent fighting local armies in the Gallic Wars. His second memoir, Commentarii de Bello Civili is an account of the events took place between 49 and 48 BC in the civil war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate. Leonor López de Córdoba wrote what is supposed to be the first autobiography in Spanish, the English Civil War provoked a number of examples of this genre, including works by Sir Edmund Ludlow and Sir John Reresby.
French examples from the period include the memoirs of Cardinal de Retz. Daniel Defoes Moll Flanders is an early example, charles Dickens David Copperfield is another such classic, and J. D. Salingers The Catcher in the Rye is a well-known modern example of fictional autobiography. Charlotte Brontës Jane Eyre is yet another example of fictional autobiography, the term may apply to works of fiction purporting to be autobiographies of real characters, e. g. Robert Nyes Memoirs of Lord Byron
Euthanasia is the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering. There are different euthanasia laws in each country, the British House of Lords Select Committee on Medical Ethics defines euthanasia as a deliberate intervention undertaken with the express intention of ending a life, to relieve intractable suffering. In the Netherlands and Flanders, euthanasia is understood as termination of life by a doctor at the request of a patient, Euthanasia is categorized in different ways, which include voluntary, non-voluntary, or involuntary. Voluntary euthanasia is legal in some countries, non-voluntary euthanasia is illegal in all countries. Involuntary euthanasia is illegal in all countries and is usually considered murder. As of 2006, euthanasia is the most active area of research in contemporary bioethics, in some countries there is a divisive public controversy over the moral and legal issues of euthanasia. Jurisdictions where euthanasia is legal include the Netherlands, Colombia, like other terms borrowed from history, euthanasia has had different meanings depending on usage.
Bacon referred to an outward euthanasia—the term outward he used to distinguish from a spiritual concept—the euthanasia which regards the preparation of the soul, in current usage, euthanasia has been defined as the painless inducement of a quick death. Another approach incorporates the notion of suffering into the definition, the third element incorporated into many definitions is that of intentionality – the death must be intended, rather than being accidental, and the intent of the action must be a merciful death. Beauchamp and Davidson highlight Baruch Brodys an act of euthanasia is one in one person. Kills another person for the benefit of the person, who actually does benefit from being killed. Prior to Draper and Davidson had offered a definition that includes these elements and their definition specifically discounts fetuses in order to distinguish between abortions and euthanasia, In summary, we have argued. In discussing his definition, Wreen noted the difficulty of justifying euthanasia when faced with the notion of the right to life.
In response, Wreen argued that euthanasia has to be voluntary, and that euthanasia is, as such. Other commentators incorporate consent more directly into their definitions, euthanasia can be voluntary only. Euthanasia may be classified according to whether a person gives informed consent into three types, non-voluntary and involuntary, others see consent as essential. Euthanasia conducted with the consent of the patient is termed voluntary euthanasia, active voluntary euthanasia is legal in Belgium and the Netherlands. Passive voluntary euthanasia is legal throughout the U. S. per Cruzan v. Director, when the patient brings about his or her own death with the assistance of a physician, the term assisted suicide is often used instead