In music, a single or record single is a type of release, typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record, an album or an EP record. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats, in most cases, a single is a song that is released separately from an album, although it usually also appears on an album. Typically, these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular, in other cases a recording released as a single may not appear on an album. As digital downloading and audio streaming have become prevalent, it is often possible for every track on an album to also be available separately. Nevertheless, the concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a heavily promoted or more popular song within an album collection. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks on them. The biggest digital music distributor, iTunes, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as well as popular music player Spotify also following in this trend. Any more than three tracks on a release or longer than thirty minutes in total running time is either an Extended Play or if over six tracks long. The basic specifications of the single were made in the late 19th century. Gramophone discs were manufactured with a range of speeds and in several sizes. By about 1910, however, the 10-inch,78 rpm shellac disc had become the most commonly used format, the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format, songwriters and performers increasingly tailored their output to fit the new medium, the breakthrough came with Bob Dylans Like a Rolling Stone. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, other, less common, formats include singles on digital compact cassette, DVD, and LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc. Some artist release singles on records, a more common in musical subcultures. The most common form of the single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its speed,45 rpm. The 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable, the first 45 rpm records were monaural, with recordings on both sides of the disc. As stereo recordings became popular in the 1960s, almost all 45 rpm records were produced in stereo by the early 1970s
Ray Parker Jr.
Ray Erskine Parker Jr. is an American musician-guitarist, singer-songwriter, producer and actor. Parker is known for writing and performing the song to the movie Ghostbusters, for his solo music, and for performing with his band, Raydio. Parker was born in Detroit to Venolia Parker and Ray Parker Sr and he has two siblings, his brother Opelton and his sister Barbara. Parker attended Angel Elementary School where music teacher, Afred T Kirby inspired him to be a musician at age 6 playing the clarinet, Parker attended Cass Tech High School in the 10th grade. Parker is a 1971 graduate of Detroits Northwestern High School and he was raised in the Dexter-Grand Boulevard neighborhood on its West Side. Parker attended college at Lawrence Institute of Technology, Parker gained recognition during the late 1960s as a member of Bohannon s house band at the legendary 20 Grand nightclub. This Detroit hotspot often featured Tamla/Motown acts, one of which, through the Bohannon relationship at 16 he recorded and cowrote his first songs with Marvin Gaye. Parker was later enlisted by Lamont Dozier to appear on his first two albums for ABC Records, in 1972, Parker was a guest guitarist on Stevie Wonders funk song Maybe Your Baby from Wonders album Talking Book. He also was the lead guitarist for Stevie Wonder when Wonder served as the act on the Rolling Stones 1972 tour. In 1973, he became a sideman in Barry Whites The Love Unlimited Orchestra, before creating Raydio, an R&B group, in 1977, with Vincent Bohnam, Jerry Knight, and Arnell Carmichael. Parker appeared briefly in the 1974 film Uptown Saturday Night as a player in the church picnic scene. His first bona fide hit as a writer was You Got the Love, co-written with Chaka Khan, the single hit #1 on the R&B charts and #11 on the pop charts in December 1974. According to a mention, in 1976 he worked as rhythmic guitarist for Lucio Battistis album Io tu noi tutti, translated as Me you. Parker endorses and plays Mérida Guitars, Raydio scored their first big hit, Jack and Jill, from their self-titled album in 1978 with Arista Records. The song reached #8 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, earning a gold single. Their follow-up song, You Cant Change That, was released in 1979 from the Rock On album, the song was another Top 10 hit, peaking at #9 on the Billboard chart during the summer and also selling a million copies. In 1980, the became known as Ray Parker Jr. The group released two albums, Two Places at the Same Time in 1980 and A Woman Needs Love in 1981 both gold albums
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performers music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has many roles during the recording process, the roles of a producer vary. The producer may perform these roles himself, or help select the engineer, the producer may also pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record companies budget. A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording. Producers also often take on an entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules, contracts. In the 2010s, the industry has two kinds of producers with different roles, executive producer and music producer. Executive producers oversee project finances while music producers oversee the process of recording songs or albums. In most cases the producer is also a competent arranger, composer. The producer will also liaise with the engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record, indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation actually is music director. The music producers job is to create, shape, and mold a piece of music, at the beginning of record industry, producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1950s and 1960s due to technological developments, the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously, all of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio and the performance had to be recorded. As well, for a song that used 20 instruments, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. Examples include the rock sound effects of the 1960s, e. g. playing back the sound of recorded instruments backwards or clanging the tape to produce unique sound effects. These new instruments were electric or electronic, and thus they used instrument amplifiers, new technologies like multitracking changed the goal of recording, A producer could blend together multiple takes and edit together different sections to create the desired sound. For example, in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis album Bitches Brew, producers like Phil Spector and George Martin were soon creating recordings that were, in practical terms, almost impossible to realise in live performance. Producers became creative figures in the studio, other examples of such engineers includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, Brian Wilson, and Biddu
Billboard Hot 100
The Billboard Hot 100 is the music industry standard record chart in the United States for singles, published weekly by Billboard magazine. Chart rankings are based on sales, radio play and online streaming, the weekly sales period was originally Monday to Sunday, when Nielsen started tracking sales in 1991, but was changed to Friday to Thursday in July 2015. Radio airplay, which, unlike sales figures and streaming data, is available on a real-time basis. A new chart is compiled and officially released to the public by Billboard on Tuesdays, as of the issue for the week ending on April 15,2017, the Hot 100 has had 1,061 different number one hits. The current number one song is Shape of You by Ed Sheeran, prior to 1955, Billboard did not have a unified, all-encompassing popularity chart, instead measuring songs by individual metrics. At the start of the era in 1955, three such charts existed, Best Sellers in Stores was the first Billboard chart, established in 1936. This chart ranked the biggest selling singles in retail stores, as reported by merchants surveyed throughout the country, Most Played by Jockeys was Billboards original airplay chart. It ranked the most played songs on United States radio stations, as reported by radio disc jockeys, Most Played in Jukeboxes ranked the most played songs in jukeboxes across the United States. On the week ending November 12,1955, Billboard published The Top 100 for the first time, the Top 100 combined all aspects of a singles performance, based on a point system that typically gave sales more weight than radio airplay. The Best Sellers In Stores, Most Played by Jockeys and Most Played in Jukeboxes charts continued to be published concurrently with the new Top 100 chart. The week ending July 28,1958 was the publication of the Most Played By Jockeys and Top 100 charts. On August 4,1958, Billboard premiered one main all-genre singles chart, the Hot 100 quickly became the industry standard and Billboard discontinued the Best Sellers In Stores chart on October 13,1958. The Billboard Hot 100 is still the standard by which a songs popularity is measured in the United States, the Hot 100 is ranked by radio airplay audience impressions as measured by Nielsen BDS, sales data compiled by Nielsen Soundscan and streaming activity provided by online music sources. There are several component charts that contribute to the calculation of the Hot 100. Charts are ranked by number of gross audience impressions, computed by cross-referencing exact times of radio airplay with Arbitron listener data. Hot Singles Sales, the top selling singles compiled from a sample of retail store, mass merchant and internet sales reports collected, compiled. The chart is released weekly and measures sales of commercial singles. With the decline in sales of singles in the US
Ghostbusters is a song recorded by Ray Parker Jr. as the theme to the film of the same name starring Bill Murray, Dan Aykroyd, Harold Ramis and Ernie Hudson. The song re-entered the UK Top 75 on November 2,2008 and it was nominated at the 57th Academy Awards for Best Original Song, but lost to Stevie Wonders I Just Called to Say I Love You. However, when watching television late at night, Parker saw a commercial for a local service that reminded him that the film had a similar commercial featured for the fictional business. This inspired him to write the song as a jingle that the business could have commissioned as a promotion. Huey Lewis sued Parker over the similarities between Ghostbusters and Lewis I Want a New Drug, the matter was settled out of court. Lindsey Buckingham claims to have been approached to write the Ghostbusters theme based on his contribution to Harold Ramiss National Lampoons Vacation. He turned down the opportunity as he did not want to be known as a soundtrack artist and he mentions this on the Words & Music interview disc. The music video for the song was directed by the director as the Ghostbusters film, Ivan Reitman. Chase appears again after Garr, but chokes on his cigarette when he tries to exclaim Ghostbusters, franken also pops up in the house before the separately framed cameos begin. The video concludes with Parker and the stars of the film, in full Ghostbuster costume, the Ghostbusters also perform the same dance in the closing credits to the Real Ghostbusters cartoon series as well as in a trailer for the 2009 Ghostbusters video game. When the theme song of Ghostbusters was released, Huey Lewis sued Ray Parker Jr. for plagiarism, Lewis had been approached to compose the main theme song for the film, but had to decline because of his work on the soundtrack for Back to the Future. The two parties settled out of court, details of the settlement were confidential until 2001, when Lewis commented on the payment in an episode of VH1s Behind the Music. Parker subsequently sued Lewis for breaching confidentiality, Ray Parker, Jr. – vocals, guitar, bass, synthesizer, drums Irene Cara – background vocals The song is referenced in both the films and the cartoon series. The song appears in Ghostbusters, The Video Game and it is played fully in the end credits of the game, and on the PS3 Cross Menu Bar screen when a user is on the disc icon for more than 3 seconds. Ghostbusters —3,46 Ghostbusters —4,07 The slightly longer instrumental version contains two sections with additional instrumentation, which arent present in the vocal version. One of these gives the song a proper ending, unlike the vocal version which fades out. Ghostbusters —6,08 Ghostbusters —5,35 Ghostbusters —4,03 For the films 1989 sequel, Ghostbusters II, a remixed version of the Ghostbusters song was recorded featuring a rap by Run–D. M. C. It was released on 7 vinyl and cassette as a single, as well as on 12 vinyl and CD as a double A-side maxi single with the track Pause from Run-D. M. C. s fifth studio album
The Police were an English new wave band formed in London in 1977. For most of their history the band consisted of Sting, Andy Summers and they are also considered one of the leaders of the Second British Invasion of the United States. They disbanded in 1986, but reunited in early 2007 for a world tour that ended in August 2008. Their 1978 debut album, Outlandos dAmour, reached No.6 in the UK and their second album Reggatta de Blanc became the first of five consecutive UK No.1 albums with its lead single, Message in a Bottle, their first UK number one. Their next two albums, Zenyatta Mondatta and Ghost in the Machine, saw further critical and commercial success and their final studio album, Synchronicity, was No.1 in both the UK and the US, selling over 8 million copies in the US alone. Every Breath You Take became their fifth UK number one single, the Police have sold over 75 million records, making them one of the worlds best-selling artists of all time. They were the worlds highest-earning musicians in 2008, thanks to their reunion tour, four of their five studio albums appeared on Rolling Stones list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. The Police were included among both Rolling Stones and VH1s lists of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time, on 12 January 1977, Sting relocated to London and the very same day of his arrival, he sought out Copeland for a jam session. Curved Air had recently split up and Copeland, inspired by the then-current punk rock movement, was eager to form a new band and join the burgeoning London punk scene. While less keen, Sting acknowledged the commercial opportunities, so the duo formed the Police as a power trio with Corsican guitarist Henry Padovani recruited as the third member. After their debut concert on 1 March 1977 at Alexanders in Newport, Wales and their first single Fall Out, recorded at Pathway Studios in Islington, North London on 12 February 1977 with a budget of £150, was released in May 1977 by Illegal Records. Also in May 1977, former Gong musician Mike Howlett invited Sting to join him in the band project Strontium 90, the drummer Howlett had in mind, Chris Cutler, was unavailable to play, so Sting brought Copeland. The bands fourth member was guitarist Andy Summers from Lancashire in northwest England, a decade older than Sting and Copeland, Summers was a music industry veteran who had played with Eric Burdon and the Animals and Kevin Ayers among others. Strontium 90 performed at a Gong reunion concert in Paris on 28 May 1977, the band also recorded several demo tracks, these were released 20 years later in 1997 on the archive album Strontium 90, Police Academy. Summers musicality impressed Sting, who was becoming frustrated with Padovanis rudimentary abilities, shortly after the Strontium 90 gig, Sting approached Summers to join the band. He agreed, on the condition the band remain a trio, shortly after these two gigs, Summers delivered an ultimatum and Padovani was dismissed from the band. The Polices power trio line-up of Copeland, Sting, and Summers performed for the first time on 18 August 1977 at Rebeccas club in the English city of Birmingham in the West Midlands. A trio was unusual for the time, and this line-up endured for the rest of the bands history, few punk bands were three-pieces, while contemporary bands pursuing progressive rock, symphonic rock and other sound trends usually expanded their line-ups with support players