An acoustic guitar is a guitar that produces sound acoustically by transmitting the vibration of the strings to the air—as opposed to relying on electronic amplification. The sound waves from the strings of an acoustic guitar resonate through the guitar's body, creating sound; this involves the use of a sound board and a sound box to strengthen the vibrations of the strings. In standard tuning the guitar's six strings are tuned E2 A2 D3 G3 B3 E4; the main source of sound in an acoustic guitar is the string, plucked or strummed with the finger or with a pick. The string vibrates at a necessary frequency and creates many harmonics at various different frequencies; the frequencies produced can depend on string length and tension. The string causes the soundboard and sound box to vibrate, as these have their own resonances at certain frequencies, they amplify some string harmonics more than others, hence affecting the timbre produced by the instrument; the guitar is an ancient instrument. Many theories have been advanced about the instrument's ancestry, but the modern acoustic guitar comes from a long evolution of stringed musical instruments.
It has been claimed that the guitar is a development of the medieval instrument Vihuela as evolution of ancient Lute. Gitterns, were the first small, guitar-like instruments created during the Spanish Middle Ages with a round back, like that of the lute. Modern guitar-shaped instruments were not seen until the Renaissance era, when the body and size began to take a guitar-like shape; the earliest string instruments that related to the guitar and its structure where broadly known as the vihuelas within Spanish musical culture. Vihuelas were string instruments that were seen in the 16th century during the Renaissance. Spanish writers distinguished these instruments into two categories of vihuelas; the vihuela de arco was an instrument that mimicked the violin, the vihuela de penola was played with a plectrum or by hand. When it was played by hand it was known as the vihuela de mano. Vihuela de mano shared extreme similarities with the Renaissance guitar as it used hand movement at the sound hole or sound chamber of the instrument to create music.
By 1790 only six-course vihuela guitars were being created and had become the main type and model of guitar used in Spain. Most of the older 5-course guitars were still in use but were being modified to a six-coursed acoustical guitar. Fernando Ferandiere's book Arte de tocar la guitarra espanola por musica describes the standard Spanish guitar from his time as an instrument with seventeen frets and six courses with the first two'gut' strings tuned in unison called the terceras and the tuning named to'G' of the two strings; the acoustic guitar at this time began to take the shape familiar in the modern acoustic guitar. The coursed pairs of strings became less common in favor of single strings. Circa 1850, the form and structure of the modern Guitar is credited to Spanish guitar maker Antonio Torres Jurado, who increased the size of the guitar body, altered its proportions, invented the breakthrough fan-braced pattern. Bracing, which refers to the internal pattern of wood reinforcements used to secure the guitar's top and back to prevent the instrument from collapsing under tension, is an important factor in how the guitar sounds.
Torres' design improved the volume and projection of the instrument, it has remained unchanged since. The acoustic guitar's soundboard, or top has a strong effect on the loudness of the guitar. Woods that are good at transmitting sound, like spruce, are used for the soundboard. No amplification occurs in this process, because musician add no external energy to increase the loudness of the sound. All the energy is provided by the plucking of the string. Without a soundboard, the string would just "cut" through the air without moving it much; the soundboard increases the surface of the vibrating area in a process called mechanical impedance matching. The soundboard can move the air much more than the string alone, because it is large and flat; this increases the entire system's energy transfer efficiency, musicians emit a much louder sound. In addition, the acoustic guitar has a hollow body, an additional coupling and resonance effect increases the efficiency of energy transmission in lower frequencies.
The air in a guitar's cavity soundboard. At low frequencies, which depend on the size of the box, the chamber acts like a Helmholtz resonator, increasing or decreasing the volume of the sound again depending on whether the air in the box moves in phase or out of phase with the strings; when in phase, the sound increases by about 3 decibels. In opposing phase, it decreases about 3 decibels; as a Helmholtz resonator, the air at the opening is vibrating in or out of phase with the air in the box and in or out of phase with the strings. These resonance interactions attenuate or amplify the sound at different frequencies, boosting or damping various harmonic tones; the cavity air vibrations couple to the outside air through the sound hole, though some variants of the acoustic guitar omit this hole, or have f holes, like a violin family instrument. This coupling is most efficient because here the impedance matching is perfect: it is air pushing air. A guitar has several sound coupling modes: string to
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Joe Logan Diffie is an American country music singer. After working as a demo singer in the 1980s, he signed with Epic Records' Nashville division in 1990. Between and 2004, Diffie charted 35 singles on the Billboard Hot Country Songs chart, five of which peaked at No. 1: his debut release "Home", "If the Devil Danced", "Third Rock from the Sun", "Pickup Man" and "Bigger Than the Beatles". In addition to these singles, he has had 12 others reach the Top 10 and ten more others reach the Top 40 on the same chart, he has co-written singles for Holly Dunn, Tim McGraw, Jo Dee Messina, has recorded with Mary Chapin Carpenter, George Jones, Marty Stuart. Diffie released seven studio albums, a Christmas album and a greatest-hits package under the Epic label, he released one studio album each through Monument Records, Broken Bow Records, Rounder Records. Among his albums, 1993's Honky Tonk Attitude and 1994's Third Rock from the Sun are certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America.
His most recent album, Homecoming: The Bluegrass Album, was released in late 2010 through Rounder. His style is defined by a neotraditionalist country influence with a mix of novelty songs and ballads. Joe Diffie was born into a musical family in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 1958, his first musical performance came at age four. Diffie's father, Joe R. played guitar and banjo, his mother sang. Following in his mother's footsteps, Diffie began to sing at an early age listening to the albums in his father's record collection. Diffie has said that his "Mom and Dad claimed that could sing harmony when was three years old." His family moved to San Antonio, while he was in the first grade, subsequently to Washington state where he attended fourth and fifth grades. He moved to Wisconsin for the years he was in sixth grade through his second year of high school, back to Oklahoma where he attended high school in the town of Velma. In his last two years in high school, Diffie played football and golf in addition to running track.
After graduating, he attended Cameron University in Oklahoma. Although he earned credits toward medical school, he decided against a medical profession after marrying for the first time in 1977, dropped out before graduation. Diffie first worked in oil fields drove a truck that pumped cement in the oilfield in Alice, before he moved back to Duncan to work in a foundry. During this period, he worked as a musician on the side, first in a gospel group called Higher Purpose, in a bluegrass band called Special Edition. Diffie built a recording studio, began touring with Special Edition in adjacent states, sent demo recordings to publishers in Nashville. Hank Thompson recorded Diffie's "Love on the Rocks", Randy Travis put one of Diffie's songs on hold but did not record it. After the foundry closed in 1986, Diffie declared bankruptcy and sold the studio out of financial necessity, he divorced his wife, who left with their two children. Diffie spent several months in a state of depression before deciding to move to Nashville, Tennessee.
There, he took a job at Gibson Guitar Corporation. While at Gibson, he contacted a songwriter and recorded more demos, including songs that would be recorded by Ricky Van Shelton, Billy Dean and The Forester Sisters. By mid-1989, he quit working at the company. Diffie met Debbie, who would become his second wife; that same year, Diffie was contacted by Bob Montgomery, a songwriter and record producer known for working with Buddy Holly. Montgomery, the vice president of A&R at Epic Records, said that he wanted to sign Diffie to a contract with the label, but had to put the singer on hold for a year. In the meantime, Holly Dunn released "There Goes My Heart Again", which Diffie co-wrote and sang the backing vocals. Following this song's chart success, Diffie signed with Epic in early 1990; the label released Diffie's debut album, A Thousand Winding Roads, at the end of 1990, with Montgomery and Johnny Slate as producers. Its first single, "Home", reached the top of the Billboard Hot Country Songs charts.
The song reached number one on the country music charts published by Radio & Records and Gavin Report, making him the first country music artist to have a number one debut single on all three charts, as well as the first country music artist to have a debut single spend more than one week in the number one position at the latter two publications. Diffie co-wrote the album's second and fourth releases, "If You Want Me To" and "New Way". Between these two songs, "If the Devil Danced" became Diffie's second Billboard number one; the album itself peaked at number 23 on Top Country Albums. Diffie performed his first concerts in late 1990, touring with George Strait and Steve Wariner. In that same year, Cash Box magazine named him Male Vocalist of the year. In 1991, Diffie co-wrote the tracks "Livin' on What's Left of Your Love" and "Memory Lane" on labelmate Keith Palmer's debut album. Diffie's second album, titled Regular Joe, was released in 1992 and was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America.
The first two singles from the album both peaked at number five on Billboard: "Is It Cold in Here" and "Ships That Don't Come In", with the latter reaching number on
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
Steel guitar is a type of guitar or the method of playing the instrument. Developed in Hawaii by Joseph Kekuku in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a steel guitar is positioned horizontally; the earliest use of an electrified steel guitar was first made in the early 1930s by Bob Dunn of Milton Brown and His Brownies, a western swing band from Fort Worth, Texas. Nashville picked up the use of the steel guitar in the early days of the late 1940s and early 1950s "Honky Tonk" country & western music with a number of fine steel guitarists backing names like Hank Williams, Lefty Frizzell and Webb Pierce; the term steel guitar is mistakenly used to describe any metal body resophonic guitar. Steel guitar can describe: The slide technique of playing slide guitar is by using a steel bar. Resonator guitars, including round necked varieties, are suitable for this style, yet are referred to as "steel guitars", but rather referred to as a Dobro, acoustic slide guitar, or square neck resonator guitars.
Dobro is a brand name of one of the leading manufacturers of resonator guitars. A specialized instrument built for playing in steel guitar fashion; these are of several types: Lap steel guitar, which may be: Lap slide guitar, with a conventional wooden guitar box. The square-necked variety of resonator guitar. Electric lap steel guitar. Electric console steel guitar. Electric pedal steel guitar. Steel guitar refers to a method of playing on a guitar held horizontally, with the treble strings uppermost and the bass strings towards the player, using a type of slide called a steel above the fingerboard rather than fretting the strings with the fingers; this may be done with any guitar, but is most common on instruments designed and produced for this style of play with painted lines instead of frets, since the strings are much too high to be fretted. Playing a steel guitar with a steel can be quite challenging, great steel players are few and far between, because of some of the techniques involved such as slanting the bar, palm damping, thumb damping, unique styles of picking are not mastered.
The technique popularized in Hawaii. Thus, the lap steel guitar is sometimes known as the Hawaiian guitar in documents from the early 20th century, today any steel guitar is called a Hawaiian steel guitar. However, Hawaiian guitar refers to slack key guitar, played in the conventional or Spanish position, using a conventional fretted guitar in various open tunings with the strings tuned lower than usual. Steel guitar tunings tend to feature close intervals whereas slack key tunings more contain 4ths and 5ths. Dobro is a brand of resonator guitars, but the word is most used to describe bluegrass instruments of several different brands. Tunings and techniques are similar to acoustic Hawaiian steel guitar playing, but have evolved somewhat differently in the bluegrass idiom, which involves faster picking and changes than Hawaiian music does. Bottleneck guitar may have developed from Steel guitar technique, it is similar, with the exception that the guitar is held in the conventional position, a different, tubular form of slide is slipped over the middle or ring finger or pinky to accommodate this playing position.
The slide is never slanted. Common bottleneck tunings are open E chords. A steel guitar is one designed to be played in steel-guitar fashion; these have been of many types, but two dominate: Resonator guitars the square-necked variety which can be played only in steel guitar fashion. Electric instruments, starting with electric lap steel guitars and developing through the console steel guitar to the pedal steel guitar; the lap steel guitar has 6 strings and may have various tunings. The'standard' EBGDAE tuning was changed to allow'open' i.e. major chord tunings to accommodate using the straight steel bar and not require changing string gauges. A new generation of musicians use open tunings, but Hawaiian music for the last 100 years has used more complex tunings once musicians could manipulate bars to execute diagonal barrings, both forward and back. Hawaiian tunings evolved from A Major and E Major to E7, C sharp Minor, C sharp Minor 9th, F sharp Minor 9th, B11th and the popular E 13th. Jerry Byrd is credibly the originator of the C6+A7 tuning ECAGEC sharp which allows a wider ranging of chording for Hawaiian and many other forms of modern music.
It differs from a conventional or Spanish guitar in having a higher action and a neck, square in cross section. The frets, unused in steel style playing, may be replaced by markers. There are three main types: Lap slide guitars, which are acoustic instruments but may have electric pickups for amplification in addition. Resonator guitars, which are acoustic instruments but may have pickups for amplification in addition. Electric lap steel guitars, which are solid body. Early lap steel guitars were Spanish guitars modified by raising both the head nut; the string height at the head nut was raised to about half an inch by using a head nut converter or converter nut. This type of guitar is claimed to have been invented in about 1889 by Joseph Kekuku in Hawaii; some lap slide guitars, particularl
Dobro is an American brand of resonator guitar owned by the Gibson Guitar Corporation. In popular usage, the term is used as a generic trademark for any wood-bodied, single-cone resonator guitar; the Dobro was made by the Dopyera brothers when they formed the Dobro Manufacturing Company. Their design, with a single inverted resonator, was introduced to compete with the patented Tricone and biscuit designs produced by the National String Instrument Corporation; the Dobro name appeared on other instruments, notably electric lap steel guitars and solid body electric guitars and on other resonator instruments such as Safari resonator mandolins. The name originated in 1928 when the Dopyera brothers and Emil, formed the Dobro Manufacturing Company. Dobro is a word meaning ` good' in their native Slovak. An early company motto was "Dobro means good in any language." The Dobro was the third resonator guitar design by John Dopyera, the inventor of the resonator guitar, but the second to enter production.
Unlike his earlier tricone design, the Dobro had a single resonator cone and it was inverted, with its concave surface facing up. The Dobro company described this as a bowl shaped resonator; the Dobro was cheaper to produce. In Dopyera's opinion, the cost of manufacture had priced the resonator guitar beyond the reach of many players, his failure to convince his fellow directors at the National String Instrument Corporation to produce a single-cone version was a motivating factor for leaving. Since National had applied for a patent on the single cone, Dopyera had to develop an alternative design, he did this by inverting the cone so that, rather than having the strings rest on the apex of the cone as the National method did, they rested on a cast aluminum spider that had eight legs sitting on the perimeter of the downward-pointing cone. In the following years both Dobro and National built a wide variety of metal- and wood-bodied single-cone guitars, while National continued with the Tricone for a time.
Both companies sourced many components from National director Adolph Rickenbacher, John Dopyera remained a major shareholder in National. By 1934, the Dopyera brothers had gained control of both National and Dobro, they merged the companies to form the National-Dobro Corporation. From the outset, wooden bodies had been sourced from existing guitar manufacturers the plywood student guitar bodies made by the Regal Musical Instrument Company. Dobro had granted Regal a license to manufacture resonator instruments. By 1937, it was the only manufacturer, the license was made exclusive. Regal continued to manufacture and sell resonator instruments under many names, including Regal, Old Kraftsman, Ward. However, they ceased all resonator guitar production following the United States entry into World War II in 1941. Emil Dopyera manufactured Dobros from 1959 under the brand name Dopera's Original before selling the company and name to Semie Moseley. Moseley merged it with his Mosrite guitar company and manufactured Dobros for a time.
Meanwhile, in 1967, Rudy and Emil Dopyera formed the Original Musical Instrument Company to manufacture resonator guitars, which they at first branded Hound Dog. However, in 1970, they again acquired the Dobro name—Mosrite having gone into temporary liquidation; the Gibson Guitar Corporation acquired OMI in 1993, along with the Dobro name. They moved production to Nashville. Gibson now uses the name Dobro only for models with the inverted-cone design that the original Dobro Manufacturing Company used. Gibson carries biscuit-style single-resonator guitars, but it sells them under names such as "Hound Dog"; the Dobro was first introduced to country music by Roy Acuff. The name Dobro is generically associated with all resonator designs. Gibson, as the owner of the trademark, reserves the use of the name Dobro as a registered trademark for its own product line. Notwithstanding, the name is sometimes used generically for any resonator guitar, as indicated in such songs as The Ballad of Curtis Loew by Lynyrd Skynyrd, Valium Waltz by the Old 97's, When Papa Played the Dobro by Johnny Cash on the Ride This Train album.
Hound Dog Roundneck Hound Dog Squareneck Hound Dog Deluxe Roundneck Hound Dog Deluxe Squareneck Phil Ledbetter Series Gibson Phil Ledbetter Signature Resonator Gibson Phil Ledbetter Mahogany "Limited Edition" As of 2006, many makers, including Gibson, manufacture resonator guitars similar to the original inverted-cone design. Gibson manufactures biscuit-style resonator guitars, but reserves the Dobro name for its inverted-cone models; these "biscuit" guitars are used for blues and are played vertically instead of horizontally like a "spider" bridge. Contemporary manufacturers of the inverted cone design resonator guitar other than Gibson include Tim Scheerhorn and Paul Beard. Virtuoso resonator guitarist Jerry Douglas has used guitars from these builders for nearly three decades. Both Scheerhorn and Beard produce instruments of a radically different structural design to the original Dobro instruments, while retaining the inverted cone and spider bridge. Dobro products on Epiphone website "History of the Pre-War Dobro" by Randy Getz Dobro Valpro at Elderly.com
Sunlight is a June 1978 jazz-funk, fusion album by keyboardist Herbie Hancock. It features Hancock's vocals through a vocoder as well as performances by drummer Tony Williams and bassist Jaco Pastorius; this was when Hancock began heading towards a more mainstream Smooth Jazz/R&B fusion, similar to fellow Jazz-Fusion pianist Patrice Rushen. This would last; the album produced a single entitled "I Thought It Was You", mildly received at the time by UK jazz listeners. As a whole the album tends to lay more toward funk than a jazz record, is reminiscent of much of the electro-funk of the time; this release marks the beginning of the 1980s electro-era style, more refined in Herbie's albums such as Future Shock and Sound-System. All tracks composed except where indicated. "I Thought It Was You" – 8:56 "Come Running to Me" – 8:25 "Sunlight" – 7:12 "No Means Yes" – 6:21 "Good Question" – 8:32 Herbie Hancock – keyboards, synthesizers and background vocals, string and woodwind arrangements Patrick Gleeson – additional synthesizers Bennie Maupin – soprano saxophone solo Wah Wah Watson, Ray Parker, Jr. – guitar Byron Miller, Paul Jackson, Jaco Pastorius – electric bass Leon "Ndugu" Chancler, James Levi, Harvey Mason, Sr.
Tony Williams – drums Raul Rekow, Bill Summers – percussion Baba Duru – tabla Bobby Shew, Maurice Spears, Robert O'Bryant, Garnett Brown – brass Ernest J. Watts, Fred Jackson, Jr. Jack Nimitz, David Willard Riddles – woodwind Terry Adams, Roy Malan, Nathan Rubin, Linda Wood, Emily VanValkenburgh – strings Herbie Hancock and David Rubinson – producers David Rubinson, Fred Catero – engineers at The Automatt Steve Mantoani – engineer at Different Fur Trading Co. Terry Becker – assistant engineer Phill Brown – mastering "Herbie Hancock - Sunlight at Discogs". Discogs.com. 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011