A sidecar is a one-wheeled device attached to the side of a motorcycle, scooter, or bicycle, producing a three-wheeled vehicle. A motorcycle with a sidecar is sometimes called a combination, an outfit, Mr M Bertoux, a French army officer, secured a prize offered by a French newspaper in 1893 for the best method of carrying a passenger on a bicycle. The sidecar wheel was mounted on the lateral plane as the bicycles rear and was supported by a triangulation of tubes from the bicycle. A sprung seat with back rest was mounted above the cross-member, a sidecar appeared in a cartoon by George Moore in the January 7,1903, issue of the British newspaper Motor Cycling. Three weeks later, a patent was granted to Mr. W. J. Graham of Graham Brothers, Enfield. He partnered with Jonathan A. Kahn to begin production, One of Britains oldest sidecar manufacturers, was founded in 1912. It is still trading as Watsonian Squire, automobile producer Jaguar Cars was founded in 1922 as a sidecar manufacturer, the Swallow Sidecar Company.
In 1913, American inventor Hugo Young, of Loudonville, instead, his invention employed a flexible connection, which allowed the sidecar to turn and lower without affecting the balance of the motorcycle. This was an improvement over the original design, allowing for much safer. Young opened up the Flxible Sidecar Company in Loudonville, until the 1950s sidecars were quite popular, providing a cheap alternative to passenger cars, they have been used by armed forces and the UKs AA and RAC motoring organisations. A sidecar motorcycle is a vehicle with the side wheel not directly aligned with the rear motorcycle wheel. This is different from a tricycle, where both rear wheels are powered and share a common axle. Mokharov of the Soviet Union or H. P, baughn of Great Britain seem to have been the first to employ a driven sidecar wheel in 1929. Baughn two-wheel-drive outfits were so successful in trials events in the early 1930s that there were attempts to have the ACU ban them from competition. A great many companies experimented with two-wheel drive in sporting events, the Russian manufacturer Ural produces several models with two-wheel drive that can be engaged as desired.
The sidecar consists of a frame and of a body, the frame may either be fixed to the bike, or it may be attached in a way which makes the bike able to lean in the same matter as bikes without sidecars. The body typically provides one passenger seat and a small compartment behind. In some case the sidecar has a soft top
Belgians are the citizens of the Kingdom of Belgium, a federal state in Western Europe. There is a substantial Belgian diaspora, settling primarily the United States, Belgians are a relatively new people. The 1830 revolution led to the establishment of an independent country under a provisional government, the Belgian people are descendants of the Celtic Belgae and Germanic peoples such as the Frisians and the Saxons. The Latin name was revived in 1790 by the short-lived United Belgian States which was created after a revolution against Austrian rule took place in 1789, from the sixteenth century, the The Low Countries or The Netherlands, were referred to as Belgica in Latin. Belgians are primarily a nationality or citizen group, by jus soli, known as birthright citizenship, since many Belgians are at least bilingual, or even trilingual, it is common for business and family networks to include members of the various ethnic groups composing Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region occupies a unique political and cultural position since geographically and linguistically it is an enclave within the unilingual Flemish Region.
Since the independence of Belgium in 1830, the title of the Belgian head of state is the King of the Belgians rather than the King of Belgium. Within Belgium the Flemish, about 60% of the population, form a clearly distinguishable group, set apart by their language, the popular perception of being a single polity varies greatly, depending on subject matter and personal background. Generally, Flemings will seldom identify themselves as being Dutch and vice versa, Walloons are a French-speaking people who live in Belgium, principally in Wallonia. Walloons are a community within Belgium, important historical and anthropological criteria bind Walloons to the French people. More generally, the term refers to the inhabitants of the Walloon Region. They may speak languages such as Walloon. Though roughly three-quarters of Belgiums French speakers live in Wallonia, it is important to note that French-speaking residents of Brussels tend not to identify as Walloons, the German-speaking Community of Belgium is one of the three constitutionally recognized federal communities of Belgium.
Bordering the Netherlands and Luxembourg, the area has its own parliament and government at Eupen, the German-speaking community is composed of the German-speaking parts of the lands that were annexed in 1920 from Germany. However, in these localities, the German language is endangered due to the adoption of French. Roman Catholicism has traditionally been Belgiums majority religion with approximately 65% of the Belgians declaring themselves to be Catholics, however, by 2004, nationwide Sunday church attendance was only about 4 to 8%. Belgium had a population of 10,839,905 people on 1 January 2010, between 1990 and 2000 the increase was only 291,000. The population of Flanders and Brussels on 1 January 2010 was 6,251,983,3,498,384 and 1,089,538, list of Belgians Flemish people Walloons Belgian American Belgian Brazilian Flemish Canadian
A chauffeur is a person employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle, especially a luxury vehicle such as a large sedan or limousine. A woman employed to drive a motor vehicle is a chauffeuse. Early petrol/gasoline-powered motor cars, before the advent of electric ignition, were ignited by hot tubes in the head which had to be pre-heated before the engine would start. Hence the term chauffeur which, in context, means something like heater-upper. The chauffeur would prime the hot tubes at the start of a journey, only the very wealthy could afford the first automobiles, and they generally employed chauffeurs rather than driving themselves. A1906 article in The New York Times reported that. the chauffeur problem to-day is one of the most serious that the automobilist has to deal with and this is very similar to but more luxurious than taking a taxicab. A variety of benefits are cited for using chauffeurs, including convenience and time savings, insurance costs for luxury vehicles are often lower if the designated driver is a chauffeur.
The legal requirements to be a chauffeur vary depending on the local jurisdiction, in addition to the minimum legal requirements, limousine companies often require their chauffeurs to undergo specific extra training. Most companies have their own courses as to what they expect from their chauffeurs, chauffeurs may be taught proper etiquette for use when they are in presence of their clientele. They may be trained for services to the client beyond the car itself, in many places, proper physical presence is presented by the chauffeur at all times. In some areas, such as Japan, white gloves are the norm, some companies have complete uniforms for their chauffeurs, and some require that hats be worn as part of the uniform. Some companies do not keep strictly to this standard, and there is wide variation throughout the transportation industry
Parties engaging in the production or distribution of prohibited goods and services are members of the illegal economy. Examples include the trade, illegal currency transactions. Violations of the tax code involving income tax evasion constitutes membership in the unreported economy, because tax evasion or participation in a black market activity is illegal, participants will attempt to hide their behavior from the government or regulatory authority. Cash usage is the medium of exchange in illegal transactions since cash usage does not leave a footprint. Common motives for operating in markets are to trade contraband, avoid taxes and regulations. Typically the totality of such activity is referred to with the article as a complement to the official economies, by market for such goods and services. Black money is the proceeds of a transaction, on which income and other taxes have not been paid. Because of the nature of the black economy it is not possible to determine its size. There is no single underground economy, there are many and these underground economies are omnipresent, existing in market oriented as well as in centrally planned nations, be they developed or developing.
Different types of activities are distinguished according to the particular institutional rules that they violate. Illegal economy participants engage in the production and distribution of prohibited goods and services, such as trafficking, arms trafficking. The unreported economy consists of economic activities that circumvent or evade the institutionally established fiscal rules as codified in the tax code. A summary measure of the economy is the amount of income that should be reported to the tax authority but is not so reported. A complementary measure of the economy is the tax gap. In the U. S. unreported income is estimated to be $2 trillion resulting in a tax gap of $450–$500 billion, the unrecorded economy consists of those economic activities that circumvent the institutional rules that define the reporting requirements of government statistical agencies. A summary measure of the economy is the amount of unrecorded income. Unrecorded income is a problem in transition countries that switched from a socialist accounting system to UN standard national accounting.
New methods have been proposed for estimating the size of the unrecorded economy, but there is still little consensus concerning the size of the unreported economies of transition countries
Massage involves working and acting on the body with pressure – structured, stationary, or moving – tension, motion, or vibration, done manually or with mechanical aids. Massage can be applied with the hands, elbows, forearm, aquatic massage and bodywork is performed with recipients submersed or floating in a warm-water therapy pool. In distinction the ancient Greek word for massage was anatripsis, archaeological evidence of massage has been found in many ancient civilizations including China, Japan, Egypt, Rome and Mesopotamia. BC2330, The Tomb of Akmanthor in Saqqara, Egypt depicts two men having work done on their feet and hands, presumably massage, BC 722-481, Huangdi Neijing is composed during the Chinese Spring and Autumn period. The Nei-jing is a compilation of knowledge known up to that date. Massage is referred to in 30 different chapters of the Nei Jing and it specifies the use of different massage techniques and how they should be used in the treatment of specific ailments, and injuries.
BC700 Bian Que, the earliest known Chinese physician uses massage in medical practice, BC500 Jīvaka Komarabhācca, known as Shivago Komarpaj, the founder of Traditional Thai massage and Thai medicine. According to the Pāli Buddhist Canon, Jivaka was Buddhas physician and he codified a healing system that combines acupressure and assisted yoga postures. Traditional Thai massage is based on a combination of Indian. Jivaka is known today as Father Doctor in Thailand, BC493, A possible biblical reference documents daily treatments with oil of myrrh as a part of the beauty regimen of the wives of Xerxes. BC460, Hippocrates wrote The physician must be experienced in many things, BC300 Charaka Samhita believed to be the oldest of the three ancient treatises of Ayurvedic medicine, including massage. Sanskrit records indicate that massage had been practiced in India long before the beginning of recorded history, AD581, Dr Sun Si Miao introduces ten new massage techniques and systematized the treatment of childhood diseases using massage therapy.
AD581, China establishes a department of massage therapy within the Office of Imperial Physicians, middle-Ages, Medical knowledge, including that of massage, made its way from Rome to Persia in the Middle Ages. Many of Galens manuscripts, for instance, were collected and translated by Hunayn ibn Ishaq in the 9th century. Later in the 11th century copies were translated back into Latin, and again in the 15th and 16th centuries and this renewal of the Galenic tradition during the Renaissance played a very important part in the rise of modern science. One of the greatest Persian medics was Avicenna, known as Ibn Sina and he was the foremost philosopher of medieval Islam and a great philosopher and medic. One of his books, Al-Qānūn fī aṭ-Ṭibb has been called the most famous book in the history of medicine in both East and West. AD1150, Evidence of massage abortion, involving the application of pressure to the pregnant abdomen and it depicts a demon performing such an abortion upon a woman who has been sent to the underworld
Red tape is an idiom that refers to excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules that is considered redundant or bureaucratic and hinders or prevents action or decision-making. It is usually applied to governments and other large organizations, one definition is the collection or sequence of forms and procedures required to gain bureaucratic approval for something, especially when oppressively complex and time-consuming. Another definition is the practice of hair splitting or foot dragging. Red tape can include filing and certification requirements, investigation and enforcement practices, and procedures. A photo of the petitions from Cardinal Wolsey and others, now stored in the Vatican archives, can be seen on page 160 of Saints and Sinners, A History of The Popes, by Eamon Duffy. The documents can be viewed rolled and stacked in their condition, each one sealed and bound with the obligatory red tape. The Spanish name for red tape balduque was derived from the Spanish translation of the city of s-Hertogenbosch French name Bois-le-Duc and this is, for example, the case for the Spanish Council of State, the supreme consultative council of the Spanish Government.
In contrast, the lower Spanish courts use ordinary twine to bundle documents as their cases are not supposed to be heard at higher levels, the Spanish Government plansto phase out the use of paper and abandon the practice of using twine. The tradition continued through to the 17th and 18th century, to this day, most defense barristers briefs, and those from private clients, are tied in a pink-coloured ribbon known as pink tape or legal tape. Even in modern times, Spanish bureaucracy is notorious for unusually extreme levels of red tape, as of 2013, the World Bank ranked Spain 136 out of 185 countries for ease of starting a business, which took on average 10 procedures and 28 days. Similar issues persist throughout Latin America, the cutting of red tape - meaning a reduction of bureaucratic obstacles to action. Business representatives often claim red tape is a barrier to business, in Canada, the Canadian Federation of Independent Business has done extensive research into the impact of red tape on small businesses.
The European Commission has a competition that offers an award for the Best Idea for Red Tape Reduction, the competition is aimed at identifying innovative suggestions for reducing unnecessary bureaucracy stemming from European law. In 2008, the European Commission held a conference entitled Cutting Red Tape for Europe, the goal of the conference was reducing red tape and overbearing bureaucracy, in order to help business people and entrepreneurs improve competitiveness. OECD Cutting red tape, national strategies for administrative simplification OECD Editions, Paris. C
One of the largest and best documented war bride phenomenons is American servicemen marrying German Fräuleins after World War II. By 1949, over 20,000 German war brides had emigrated to the United States, furthermore, it is estimated that there are. 15,000 Australian women who married American servicemen based in Australia during World War II, allied servicemen married many women in other countries where they were stationed at the end of the war, including France, Luxembourg, the Philippines and Japan. This occurred in Korea and Vietnam with the wars in those countries involving U. S. troops. As many as 100,000 GI war brides left the United Kingdom,150,000 to 200,000 hailed from continental Europe,15,500 from Australia and 1,500 from New Zealand, between the years 1942 and 1952. In 2008 the Royal British Columbia Museum in Victoria, B. C, had as its major exhibit paintings by Calgary artist Bev Tosh. The exhibit chronicled the experience in Canada and New Zealand via a painting medium. Due to the Philippine Insurrection, a few U. S.
servicemen would take Filipinas as their wives and these Filipinas were already U. S. nationals, when immigrating to the United States, making their legal status significantly different from previous Asian immigrants to the UK. During and immediately after World War II, more than 60,000 U. S. servicemen married women overseas and they were promised that their wives and children would receive free passage to the U. S. The U. S. Armys Operation War Bride, which eventually transported more than 70,000 women and children, the first batch of war brides arrived in the U. S. on 4 February 1946. They had married Australian soldiers involved in the occupation of Japan,47,783 British war brides arrived in Canada accompanied by some 21,950 children. Since 1939, most Canadian soldiers were stationed in Britain, as such, about 94% of all war brides arriving in Canada were British. 3,000 war brides came from the Netherlands, Newfoundland, many of these war brides emigrated to Canada, beginning in 1944 and peaking in 1946.
A special Canadian agency, the Canadian Wives Bureau was set up the Canadian Department of Defence to arrange transport, the Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21 has exhibits and collections dedicated to war brides. There is a National Historic Site marker located at Pier 21, during the campaign of 1943-1945, there were more than 10,000 marriages between Italian girls and American soldiers. Several thousand Japanese who were sent as colonizers to Manchukuo and Inner Mongolia were left behind in China, the majority of Japanese left behind in China were women, and these Japanese women mostly married Chinese men and became known as stranded war wives. Because they had children fathered by Chinese men, the Japanese women were not allowed to bring their Chinese families back with them to Japan so most of them stayed, Japanese law only allowed children fathered by Japanese fathers to become Japanese citizens. However, recently Japan lifted the restrictions on the women and citizenship for children born to foreign men and they have been migrating back to Japan with their Chinese husbands and children
Shepperton Studios is a film studio located in Shepperton, England with a history dating back to 1931. It is now part of the Pinewood Studios Group, during its early existence the studio was branded as Sound City. Before Shepperton Studios was built, there was Littleton Park, which was built in the 17th century by local nobleman Thomas Wood, the old mansion still stands on the site. Scottish businessman Norman Loudon purchased Littleton Park in 1931 for use by his new company, Sound Film Producing & Recording Studios. The studios, which produced short and feature films, quickly became successful and expanded rapidly. The Ministry of Aircraft Production took part of the studios for the production of Vickers Wellington bomber components early in the war. After re-opening in 1945, the studios changed hands, when Sir Alexander Korda purchased British Lion Films, he acquired a controlling interest in Sound City and Shepperton Studios. In January 1955, a new company, British Lion Films Ltd, was formed and Roy and their comedies, such as Im All Right Jack, were produced there, as were dramas from other film-makers such as J.
Lee Thompsons The Guns of Navarone. The studios other projects from the decade include Stanley Kubricks Dr Strangelove. Which won the Sound Departments Academy Award, despite the financial ups and downs of British Lion and the changing of hands, the studios remained active until the early 1970s. In 1969, the studios produced 27 films, by 1971 this number had fallen to seven, Production throughout the 1970s was erratic, reaching a low of two films by 1979. A compromise was proposed, and in 1973 the area of the studios was reduced from 60 acres to 20 acres. The studios 1970s credits include Kubricks A Clockwork Orange and Jimmy Perry and David Crofts Dads Army, Richard Attenboroughs Young Winston, in 1978, rock band The Who filmed live concert scenes at Shepperton especially for their documentary The Kids Are Alright. In 1995, the studios were purchased by a consortium headed by Ridley and Tony Scott, which led to an extensive renovation of the studios as well as the expansion and improvement of its grounds.
Shepperton Studios has 15 stages, ranging in size from 3,000 square feet to 30,000 square feet, five of which are equipped with interior tanks for water and underwater filming. The childrens TV series Thomas the Tank Engine & Friends was shot on the T Stage from 1984 to 2008, the nearby Little House and surrounding grounds have been used as a filming location for films such as The Omen and The Young Victoria. The studios have two large backlots, which have recently used to create two castle compounds for the film 47 Ronin. Many films have used Shepperton Studios, Thomas & Friends TUGS Red Dwarf Rebecca Dancing on Ice The Crystal Maze Russell Howards Good News You Bet, official history Shepperton Studios Biography Shepperton Studios The Pinewood Studios Group
Nobert Brodine, credited as Norbert F. Brodin and Norbert Brodin, was a film cinematographer. The Saint Joseph, Missouri-born cameraman worked on over 100 films in his career before retiring from making in 1953. Brodine began his career working in a camera shop and building on that experience in the Army Signal Corps. After studying at Columbia University, he working as a still photographer in Hollywood before moving to motion pictures in 1919. He began working exclusively for Hal Roach Studios in 1937 and moved on to 20th Century Fox in 1943, Brodine shot several films with Laurel and Hardy at both Roach and Fox, such as Pick a Star, Swiss Miss, The Dancing Masters, and The Bullfighters. Brodine moved back to Hal Roach Studios to end his career in the early 1950s. He worked in television from 1952 to 1960, and finished his career on the television series The Loretta Young Show. Brodine died at the age of 73, on February 28,1970
Charles Lederer was an American screenwriter and film director. A child prodigy, he entered college at age 13, Lederer is recognized for his comic and acerbic adaptations and collaborative screenplays of the 1940s and early 1950s. His screenplays frequently delved into the corrosive influences of wealth and power, Lederer was born in New York City to two prominent figures in the American theater, Broadway producer George Lederer and singer Reine Davies. After his parents were separated and his younger sister Pepi moved to California and were raised by his mothers sister, actress Marion Davies. He grew up in Hollywood, spending time at San Simeon, the enchanted castle on the hill. He was a prodigy and was admitted to UC Berkeley at the age of 13. According to biographer William MacAdams, Hollywood was home to Lederer, virtually none of the film community had grown up in Los Angeles, but Lederer had been brought there when he was 11 by Marion Davies, his mothers sister. Lederer thus knew the movie colony inside out as seen from the top, when he was 19, Lederer became friends with Ben Hecht, who introduced him to the New York literati.
His friendship with Hecht led to his being hired to write dialogue for the film The Front Page. He moved back to Hollywood to become a full-time screenwriter, Lederer is recognized for his acerbic wit, with adaptations and collaborative screenplays written mostly during the 1940s and early 1950s. His screenplays frequently delved into the corrosive influences of wealth and power, yet his comedy writing was among the best of the period, and he, along with Hecht and Herman Mankiewicz became major contributors to the film genre known as screwball comedy. He was friends with screenwriters Joseph and Herman Mankiewicz, Herman would become co-screenwriter of Citizen Kane. After becoming friends with Lederer, Herman told Joe to come to the office of their mutual friend Charlie Lederer, as explained by Hollywood columnist Pauline Kael, Mankiewicz found himself on story-swapping terms with the power behind it all, Hearst himself. Lederer, a prodigy, who had entered college at thirteen. Lederer was Marion Davies’s nephew – the son of her sister Reine.
Marion was childless, and Lederer was very close to her, he spent a deal of his time at her various dwelling places, and took his friends to meet both her and Hearst. ”After finishing the script for Citizen Kane, Mankiewicz gave a copy to Lederer. In some crazily naive way, Mankiewicz seems to have imagined that Lederer would be pleased by how good it was, but Lederer, was deeply upset and took the script to his aunt and Hearst. It went from them to Hearsts lawyers, however, told director Peter Bogdanovich that Kael was totally incorrect in this matter, and she never bothered to check with him
The French Army, officially the Land Army is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces. Along with the French Air Force, the French Navy and the National Gendarmerie, the current Chief of Staff of the French Army is General Jean-Pierre Bosser, a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff. All soldiers are considered professionals following the suspension of conscription, voted in parliament in 1997, as of 2014, the French Army employed 111,628 personnel. In addition, the element of the French Army consisted of 15,453 personnel of the Operational Reserve. The Kings of France needed reliable troops during and after the Hundred Years War and these units of troops were raised by issuing ordonnances to govern their length of service and payment. These Compagnies dordonnance formed the core of the Gendarme Cavalry into the sixteenth century, stationed throughout France and summoned into larger armies as needed. There was made for Francs-archers units of bowmen and foot soldiers raised from the non-noble classes.
The bulk of the infantry for warfare was still provided by urban or provincial militias, raised from an area or city to fight locally and named for their recruiting grounds. Gradually these units became more permanent, and in 1480s Swiss instructors were recruited and these men would be paid and contracted and receive training. Henry II further regularised the French army by forming standing Infantry regiments to replace the Militia structure, the first of these the Régiments de Picardie, Piémont and Champagne were called the Les Vieux Corps. It was normal policy to disband regiments after a war was over as a cost saving measure with the Vieux Corps and the Kings own Household Troops the Maison du Roi being the only survivors. Regiments could be raised directly by the King and so called after the region in which they were raised, or by the nobility and so called after the noble or his appointed colonel. In 1684 there was a reorganisation of the French infantry and again in 1701 to fit in with Louis XIVs plans.
This reshuffle created many of the regiments of the French Army and standardised their equipment. The army of the Sun King tended to wear coats with coloured linings. There were exceptions and the troops, recruited from outside France. In addition to these regiments of the line the Maison du Roi provided several elite units, the Swiss Guards, French Guards, the revolution split the army with the main mass losing most of its officers to aristocratic flight or guillotine and becoming demoralised and ineffective. The French Guard joined the revolt and the Swiss Guards were massacred during the storming of the Tuileries palace, under Napoleon I, the French Army conquered most of Europe during the Napoleonic Wars