States of Brazil
The Federative Republic of Brazil is a union of 27 Federative Units,26 states and one federal district, where the federal capital, Brasília, is located. The states are based on historical, conventional borders which have developed over time. The Federal District is not formally a state, but shares some characteristics of a state as well as some of a municipality, the codes given below are defined in ISO 3166-2, BR. The first administrative divisions of Brazil were the hereditary captaincies, stretches of land granted by the Portuguese Crown to noblemen or merchants with a charter to colonize the land, as the map shows, these divisions generally followed lines of latitude. Each of the holders of these captaincies was referred to as a captain donatary and these captaincies were to be passed from father to son, but the Crown retained the power to revoke them, which the King indeed did in the 16th century. In 1549, the Portuguese Crown appointed Tomé de Sousa as the first governor-general of the vast Portuguese dominion in South America and this dominion overall became known as the State of Brazil.
In several periods of history, the half of the dominion was detached from the State of Brazil. Unlike Spanish America, the territory remained united under a single governor-general. This arrangement helped to keep Brazil as a unified nation-state, in 1759, the heritability of the captaincies was totally abolished by the government of the Marquis of Pombal, with all captains becoming appointed by the Crown. The captaincies were officially renamed provinces on 28 February 1821, with independence, in 1822, the former captaincies became provinces of the Empire of Brazil. Most internal boundaries were unchanged from the colonial period, generally following natural features such as rivers. Minor changes were made to domestic politics, as well as additions resulting from diplomatic settlement of territorial disputes by the end of the 19th century. When Brazil became a republic in 1889, all provinces immediately became states, after the war, the first four territories became states, with Rio Branco and Guaporé being renamed Roraima and Rondônia, whilst Ponta Porã and Iguaçu remained as territories.
In 1960, the square-shaped Distrito Federal was carved out of Goiás in preparation for the new capital, Brasília. The previous federal district became Guanabara State, but in 1975 it was merged with Rio de Janeiro State, retaining its name, in 1977, Mato Grosso was split into two states. The northern area retained the name Mato Grosso while the area became the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The new Mato Grosso do Sul incorporated the territory of Ponta Porã, central Iguaçu went to Paraná, and southern Iguaçu went to Santa Catarina. In 1988, the portion of Goiás became the state of Tocantins
Itaberaba is a municipality in the state of Bahia in the North-East region of Brazil. The population in 2009 was 61,490, before the arrival of Europeans, the area covered by the modern municipality was inhabited by Maracás Indians of the Tapuias subgroup, believed to have been strong fighters but not cannibals. In 1768 the São Simão farmstead was established here by Captain Manuel Rodrigues Cajado, more recently the area has become known as a center for pineapples
Feira de Santana
Feira de Santana is a city in Bahia, Brazil. It is the second-most populous city in the state, with a population of 612,000 according to IBGEs estimate and it is located 100 km northwest of Salvador, Bahias capital city. These cities are connected by BR-324, a divided highway. Feira de Santana, formerly spelled Feira de Santa Anna, is named in honor of the fairs held at the St-Anne-of-the-Fountains Plantation in the 19th century. The St-Anne-of-the-Fountains Plantation was established in the 18th century by Domingos Barbosa de Araujo, located at the edge of Bahias backcountry, it became a center for the cowboys on their way from the pastures there to the port of Cachoeira. A city began to develop with wide streets which were bordered by commercial houses serving the growing population. It was incorporated as the city in Bahia after the capital. Today, Feira de Santana remains the second largest city in Bahia, Feira de Santana, thanks in part to its longstanding importance as a crossroads and its proximity to Salvador, is now an important and diverse commercial and industrial center.
The Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana is located in the city, the city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Feira de Santana. Feira de Santana is famous for its parties and festivals, particularly St Annes Day in the last week of July, which activities such as bumba-meu-boi, segura-a-véia. The Micareta carnival party is held 15 days after Passover, the Festival of Violeiros in September, the city boasts of several interesting tourist destinations including a market for local artists, a museum of contemporary art, and the Antares Astronomical Observatory. The city is served by Gov. João Durval Carneiro Airport, largest Cities of Northeast Region, Brazil Boulevard Shopping Feira de Santana Bahia, Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. Vol. III, Cambridge University Press,1911, p.210
Municipalities of Brazil
The municipalities of Brazil are administrative divisions of the Brazilian states. At present, Brazil has 5,570 municipalities, making the municipality population 34,361. The average state in Brazil has 214 municipalities, roraima is the least subdivided state, with 15 municipalities, while Minas Gerais is the most subdivided state, with 853. The Federal District, where the capital, Brasília, is located. Instead, it is divided by 31 administrative regions, which takes most of the reserved for the municipalities in the states. In municipality-only matters, the Federal District acts as a municipality itself. The 1988 Brazilian Constitution treats the municipalities as parts of the Federation, each municipality has an autonomous local government, comprising a mayor and a legislative body. Both the local government and the body are directly elected by the population every four years. These elections take place at the time all over the country. Each municipality has the power to approve its own laws, as well as collecting taxes and receiving funds from the state.
However, municipal governments have no power, and courts are only organised at the state or federal level. A subdivision of the judiciary, or comarca, can either correspond to an individual municipality or encompass several municipalities. The seat of the administration is a nominated city, with no specification in the law about the minimum population. The city always has the name as the municipality, as they are not treated as distinct entities. Municipalities can be subdivided, only for administrative purposes, into districts, other populated sites are villages, but with no legal effect or regulation. Almost all municipalities are subdivided into neighbourhoods, although most municipalities do not officially define their neighbourhood limits. Municipalities can be split or merged to form new municipalities within the borders of the state, these must abide by the Brazilian Constitution, and forming exclaves or seceding from the state or union is expressly forbidden. is Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics