The 18 ft Skiff is considered the fastest class of sailing skiffs. The class has a long history beginning with races on Sydney Harbour, Australia in 1892 and in New Zealand; the boat has changed since the early days, bringing in new technology as it became available. Because of the need of strength and skill, the class is considered to be the top level of small boat sailing. In Australia this boat is called the "Aussie 18" due to its inherent connections to Australia, it is the fastest conventional non-foiling monohull on the yardstick rating, with a score of 675, coming only third after the Tornado and Inter 20. The 18 ft Skiff has come a long way in more than 100 years of continuous development. From heavy boats carrying a crew of ten or more, to today's high-tech, light-weight, high performance design. Parts of the history of the early days of skiff sailing, between 1892 and 1945, is found on the pages of the Australian 18 Footers League. Today there are two modern hull designs racing; the "International 18" is based on a design by Iain Murray, while the B18 was designed by Julian Bethwaite.
The Australian 18 Footer League allows only the International 18, with the annual JJ Giltinan International Trophy contended with the one design Murray hull. The European Class Association allows both designs to compete against each other. Although there are differences in the sailing aspects of the two designs, their measurements are close, with a waterline length of 18 ft and an average beam of 6 to 8 feet, not including the wings. With wings the maximum beam is 14 feet for the "International 18" and 18 feet for Open 18's sailed at Sydney Flying Squadron and Skiffs Australia; when the boat is dry it should weigh not less than 375 lb including wings and the number one rig of sails and ropes. In the 1980s and 90's wings were widened to the extreme - some boats having maximum beam of 29 feet; such wings proved unmanageable, with the crews too much on the brink of disaster for consistent success. While true 18' skiffs have no sail area or mast height limitations, the limit that the 18 footer League has specified for their one-design sub class is a maximum mast height of 33 ft powerful on an 18' hull.
The entire rig, which supports sails with unlimited area, is controlled by three trapezing crew members. The boat will plane upwind starting at a true windspeed of about 8 knots, depending on sea conditions and off the wind can reach speeds that doubles the true windspeed; this is possible through the high sail-carrying power to total weight ratio, above 30% with the no. 1 rig and approaches 40% with the no. 3 rig. In Australia, there is a fleet of 20-25 18 Foot Skiffs at the "League" club in Sydney. Sydney's other traditional 18 Foot Skiff club, the Sydney Flying Squadron, has a small fleet and there are several boats in the state of Queensland. In New Zealand the class following is smaller but reached its zenith in the 1970s when most designs were by Bruce Farr; the 18 ft skiff is not without its dangers. The high speed makes it hard to handle and requires fast reflexes and a broad awareness of your surroundings in order to anticipate changes. Major accidents can occur with experienced sailors alike.
The 18 ft skiff is one of the fastest monohulls on the water. With its massive sail-plan of over 100 square metres on the no. 1 rig and three crew members on trapeze it can outperform nearly every monohull on the water. It combines extreme speeds with an element of danger and is thought by many to be one of the biggest spectacles in sailing; each year the JJ Giltinan International Trophy is contested on Sydney Harbour to decide the de facto world champion of the class. The event was dominated by Australia and won by New Zealand, but in recent years entrants such as the USA's Howie Hamlin have taken out the title, displaying the classes growing international appeal; the first flying 18 footers were either clinker built with multiple steam bent frames. Cotton sails were used and spars were solid wood; the crew number varied according to the wind strength with a boy carried to bail out water. Initial designs were conventional displacement shapes with emphasis on narrow waterlines. In the early 1950s The Sydney boats put emphasis on carrying large extra sails down wind called ringtails.
These were set outside the main with light spars bottom. They were carried in addition to spinnakers. In light conditions watersails were carried under the main boom; the most revolutionary boat of this period was the lightweight boat Result, from New Zealand, cold moulded with 2 skins of Kahikatea glued together and nailed to lightweight Mangeao bent steamed frames every 21 1/2 inches. At 6 ft 3inches Result was narrower than the conventional boats but still had the same full bow sections typical of the displacement style boats. Result centreboard. In any breeze over 10 knots it was faster than any previous 18s because of its planing ability. From this period increased knowledge and understanding of hydrodynamics and aerodynamics, coupled to the availability of plywood and reliable waterproof glues saw dramatic changes. Clinker and carvel construction was glued up hollow pear shaped masts became standard. By the late 1960s a greater understanding of the science behind planning saw hulls made with less rocker fine forward with flat aft sections.
Once trapezes were introduced the number of crew dropped to 4 by the early 70s and then
2013 America's Cup
The 34th America's Cup was a series of yacht races held on San Francisco Bay, in September 2013. The series was contested between the defender Oracle Team USA representing the Golden Gate Yacht Club, the challenger Emirates Team New Zealand representing the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron. Oracle Team USA defended the America's Cup by a score of 9 to 8, after winning eight consecutive races from Race 11 onwards. Team New Zealand won the right to challenge for the cup by winning the 2013 Louis Vuitton Cup; the 34th America's Cup's race sequence was the longest by both number of days and races, the first since the 25th America's Cup to feature both teams in a match point situation. The Golden Gate Yacht Club defeated Société Nautique de Genève in the 2010 America's Cup to become the Defenders of the America's Cup; the first Challenger of Record for the 34th Cup was Club Nautico di Roma, a joint press conference was held on May 6, 2010 to plan for the event. The planning process was to include definition of new rules, an independent management team, definition of a new class of boats created in conjunction with all teams, regular racing in multiple venues and provision for increased television and online coverage.
The Protocol for the 34th America's Cup was published on September 13, 2010. Two new classes of boat were announced. AC72 wing-sail catamarans are being used for the America's Cup races and the AC45 class, a scaled-down one-design version of the AC72, was used for the preliminary training and racing until boats built to the AC72 rules became available; the amended AC72 Class Rule version 1.1 was published on February 22, 2011. The AC72 can reach speeds averaging about 30 knots with peaks over 40 knots; this is faster than the previous ACC boats that reached speeds of 11 to 13 knots. In order to increase global awareness, hence attract sponsors for the teams, an America's Cup World Series was held over the 2011–12 and 2012–13 seasons; the winner of each annual series was declared the America's Cup World Series Champion for that season. There were three regattas in 2011, five in 2012, two in 2013; each regatta lasted for one week and had 6 days of racing, including official practice. Each AC World Series regatta was a combination of fleet racing.
AC45 one-design catamarans were used for each World Series regatta. Officials adopted rules for the 2013 America's Cup to reduce costs and thereby attract more challengers: No-sail periods limit the time for on-the-water boat tuning and crew training. Rules limit the number of boats, sails and support boats that each team may use to two AC72 boats. Competitors shall not launch the first boat before July 1, 2012, from July 1, 2012 through January 31, 2013, may sail their AC72 boat for a maximum of 30 days; the competitor's second AC72 boat may not be launched before February 1, 2013. From February 1, 2013 through May 1, 2013, the competitors may sail their AC72 boats for a maximum of 45 days per AC72 boat. There are no sailing-days restrictions from May 2013 onward. Rules limit crew size to 11 sailors. Despite these measures, the cost of mounting a competitive challenge exceeds US$100 million. In addition to using the AC45 catamarans for the initial world series races, they are used in the nationality-based'Youth America's Cup'.
The smaller scaled down AC45 version of the AC72 with similar characteristics to the AC72 enables younger competition sailors to master the techniques used to sail this style of catamaran before they progress to the AC72 boats. The YAC began in 2013, when both second places were taken by New Zealand entries; the winning team included Peter Burling, Blair Tuke, Jono Spurdle, Sam Meech, Andy Maloney, Jason Saunders and Guy Endean. On July 8, 2010, Oracle Team USA announced that San Francisco was "the only city in the USA under consideration to host the 34th America's Cup” match. At the time, KGO-TV and Gazzetta dello Sport, an Italian sports newspaper, reported that Rome-Fiumicino, Italy was challenging San Francisco to host the event. Oracle Team USA confirmed that San Diego and Long Beach were considered earlier as possible venues for this event. A key parameter in deciding the venue was reliability of the wind and weather patterns so that pre-published television schedules would be guaranteed to show racing rather than suffering endless postponements, a significant problem for TV audiences watching the 2010 America's Cup.
In early December 2010, BMW Oracle Racing became concerned that a full and final agreement with San Francisco would not be completed in time to comply with the requirement to announce the location of the cup venue on December 31, 2010. As a result, negotiations were activated with Newport, Rhode Island, as a potential venue for the cup. However, on December 31 San Francisco was awarded the right to host the 2013 America's Cup. Fourteen yacht clubs submitted notices of entry within the deadline, but two were declined and ten withdrew. Club Nautico di Roma was named as the Challenger of Record, but after their team Mascalzone Latino withdrew, the Challenger of Record became the Royal Swedish Yacht Club, sponsoring Artemis Racing. Other notable teams that withdrew included former Cup holder Alinghi and the Energy Team from Yacht Club de France. On August 2, 2012, the America's Cup Event Authority announced that four challenging teams would compete for the right to challenge Oracle Team USA, the only team that represented the defending Golden Gate Yacht Club.
These teams were Artemis Racing representing Kungliga Svenska Segelsällskapet, Emirates Team New Zealand re
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
The America's Cup, affectionately known as the Auld Mug, is a trophy awarded to the winner of the America's Cup match races between two sailing yachts. One yacht, known as the defender, represents the yacht club that holds the America's Cup and the second yacht, known as the challenger, represents the yacht club, challenging for the cup; the timing of each match is determined by an agreement between the challenger. The America's Cup is the oldest international sporting trophy, it will next be raced for in the southern summer, in the early part of 2021. The cup was awarded in 1851 by the Royal Yacht Squadron for a race around the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom, won by the schooner America. Known as the'R. Y. S. £100 Cup', the trophy was renamed the'America's Cup' after the yacht and was donated to the New York Yacht Club under the terms of the Deed of Gift, which made the cup available for perpetual international competition. Any yacht club that meets the requirements specified in the deed of gift has the right to challenge the yacht club that holds the cup.
If the challenging club wins the match, it gains stewardship of the cup. The history and prestige associated with the America's Cup attracts not only the world's top sailors and yacht designers but the involvement of wealthy entrepreneurs and sponsors, it is a test not only of sailing skill and boat and sail design, but of fundraising and management skills. The trophy was held by the NYYC from 1857 until 1983; the NYYC defended the trophy twenty-four times in a row before being defeated by the Royal Perth Yacht Club, represented by the yacht Australia II. The NYYC's reign was the longest winning streak in the history of all sports. From the first defence of the cup in 1870 through the twentieth defence in 1967, there was always only one challenger. In 1970, for the first time, there were multiple challengers, so the NYYC agreed that the challengers could run a selection series with the winner becoming the official challenger and competing against the defender in the America's Cup match. Since 1983, Louis Vuitton has sponsored the Louis Vuitton Cup as a prize for the winner of the challenger selection series.
Early matches for the cup were raced between yachts 65–90 ft on the waterline owned by wealthy sportsmen. This culminated with the J-Class regattas of the 1930s. After World War II and twenty years without a challenge, the NYYC made changes to the deed of gift to allow smaller, less expensive 12-metre class yachts to compete, it was replaced in 1990 by the International America’s Cup Class, used until 2007. After a long legal battle, the 2010 America's Cup was raced in 90 ft waterline multihull yachts in a best of three "deed of gift" match in Valencia, Spain; the victorious Golden Gate Yacht Club elected to race the 2013 America's Cup in AC72 foiling, wing-sail catamarans. Golden Gate Yacht Club defended the cup; the 35th America's Cup match was announced to be sailed in 50 ft foiling catamarans. The history of the America's Cup has included legal battles and disputes over rule changes including most over the rule changes for the 2017 America's Cup; the America's Cup is held by the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron, who will stage the 36th defence of the Cup in 2021.
The Cup is an ornate sterling silver bottomless ewer crafted in 1848 by Garrard & Co. Henry William Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey bought one and donated it for the Royal Yacht Squadron's 1851 Annual Regatta around the Isle of Wight, it was known as the "R. Y. S. £100 Cup", standing for a cup of a hundred GB Pounds or "sovereigns" in value. The cup was subsequently mistakenly engraved as the "100 Guinea Cup" by the America syndicate, but was referred to as the "Queen's Cup". Today, the trophy is known as the "America's Cup" after the 1851 winning yacht, is affectionately called the "Auld Mug" by the sailing community, it is inscribed with names of the yachts that competed for it, has been modified twice by adding matching bases to accommodate more names. In 1851 Commodore John Cox Stevens, a charter member of the fledgling New York Yacht Club, formed a six-person syndicate to build a yacht with intention of taking her to England and making some money competing in yachting regattas and match races.
The syndicate contracted with pilot boat designer George Steers for a 101 ft schooner, christened America and launched on 3 May 1851. On 22 August 1851, America raced against 15 yachts of the Royal Yacht Squadron in the Club's annual 53-nautical-mile regatta around the Isle of Wight. America won. Apocryphally, Queen Victoria, watching at the finish line, was reported to have asked, second, the famous answer being: "Ah, Your Majesty, there is no second."The surviving members of the America syndicate donated the cup via the Deed of Gift of the America's Cup to the NYYC on 8 July 1857, specifying that it be held in trust as a perpetual challenge trophy to promote friendly competition among nations. No challenge to race for the Cup was issued until British railway tycoon James Lloyd Ashbury's topsail schooner Cambria beat the Yankee schooner Sappho in the Solent in 1868; this success encouraged the Royal Thames Yacht Club in believing that the cup could be brought back home, placed the first challenge in 1870.
Ashbury entered Cambria in the NYYC Queen's Cup race in New York City on 8 August against a fleet of seventeen
Sailing at the 2008 Summer Olympics
Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad. With the exception of 1904 and the cancelled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule; the Sailing program of 2008 consisted of a total of nine sailing classes. Eleven races are scheduled for each event except for the 49er class, for which 16 races are scheduled from 9 August 2008 to 21 August 2008 of the coast of the Qingdao International Sailing Centre facing the Yellow Sea. Of the 11 races, 10 are scheduled as one as a medal race; the sailing was done on four different types of courses. According to the IOC statutes the contests in all sport disciplines must be held either in, or as close as possible to the city which the IOC has chosen. Among others, an exception is made for the Olympic yachting events, which customarily must be staged on the open sea. On account of this principle, Qingdao was selected for the honor to carry out the Olympic yachting regattas. For that purpose the Qingdao International Sailing Centre was constructed.
The land based part of the QISC covers 45 hectares and includes: Administrative and game management center Olympic and athletes village Media center Logistics supply center National sailing center, International yacht club with seaside marina International passenger liner terminal International conference center with five-star hotel Shopping and amusement center and public squares. The offshore part of the complex included: The main seawall The secondary seawall The jetty wharf The Olympic wharf A total of five race areas were set on the Yellow Sea of the coast of Qingdao; the location points to the center of the 0.6 nm radius circle for course area A & B and to a 0.75 nm radius circle for course area's C D and E. Africa Asia Oceania Europe North America South America Sailing at the 2008 Summer Paralympics "Digital Library Collection". Digital Library Collection at la84.org. La84foundation. Retrieved 3 March 2014. Official Report of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games • Volume I Bid Documents and Analysis: Passion behind the Bid.
Retrieved 21 March 2014. Official Report of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games • Volume III Preparation for the Games: New Beijing Great Olympics. Retrieved 21 March 2014. Official Report of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games • Volume II Ceremonies and Competitions: Celebration of the Games. Retrieved 21 March 2014. Official Results book Part 3. Retrieved 21 March 2014. "Sailing at the 2008 Beijing Summer Games". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 21 March 2014. "Beijing 2008". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee
The 12 Metre class is a rating class for racing sailboats that are designed to the International rule. It enables fair competition between boats that rate in the class whilst retaining the freedom to experiment with the details of their designs; the designation "12 Metre" does not refer to any single measurement on the boat, is not referencing the vessels overall length, measures the sum of the components directed by the formula which governs design and construction parameters. 12 Metre class boats range from 65 to 75 feet in length overall. The first 12 Metres were built in 1907; the 12 Metre class was used in the Olympic Games of 1908, 1912 and 1920 but few boats participated in these events. The 12 Metre class boats are best known as the boat design used in the America's Cup from 1958 to 1987. Competitiveness between boats in the class is maintained by requiring the boats to be in compliance with the 12 Metre formula. Designers and builders are required to take into account such things as the sail area, the boat length at the waterline and the boat girth.
The measurements are weighted in the formula. For example, the present formula takes the square root of the sail area rather than total area; the combination of weighted measurements must equal to 12 metres. Designers are free to change any of the component variables, as well as other details, such as the size of the rudder and keel, so long as the corresponding changes elsewhere produce an ultimate sum of 12 metres and the resulting boat is both seaworthy and safe. Though disparity between boats are minimized by the rule, enough variation exists so that races are as much about design and construction as they are about seamanship and tactics; the "12 Metre" yachts are referred to as "Twelves", "12s", or "12 Metres". The Formula and associated rules for designing and constructing 12 Metre yachts has been modified several times from inception in racing; the purpose of the Formula and rules was to encourage designer's creativity to optimize designs to get the best overall performance when racing while still maintaining competitive racing postures between different designs.
Although the Formula and Rules allowed for some creativity they were intended to be comprehensive enough to eliminate loop holes which could result in an extreme design which conformed to the 12 Metre rule but outclassed other contemporary designs on the race course. If the rules were considered to be too loose it would discourage the building of new 12 Metre yachts for fear of a new boat being outclassed before it was launched; the Rules were updated in response to advances in areas such as material technology, design technology, equipment. The Rule has four distinct periods: Used from 1907–1920 L + B + G / 3 + 3 d + S / 3 − F 2 ≤ 12 metres where L = waterline length B = beam G = chain girth d = difference between skin girth and chain girth S = sail area F = freeboard Used from 1920–1933. L + G / 4 + 2 d + S − F 2.5 ≤ 12 metres where L = waterline length G = chain girth d = difference between skin girth and chain girth S = sail area F = freeboard Used from 1933 onwards: L + 2 d + S − F 2.37 ≤ 12 metres where L = waterline length d = difference between skin girth and chain girth S = sail area F = freeboardAssociated with the formula is an comprehensive set of rules.
The rules can be classified into two main areas: rules concerning safety and rules to ensure competitive racing. For example, the maximum total area of all cockpits is specified to minimise the chance of a boat being swamped in rougher seas. Structural requirements are specified to ensure that strength is not sacrificed by the need to get weight low down in the keel. Materials are specified plus numerous other details concerning all aspects of the boat; the intention ensure competitive racing. The America's Cup racing resumed in 1958 after World War II by a syndicate led by Henry Sears, more economical vessels were desired to replace the huge and expensive J-class yachts that were raced in the 1930s.
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a seaside city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, located 33 miles southeast of Providence, Rhode Island, 20 miles south of Fall River, Massachusetts, 73 miles south of Boston, 180 miles northeast of New York City. It is known as a New England summer resort and is famous for its historic mansions and its rich sailing history, it was the location of the first U. S. Open tournaments in both tennis and golf, as well as every challenge to the America's Cup between 1930 and 1983, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport, which houses the United States Naval War College, the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, an important Navy training center. It was a major 18th-century port city and contains a high number of buildings from the Colonial era; the city is the county seat of Newport County, which has no governmental functions other than court administrative and sheriff corrections boundaries. It was known for being the location of the "Summer White Houses" during the administrations of Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy.
The population was 24,027 as of 2013. Newport was founded in 1639 on Aquidneck Island, called Rhode Island at the time, its eight founders and first officers were Nicholas Easton, William Coddington, John Clarke, John Coggeshall, William Brenton, Jeremy Clark, Thomas Hazard, Henry Bull. Many of these people had been part of the settlement at Portsmouth, along with Anne Hutchinson and her followers, they separated within a year of that settlement and Coddington and others began the settlement of Newport on the southern side of the island. Newport grew to be the largest of the four original settlements which became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, which included Providence Plantations and Shawomett. Many of the first colonists in Newport became Baptists, the second Baptist congregation in Rhode Island was formed in 1640 under the leadership of John Clarke. In 1658, a group of Jews were welcomed to settle in Newport; the Newport congregation is now referred to as Congregation Jeshuat Israel and is the second-oldest Jewish congregation in the United States.
It meets in the oldest synagogue in the United States. The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations received its royal charter in 1663, Benedict Arnold was elected as its first governor at Newport; the Old Colony House served as a seat of Rhode Island's government upon its completion in 1741 at the head of Washington Square, until the current Rhode Island State House in Providence was completed in 1904 and Providence became the state's sole capital city. Newport became the most important port in colonial Rhode Island, a public school was established in 1640; the commercial activity which raised Newport to its fame as a rich port was begun by a second wave of Portuguese Jews who settled there around the middle of the 18th century. They had been practicing Judaism in secret for 300 years in Portugal, they were attracted to Rhode Island because of the freedom of worship there, they brought with them commercial experience and connections, a spirit of enterprise. Most prominent among those were Jacob Rodrigues Rivera, who arrived in 1745 and Aaron Lopez, who came in 1752.
Rivera introduced the manufacture of sperm oil which became one of Newport's leading industries and made the town rich. Newport developed 17 manufactories of oil and candles and enjoyed a practical monopoly of this trade until the American Revolution. Aaron Lopez is credited with making Newport an important center of trade, he encouraged 40 Portuguese Jewish families to settle there, Newport had 150 vessels engaged in trade within 14 years of his activity. He was involved in the slave trade and manufactured spermaceti candles, barrels, chocolate, clothes, shoes and bottles, he became the wealthiest man in Newport but was denied citizenship on religious grounds though British law protected the rights of Jews to become citizens. He appealed to the Rhode Island legislature for redress and was refused with this ruling: "Inasmuch as the said Aaron Lopez hath declared himself by religion a Jew, this Assembly doth not admit himself nor any other of that religion to the full freedom of this Colony. So that the said Aaron Lopez nor any other of said religion is not liable to be chosen into any office in this colony nor allowed to give vote as a free man in choosing others."
Lopez persisted by applying for citizenship in Massachusetts. From the mid-17th century, the religious tolerance in Newport attracted numbers of Quakers, known as the Society of Friends; the Great Friends Meeting House in Newport is the oldest existing structure of worship in Rhode Island. In 1727, James Franklin printed the Rhode-Island Almanack in Newport. In 1732, he published the Rhode Island Gazette. In 1758, his son James founded the weekly newspaper Mercury; the famous 18th century Goddard and Townsend furniture was made in Newport. Throughout the 18th century, Newport suffered from an imbalance of trade with the largest colonial ports; as a result, Newport merchants were forced to develop alternatives to conventional exports. In the 1720s, Colonial leaders arrested many pirates, acting under pressure from the British government. Many were buried on Goat Island. Newport was a major center of the slave trade in colonial and early America, active in the "triangle trade" in which slave-produced sugar and molasses from the Caribbean were carried to Rhode Island and distilled into rum, whi