Rajat Kumar Gupta is an Indian-American businessman, the first foreign-born Managing Director of management consultancy firm McKinsey & Company from 1994 to 2003 and was convicted for insider trading. He spent 2 years in jail, he was a board member of corporations including Goldman Sachs, Procter & Gamble and American Airlines, as well as an advisor to non-profits such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Additionally, he is the co-founder of the Indian School of Business, American India Foundation, New Silk Route and Scandent Solutions. Gupta was convicted in June 2012 on insider trading charges of four criminal felony counts of conspiracy and securities fraud in the Galleon scandal, he was sentenced in October 2012 to two years in prison, an additional year on supervised release and ordered to pay $5 million in fines. His conviction was upheld by a Federal Appeals Court on March 25, 2014, he lodged an appeal with the U. S. Supreme Court, subsequently upheld on April 20, 2015.
An application to remain free until the court determined whether it would hear the appeal was denied on June 11, 2014 leaving Gupta having to commence his two-year prison term on June 17, 2014. He was released on monitored house arrest in January 2016 and from house arrest in March 2016. At the time of his release Gupta was continuing to appeal his conviction on grounds that he received no tangible benefit from Raj Rajaratnam in return for the particular information that Gupta relayed to his associate Rajaratnam. Rajat Gupta's memoir, published by Juggernaut Books Mind Without Fear was released in March 2019. Rajat Gupta was born in Calcutta to a Bengali Baidya father Ashwini Gupta and a Punjabi mother Pran Kumari, his father was a journalist for Ananda Publishers and a professor in Calcutta's Ripon College prior to that. His mother taught at a Montessori school. Gupta has three siblings; when Gupta was five the family moved to New Delhi, where his father went to start the Delhi-edition of the newspaper Hindustan Standard.
Gupta's father died. Now orphans and his siblings "decided to live by ourselves, it was pretty unusual in those days."He was a student at Modern School in New Delhi. After high school, Gupta ranked 15th in the nation in the entrance exam for the Indian Institutes of Technology, IIT JEE, he received a Bachelor of Technology degree in Mechanical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi in 1971. Declining a job from the prestigious domestic firm ITC Limited, he received an MBA from Harvard Business School in 1973. Gupta graduated with distinction as a Baker Scholar. Gupta remarked that the first time he saw an airplane was when he flew to ITC at their request to inform them he would be attending Harvard. Gupta joined Company in 1973 as one of the earliest Indian-Americans at the consultancy, he was rejected because of inadequate work experience, a decision, overturned after his Harvard Business School professor Walter J. Salmon called Ron Daniel head of the New York office and also the managing director of McKinsey, wrote on Gupta's behalf.
Gupta's mentors at McKinsey included Ron Daniel, the former managing director who as senior partner first hired Gupta into the New York office, Anupam Puri, the first Indian at the firm and eventual senior partner. He, in turn, mentored Anil Kumar as another early Indian-American at the consultancy. Gupta and Kumar "were the face of McKinsey in India." According to The Financial Times, "the two operated as a forceful double-act to secure business for McKinsey, win access in Washington and build a brotherhood of donors around the Hyderabad-based ISB and a handful of social initiatives." Gupta began his career in New York before moving to Scandinavia to become the head of McKinsey offices in 1981. He did well in what was considered a "backwater" area. Elected senior partner in 1984, he became head of the Chicago office in 1990. In 1994 he was elected the firm's first managing director born outside of the US, re-elected twice in 1997 and 2000. Gupta is regarded as one of the first Indians to break through the glass ceiling, as the first Indian-born CEO of a multinational corporation.
During Gupta's time as head of McKinsey, the firm opened offices in 23 new countries and doubled its consultant base to 891 partners, increasing revenue 280 percent to $3.4 billion. His annual salary was estimated at $5–10 million USD; however Gupta's tenure was marked by controversy. When Gupta joined McKinsey, it was a small partnership run according to the high standards of its early leader, Marvin Bower, but by the time Gupta became managing director, McKinsey was under pressure from an competitive market, Gupta's expansion efforts were said to have watered down McKinsey's vaunted principles. Enron identified with McKinsey, collapsed during his time as managing director. During the dot-com bubble he and Anil Kumar created a program for McKinsey to accept payment from its clients in stock. Gupta's accountability for the shifting of standards was weighed differently by different observers, some defended him noting that the managing director's job was like trying to "herd cats". In what was seen as a reaction against Gupta's aggressive firm expansion, Gupta's successor Ian Davis was elected by "emphasizing the need for
The dignity of Knight Bachelor is the basic and lowest rank of a man, knighted by the monarch but not as a member of one of the organised orders of chivalry. Knights Bachelor are the most ancient sort of British knight, but Knights Bachelor rank below knights of chivalric orders. There is no female counterpart to Knight Bachelor; the lowest knightly honour that can be conferred upon a woman is Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, one rank higher than Knight Bachelor. Foreigners are not created Knights Bachelor. Knighthood is conferred for public service, it is possible to be a Knight Bachelor and a junior member of an order of chivalry without being a knight of that order. For instance, Sir Ian Holm, Sir Michael Gambon, Sir Derek Jacobi, Sir Anthony Hopkins, Sir Elton John, Sir Michael Caine, Sir Barry Gibb and Sir Ian McKellen are Commanders of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire. None of them would be entitled to use the honorific "Sir" by virtue of their membership of the order alone, but as they are all Knights Bachelor, they are entitled to preface their names with that title.
Like other knights, Knights Bachelor are styled "Sir". Since they are not knights of any order of chivalry, there is no post-nominal associated with the honour; when the style "Sir" is awkward or incomplete due to a subsequent appointment, recipients may sometimes use the word "Knight" or "Kt" after their name in formal documents to signify that they have the additional honour. This style is adopted by Knights Bachelor who are peers, baronets or knights of the various statutory orders; until 1926 knights bachelor had no insignia which they could wear, but in that year King George V issued a warrant authorising the wearing of a badge on all appropriate occasions. The knights bachelor badge may be worn on all such occasions upon the left side of the coat or outer garment of those upon whom the degree of knight bachelor has been conferred. Measuring 2 3⁄8 inches in length and 1 3⁄8 inches in width, it is described in heraldic terms as follows: Upon an oval medallion of vermilion, enclosed by a scroll a cross-hilted sword belted and sheathed, pommel upwards, between two spurs, rowels upwards, the whole set about with the sword belt, all gilt.
In 1974, Queen Elizabeth II issued a further warrant authorising the wearing on appropriate occasions of a neck badge smaller in size, in miniature. In 1988 a new certificate of authentication, a knight's only personal documentation, was designed by the College of Arms; the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor was founded for the maintenance and consolidation of the Dignity of Knights Bachelor in 1908, obtained official recognition from the Sovereign in 1912. The Society keeps records of all Knights Bachelor, in their interest. Bachelor Knight banneret Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood British honours system: Knighthood Insignia of knights bachelor—Website of the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor The UK Honours System—Website UK Government Debrett's Media related to Knights Bachelor at Wikimedia Commons
Balliol College, Oxford
Balliol College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. One of Oxford's oldest colleges, it was founded around 1263 by John I de Balliol, a rich landowner from Barnard Castle in County Durham, who provided the foundation and endowment for the college; when de Balliol died in 1269 his widow, Dervorguilla, a woman whose wealth far exceeded that of her husband, continued his work in setting up the college, providing a further endowment, writing the statutes. She is considered a co‑founder of the college. Among the college's alumni are three former prime ministers, Harald V of Norway, five Nobel laureates, numerous literary and philosophical figures, including Adam Smith, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Aldous Huxley. John Wycliffe, who translated the Bible into English, was Master of the college in the 1360s. In 2018 Balliol had an endowment of £139.3m. Balliol College was founded in about 1263 by John I de Balliol under the guidance of Walter of Kirkham, the Bishop of Durham.
According to legend, the founder had abducted the bishop as part of a land dispute and as a penance he was publicly beaten by the bishop and had to support a group of scholars at Oxford. After de Balliol's death in 1268, his widow, Dervorguilla of Galloway, made arrangements to ensure the permanence of the college in that she provided capital and in 1282 formulated the college statutes, documents that survive to this day. Along with University and Merton, Balliol can claim to be the oldest Oxford college. Balliol’s claim is that a house of scholars was established by the founder in Oxford in around 1263, before Merton in 1274 and University in around 1280. Under a statute of 1881, New Inn Hall, one of the remaining medieval halls, was merged into Balliol College in 1887. Balliol acquired New Inn Hall's admissions and other records for 1831–1887 as well as the library of New Inn Hall, which contained 18th-century law books; the New Inn Hall site was sold and is now part of St Peter's College, Oxford.
In 1880, seven mischievous Balliol undergraduates published The Masque of B-ll--l, a broadsheet of forty quatrains making light of their superiors – the Master and selected Fellows and Commoners – and themselves. The outraged authorities suppressed the collection, only a few copies survived, three of which found their way into the College Library over the years, one into the Bodleian Library. Verses of this form are now known as Balliol rhymes; the best known of these rhymes is the one on Benjamin Jowett. This has been quoted and reprinted in every book about Jowett and about Balliol since. First come I. My name is J-W-TT. There's no knowledge but I know it. I am Master of this College; this and 18 others are attributed to Henry Charles Beeching. The other quatrains are much less well known. William Tuckwell included 18 of these quatrains in his Reminiscences in 1900, but they all came out only in 1939, thanks to Walter George Hiscock, an Oxford librarian, who issued them then and in a second edition in 1955.
For many years, there has been a traditional and fierce rivalry shown between the students of Balliol and those of its immediate neighbour to the east, Trinity College. It has manifested itself on the river; the rivalry reflects that which exists between Trinity College and Balliol's sister college, St John's College, Cambridge. In college folklore, the rivalry goes back to the late 17th century, when Ralph Bathurst, President of Trinity, was observed throwing stones at Balliol's windows. In fact, in its modern form, the rivalry appears to date from the late 1890s, when the chant or song known as a "Gordouli" began to be sung from the Balliol side; the traditional words run: Gordouli Face like a ham,Bobby Johnson says so And he should know. The shouting of chants over the wall is still known as "a Gordouli", the tradition continues as the students gather to sing following boat club dinners and other events; the traditional Gordouli is said to have been sung by Balliol and Trinity men in the trenches of Mesopotamia in the First World War.
Balliol became known for its radicalism and political activism in the 20th century, saw an abortive coup in the 1960s in which students took over the college and declared it "the People's Republic of Balliol". The contrast between the radical tendencies of many Balliol students and the traditional conservatism and social exclusivity of Trinity gave the rivalry an extra edge; the fact that Balliol had admitted a number of Indian and Asiatic students gave many of the taunts from the Trinity side a distinctly racist tone: Balliol students, for example, were sometime referred to as "Basutos". In Five Red Herrings, a Lord Peter Wimsey novel by Somerville alumna Dorothy L. Sayers, Lord Peter is asked whether he remembers a certain contemporary from Trinity. "'I never knew any Trinity men,' said Wimsey.'The Jews have no dealings with the Samaritans.'" Sayers alludes to the rivalry in Murder Must Advertise: Mr Ingleby, a Trinity man, comments, "If there is one thing more repulsive than another it is Balliolity."One of the wittier raids from Balliol, in 1962 or 1963, involved the turfing of the whole of Trinity JCR.
The last incident suspected to relate to the feud was the vandalisation of Trinity's SCR pond, which led to the death of all but one of the fish. For
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
Rolls-Royce Holdings plc is a British multinational engineering company incorporated in February 2011 that owns Rolls-Royce, a business established in 1904 which today designs and distributes power systems for aviation and other industries. Rolls-Royce is the world’s second-largest maker of aircraft engines and has major businesses in the marine propulsion and energy sectors. Rolls-Royce was the world's 16th largest defence contractor in 2018 when measured by defence revenues. Rolls-Royce Holdings plc is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, its headquarters are in London. Rolls-Royce grew from the engineering business of Henry Royce, established in 1884 and ten years began to manufacture dynamos and electric cranes. Charles Rolls established a separate business with Royce in 1904 because Royce had developed a range of cars which Rolls wanted to sell. A corporate owner was incorporated in 1906 with the name Rolls-Royce Limited. In 1971 the same company, Rolls-Royce Limited, entered voluntary liquidation because it was unable to meet its financial obligations though it remains in existence today, still in liquidation, with a file number for its name.
Its business and assets were bought by the government using a company created for the purpose named Rolls-Royce limited. This company remains in existence today and carries on Rolls-Royce business under the name Rolls-Royce plc. Rolls-Royce plc returned to the sharemarkets in 1987 under the government of Margaret Thatcher. In 2003 ownership of Rolls-Royce plc was passed to Rolls-Royce Group plc incorporated 21 March 2003 which issued its own new shares for payment to the previous shareholders. In the same way, Rolls-Royce Group plc passed ownership on 23 May 2011 to Rolls-Royce Holdings plc, a wholly new company incorporated 10 February 2011. Rolls-Royce plc remains the principal trading company. Rolls-Royce Holdings plc, like its immediate predecessor, is a holding company; the 1980s saw the introduction of a policy to offer an engine fitment on a much wider range of civil aircraft types, with the company's engines now powering 17 different airliners compared to General Electric's 14 and Pratt & Whitney's 10.
The civil engines business represents the company's main area of growth: between 2010 and 2018, Rolls-Royce invested £11 billion in facilities and R&D and launched six new civil engines including the Trent XWB and the Pearl 15 for the business aviation market. It secured orders for 2,700 engines for wide-body business jets, it expects to produce over 600 wide-body engines a year and should power over half of the world wide-body fleet within a few years, up from 22% a decade before. In February 2017 Rolls-Royce posted its largest pre-tax loss of £4.6 billion. On 14 June 2018 the company announced a restructuring of the business to create three simpler decentralised units, to rationalise back office functions and to remove middle management functions; the cost savings should amount to £400 million per year by 2020, with an up-front restructuring cost of £500 million. Some 4,600 people are to leave the business out of 55,000 employed worldwide, 3,000 job losses from the UK and the rest from elsewere in the world.
In August 2018 Rolls-Royce announced it was taking a charge of £554 million to cover faults with some Trent 1000 engines on Boeing 787 Dreamliners. In the same announcement Rolls-Royce said it would spend £450m fixing faults on the Trent 1000 in 2018, £450m in 2019 and £350m in 2020, with the work complete by 2022. Northern Engineering Industries / broken up and soldIn 1988, Rolls-Royce acquired Northern Engineering Industries, a group of heavy engineering companies associated with electrical generation and power management, based in the North East of England; the group included Clarke Chapman and Parsons. The company was renamed Rolls-Royce Industrial Power Group, it was sold off piecemeal over the next decade as the company re-focused on its core aero-engine operations following the recession of the early 1990s. Allison Engine Company/Rolls-Royce CorporationOn 21 November 1994, Rolls-Royce announced its intention to acquire the Allison Engine Company, an American manufacturer of gas turbines and components for aviation and marine engines.
The two companies had a technical association dating back to the Second World War. Rolls-Royce had tried to buy the company when General Motors sold it in 1993, but GM opted for a management buyout instead for $370 million. Owing to Allison's involvement in classified and export restricted technology, the 1994 acquisition was subject to investigation to determine the national security implications. On 27 March 1995, the US Department of Defense announced that the "deal between Allison Engine Co. and Rolls-Royce does not endanger national security." Rolls-Royce was, obliged to set up a proxy board to manage Allison and had to set up a separate company, Allison Advanced Development Company, Inc. to manage classified programmes "that involve leading-edge technologies" such as the Joint Strike Fighter program. In 2000, this restriction was replaced by a more flex
RELX plc is a corporate group comprising companies that publish scientific and medical material, legal textbooks. It serves customers in over 180 nations, it was known as Reed Elsevier, came into being in 1992 as a result of the merger of Reed International, a British trade book and magazine publisher, Elsevier, a Netherlands-based scientific publisher. The company is publicly-listed, with shares traded on the London Stock Exchange, Amsterdam Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange. About 55 per cent of the company’s revenues are generated from the US, with 23 per cent from Europe and 22 per cent from the rest of the world; the company is one of the constituents of the FTSE 100 Index, Financial Times Global 500 and Euronext 100 Index. The company, known as Reed Elsevier, came into being in 1992, as a result of the merger of Reed International, a British trade book and magazine publisher, Elsevier, a Netherlands-based scientific publisher; the company re-branded itself as RELX in February 2015.
In 1895, Albert E. Reed established a newsprint manufacturing operation at Tovil Mill near Maidstone, Kent. In 1965 Reed Group, as it was known, became a conglomerate, creating its Decorative Products Division with the purchase of Crown Paints and Sanderson's wallpaper and DIY decorating interests. In 1970, Reed Group merged with the International Publishing Corporation and the company name was changed to Reed International Limited; the company continued to grow by merging with other publishers and produced high quality trade journals as IPC Business Press Ltd and women's and other consumer magazines as IPC magazines Ltd. The original family owners, the Reeds, were Methodists and encouraged good working conditions for their staff in the then-dangerous print trade. In 1985 the company decided to rationalise its operations, focusing on publishing and selling off its other interests. Sanderson was sold to WestPoint Pepperell, Inc. of Georgia, United States, that year, while Crown Paint and Polycell were sold to Williams Holdings in 1987.
The company's paper and packaging production operations were bundled together to form Reedpack and sold to private equity firm Cinven in 1988. In 1880, Jacobus George Robbers started a publishing company called NV Uitgeversmaatschappij Elsevier to publish literary classics and the encyclopedia Winkler Prins. Robbers named the company after the old Dutch printers family Elzevir, for example, published the works of Erasmus in 1587. Elsevier NV was based in Rotterdam but moved to Amsterdam in the late 1880s. Up to the 1930s, Elsevier remained a small family-owned publisher, with no more than ten employees. After the war it launched the weekly Elsevier magazine, which turned out to be profitable. A rapid expansion followed. Elsevier Press Inc. started in 1951 in Houston, Texas, USA, in 1962 publishing offices were opened in London and New York. Multiple mergers in the 1970s led to name changes, settling at "Elsevier Scientific Publishers" in 1979. In 1991, two years before the merger with Reed, Elsevier acquired Pergamon Press in the UK.
In February 1997, Reed Elsevier divested its trade publishing group to Random House. In 1998, Reed Elsevier sold the children's divisions of Heinemann, Methuen and Mammoth to the Egmont Group. In February 2007, the company announced its intention to sell Harcourt, its educational publishing division. On 4 May 2007 Pearson, the international education and information company, announced that it had agreed to acquire Harcourt Assessment and Harcourt Education International from Reed Elsevier for $950m in cash. In July 2007, Reed Elsevier announced its agreement to sell the remaining Harcourt Education business, including international imprint Heinemann, to Houghton Mifflin for $4 billion in cash and stock. In July 2009, Reed Elsevier announced its intention to sell most of its North American trade publications, including Publishers Weekly, Broadcasting & Cable, Multichannel News, although it planned to retain Variety. In April 2010, Reed Elsevier announced that it had sold 21 US magazines to other owners in recent months, that an additional 23 US trade magazines, including Restaurants & Institutions and Trade Show Week would cease publication.
The closures were due to the weak economy including an advertising slump. Variety, the company's last remaining North American title, was sold in October 2012. In 2014, Reed Business Information sold an online marketplace. In 2016, RELX sold Elsevier BeleggersBelangen in the Netherlands. In 2017 the company sold New Scientist magazine. RELX's Scientific, Technical & Medical business provides information and tools that help investors make decisions that improve scientific and healthcare outcomes, it operates under the name of Elsevier and generated revenues in the year to 31 December 2017 of £2.5 billion. ScienceDirect, an online database of primary research, contains 13 million documents. Scopus is a bibliographic database containing citations for academic journal articles, it contains more than 50 million items in more 20,000 titles from 5,000 publishers worldwide. Mendeley is a desktop and web program for managing and sharing research papers, discovering research data and collaborating online.
Elsevier is the world's largest publisher of academic articles with 16 per cent market share, accordin
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west; the county shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone. Canterbury Cathedral in Kent has been the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, leader of the Church of England, since the Reformation. Prior to that it was built by Catholics, dating back to the conversion of England to Catholicism by Saint Augustine that began in the 6th century. Before the English Reformation the cathedral was part of a Benedictine monastic community known as Christ Church, Canterbury, as well as being the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury; the last Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury was Reginald Pole. Rochester Cathedral is in Kent, in Medway, it is the second-oldest cathedral in England, with Canterbury Cathedral being the oldest. Between London and the Strait of Dover, which separates it from mainland Europe, Kent has seen both diplomacy and conflict, ranging from the Leeds Castle peace talks of 1978 and 2004 to the Battle of Britain in World War II.
England relied on the county's ports to provide warships through much of its history. France can be seen in fine weather from Folkestone and the White Cliffs of Dover. Hills in the form of the North Downs and the Greensand Ridge span the length of the county and in the series of valleys in between and to the south are most of the county's 26 castles; because of its relative abundance of fruit-growing and hop gardens, Kent is known as "The Garden of England". Kent's economy is diversified. In northwest Kent industries include extraction of aggregate building materials and scientific research. Coal mining has played its part in Kent's industrial heritage. Large parts of Kent are within the London commuter belt and its strong transport connections to the capital and the nearby continent makes Kent a high-income county. Twenty-eight per cent of the county forms part of two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty: the North Downs and The High Weald; the name Kent is believed to be of British Celtic origin and was known in Old English as Cent, Cent lond, Centrice.
In Latin sources Kent is mentioned as Canticum. The meaning is explained by some researchers as "coastal district," or "corner-land, land on the edge". If so, the name could be etymologically related to the placename Cantabria a Celtiberian-speaking coastal region in pre-Roman Iberia, today a province of Spain; the area has been occupied since the Palaeolithic era, as attested by finds from the quarries at Swanscombe. The Medway megaliths were built during the Neolithic era. There is a rich sequence of Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman era occupation, as indicated by finds and features such as the Ringlemere gold cup and the Roman villas of the Darent valley; the modern name of Kent is derived from the Brythonic word kantos meaning "rim" or "border", or from a homonymous word kanto "horn, hook". This describes the eastern part of the current county area as coastal district. Julius Caesar had described the area as um, or home of the Cantiaci in 51 BC; the extreme west of the modern county was by the time of Roman Britain occupied by Iron Age tribes, known as the Regnenses.
Caesar wrote that the people of Kent are'by far the most civilised inhabitants of Britain'. East Kent became a kingdom of the Jutes during the 5th century and was known as Cantia from about 730 and recorded as Cent in 835; the early medieval inhabitants of the county were known as the Kent people. These people regarded the city of Canterbury as their capital. In 597, Pope Gregory I appointed the religious missionary as the first Archbishop of Canterbury. In the previous year, Augustine converted the pagan King Æthelberht of Kent to Christianity; the Diocese of Canterbury became England's first Episcopal See with first cathedral and has since remained England's centre of Christianity. The second designated English cathedral was in Kent at Rochester Cathedral. In the 11th century, the people of Kent adopted the motto Invicta, meaning "undefeated" or "unconquered"; this naming followed the invasion of Britain by William of Normandy. The Kent people's continued resistance against the Normans led to Kent's designation as a semi-autonomous county palatine in 1067.
Under the nominal rule of William's half-brother Odo of Bayeux, the county was granted similar powers to those granted in the areas bordering Wales and Scotland. Kent was traditionally partitioned into East and West Kent, into lathes and hundreds; the traditional border of East and West Kent was the Medway. Men and women from east of the Medway are Men of Kent, those from the west are Kentishmen or Kentish Maids. During the medieval and early modern period, Kent played a major role in several of England's most notable rebellions, including the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, led by Wat Tyler,Jack Cade's Kent rebellion of 1450, Wyatt's Rebellion of 1554 against Queen Mary I; the Royal Navy first used the River Medway in 1547. By the reign of Elizabeth I a small dockyard had been established at Chatham. By 1618, storehouses, a ropewalk, a drydock, houses for officials had