Leonard Alfred Schneider, better known by his stage name Lenny Bruce, was an American stand-up comedian, social critic, satirist. He was renowned for his open, free-style and critical form of comedy which integrated satire, religion and vulgarity, his 1964 conviction in an obscenity trial was followed by a posthumous pardon, the first in the history of New York state, by then-Governor George Pataki in 2003. Bruce is renowned for paving the way for future outspoken counterculture-era comedians, his trial for obscenity is seen as a landmark for freedom of speech in the United States. In 2017, Rolling Stone magazine ranked him third on its list of the 50 best stand-up comics of all time. Lenny Bruce was born Leonard Alfred Schneider to a Jewish family in Mineola, New York, grew up in nearby Bellmore, attended Wellington C. Mepham High School, his parents divorced before he turned 10, Lenny lived with various relatives over the next decade. His British-born father, Myron Schneider, was a shoe clerk and Lenny saw him infrequently.
Bruce's mother, Sally Marr, had an enormous influence on Bruce's career. After spending time working on a farm, Bruce joined the United States Navy at the age of 16 in 1942, saw active duty during World War II aboard the USS Brooklyn fighting in Northern Africa. In May 1945, after a comedic performance for his shipmates in which he was dressed in drag, his commanding officers became upset, he defiantly convinced his ship's medical officer. This led to his undesirable discharge in July 1945. However, he had not admitted to or been found guilty of any breach of naval regulations and applied to have his discharge changed to "Under Honorable Conditions... by reason of unsuitability for the naval service". In 1959, while taping the first episode of Hugh Hefner's Playboy's Penthouse, Bruce talked about his Navy experience and showed a tattoo he received in Malta in 1942. After a short stint in California spent living with his father, Bruce settled in New York City, hoping to establish himself as a comedian.
However, he found it difficult to differentiate himself from the thousands of other show business hopefuls who populated the city. One locale where they congregated was Hanson's, the diner where Bruce first met the comedian Joe Ancis, who had a profound influence on his approach to comedy. Many of Bruce's routines reflected his meticulous schooling at the hands of Ancis. According to Bruce's biographer Albert Goldman, Ancis's humor involved stream-of-consciousness sexual fantasies and references to jazz. Lenny took the stage as "Lenny Marsalle" one evening at the Victory Club, as a stand-in master of ceremonies for one of his mother's shows, his ad-libs earned him some laughs. Soon afterward, in 1947, just after changing his last name to Bruce, he earned $12 and a free spaghetti dinner for his first stand-up performance in Brooklyn, he was a guest—and was introduced by his mother, who called herself "Sally Bruce"—on the Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts radio program. Lenny did a bit inspired by Sid Caesar, "The Bavarian Mimic", featuring impressions of American movie stars.
Bruce's early comedy career included writing the screenplays for Dance Hall Racket in 1953, which featured Bruce, his wife Honey Harlow, mother Sally Marr in roles. In 1956 Frank Ray Perilli, a fellow nightclub comedian who became a screenwriter of two dozen successful films and plays, became a mentor and part-time manager of Lenny Bruce. Through Perilli, Bruce met and collaborated with photojournalist William Karl Thomas on three screenplays, none of which made it to the screen, the comedy material on the first three albums. Bruce was a roommate of Buddy Hackett in the 1950s, they appeared on the Patrice Munsel Show, calling their comedy duo the "Not Ready for Prime Time Players," 20 years before the cast of Saturday Night Live used the same name. In 1957 Thomas booked Bruce into The Slate Brothers nightclub, where Bruce was fired the first night for what Variety headlined as "blue material". Thomas shot other album covers, acted as cinematographer on abortive attempts to film their screenplays, in 1989 authored a memoir of their ten-year collaboration titled Lenny Bruce: The Making of a Prophet.
The 2016 biography of Frank Ray Perilli titled The Candy Butcher, devotes a chapter to Perilli's ten-year collaboration with Bruce. Bruce released a total of four albums of original material on Berkeley-based Fantasy Records, with rants, comic routines, satirical interviews on the themes that made him famous: jazz, moral philosophy, patriotism, law, abortion, the Ku Klux Klan, Jewishness; these albums were compiled and re-released as The Lenny Bruce Originals. Two records were produced and sold by Bruce himself, including a 10-inch album of the 1961 San Francisco performances that started his legal troubles. Starting in the late 1950s, other unissued Bruce material was released by Alan Douglas, Frank Zappa and Phil Spector, as well as Fantasy. Bruce developed the complexity and tone of his material in Enrico Banducci's North Beach nightclub, the "hungry i", where Mort Sahl had earlier made a name for himself. Branded a "sick comic", Br
Sir Tom Stoppard is a Czech-born British playwright and screenwriter. He has written prolifically for TV, radio and stage, finding prominence with plays such as Arcadia, The Coast of Utopia, Every Good Boy Deserves Favour, Professional Foul, The Real Thing, The Invention of Love, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, he co-wrote the screenplays for Brazil, The Russia House, Shakespeare in Love, has received an Academy Award and four Tony Awards. His work covers the themes of human rights and political freedom delving into the deeper philosophical thematics of society. Stoppard has been a key playwright of the National Theatre and is one of the most internationally performed dramatists of his generation. In 2008, The Daily Telegraph ranked him number 11 in their list of the "100 most powerful people in British culture". Born in Czechoslovakia, Stoppard left as a child refugee, he settled with his family in Britain after the war, in 1946, having spent the three years prior in a boarding school in Darjeeling in the Indian Himalayas.
After being educated at schools in Nottingham and Yorkshire, Stoppard became a journalist, a drama critic and in 1960, a playwright. Stoppard was born Tomáš Straussler, in Zlín, a city dominated by the shoe manufacturing industry, in the Moravia region of Czechoslovakia, he is a physician employed by the Bata shoe company. His parents were members of a long-established community. Just before the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, the town's patron, Jan Antonín Baťa, transferred his Jewish employees physicians, to branches of his firm outside Europe. On 15 March 1939, the day the Nazis invaded Czechoslovakia, the Straussler family fled to Singapore, where Bata had a factory. Before the Japanese occupation of Singapore, his brother, their mother were sent on to Australia. Stoppard's father remained in Singapore as a British army volunteer, knowing that, as a physician, he would be needed in its defence. Stoppard was four years old. In the book Tom Stoppard in Conversation, Stoppard tells how his father died in Japanese captivity, a prisoner of war but has said that he subsequently discovered that Straussler was reported to have drowned on board a ship bombed by Japanese forces whilst trying to flee Singapore in 1942.
In 1941, when Tomas was five, the three were evacuated to India. The boys attended Mount Hermon School, an American multi-racial school, where Tomas became Tom and his brother Petr became Peter. In 1945, his mother, married British army major Kenneth Stoppard, who gave the boys his English surname and, in 1946, moved the family to England. Stoppard's stepfather believed that "to be born an Englishman was to have drawn first prize in the lottery of life" —a quote from Cecil Rhodes —telling his 9 year-old stepson: "Don't you realise that I made you British?" Setting up Stoppard's desire as a child to become "an honorary Englishman". "I often find I'm with people who forget I don't quite belong in the world we're in", he says. "I find I put a foot wrong—it could be pronunciation, an arcane bit of English history—and I'm there naked, as someone with a pass, a press ticket." This is reflected in his characters, he notes, who are "constantly being addressed by the wrong name, with jokes and false trails to do with the confusion of having two names".
Stoppard attended the Dolphin School in Nottinghamshire, completed his education at Pocklington School in East Riding, which he hated. Stoppard left school at seventeen and began work as a journalist for the Western Daily Press in Bristol, never receiving a university education. Years he came to regret not going to university, but at the time he loved his work as a journalist and felt passionately about his career, he worked at the paper from 1954 until 1958, when the Bristol Evening World offered Stoppard the position of feature writer, humor columnist, secondary drama critic, which took Stoppard into the world of theater. At the Bristol Old Vic—at the time a well-regarded regional repertory company—Stoppard formed friendships with director John Boorman and actor Peter O'Toole early in their careers. In Bristol, he became known more for his strained attempts at humor and unstylish clothes than for his writing. Stoppard wrote short radio plays in 1953–54 and by 1960 he had completed his first stage play, A Walk on the Water, re-titled Enter a Free Man.
He noted that the work owed much to Robert Bolt's Flowering Cherry and Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman. Within a week after sending A Walk on the Water to an agent, Stoppard received his version of the "Hollywood-style telegrams that change struggling young artists' lives." His first play was optioned, staged in Hamburg broadcast on British Independent Television in 1963. From September 1962 until April 1963, Stoppard worked in London as a drama critic for Scene magazine, writing reviews and interviews both under his name and the pseudonym William Boot. In 1964, a Ford Foundation grant enabled Stoppard to spend 5 months writing in a Berlin mansion, emerging with a one-act play titled Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Meet King Lear, which evolved into his Tony-winning play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. In the following years, Stoppard produced several works for radio and the theatre, including "M" is for Moon Among Other Things, A Separate Peace and If You're Glad I'll Be Frank. On 11 April 1967 – following acclaim at the 1966 Edinburgh Festival – the opening of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead in a National Theatre producti
Voice-over is a production technique where a voice—that is not part of the narrative —is used in a radio, television production, theatre, or other presentations. The voiceover is read from a script and may be spoken by someone who appears elsewhere in the production or by a specialist voice talent. Synchronous dialogue, where the voiceover is narrating the action, taking place at the same time, remains the most common technique in voiceovers. Asynchronous, however, is used in cinema, it is prerecorded and placed over the top of a film or video and used in documentaries or news reports to explain information. Voiceovers are used in video games and on-hold messages, as well as for announcements and information at events and tourist destinations, it may be read live for events such as award presentations. Voiceover is added in addition to any existing dialogue, it is not to be confused with the process of replacing dialogue with a translated version, called dubbing or revoicing. In Herman Melville's Moby Dick, Ishmael narrates the story, he sometimes comments on the action in voiceover, as does Joe Gillis in Sunset Boulevard and Eric Erickson in The Counterfeit Traitor.
Voiceover technique is used to give voices and personalities to animated characters. Noteworthy and versatile voice actors include Mel Blanc, Daws Butler, Don Messick, Paul Frees, June Foray. Charactering techniques in voiceovers are used to give personalities and voice to fictional characters. There has been some controversy with charactering techniques in voiceovers with white radio entertainers who would mimic black speech patterns. Radio made this racial mockery easier to get away with because it was a non-confrontational platform to express anything the broadcasters found fit, it became the ideal medium for voice impersonations. Characterization has always been popular in all forms of media. In the late 1920s radio started to stray away from reporting on musicals and sporting events, radio began to create serial talk shows as well as shows with fictional storylines; the technique of characterization can be a creative outlet to expand on film and radio, but it must be done carefully. In film, the filmmaker places the sound of a human voice over images shown on the screen that may or may not be related to the words that are being spoken.
Voiceovers are sometimes used to create ironic counterpoint. Sometimes they can be random voices not directly connected to the people seen on the screen. In works of fiction, the voiceover is by a character reflecting on his or her past, or by a person external to the story who has a more complete knowledge of the events in the film than the other characters. Voiceovers are used to create the effect of storytelling by a character/omniscient narrator. For example, in The Usual Suspects, the character of Roger "Verbal" Kint has voiceover segments as he is recounting details of a crime. Classic voiceovers in cinema history can be heard in The Naked City. Sometimes, voiceover can be used to aid continuity in edited versions of films, in order for the audience to gain a better understanding of what has gone on between scenes; this was done when the film Joan of Arc, starring Ingrid Bergman, turned out to be far from the box-office and critical hit, expected, it was edited down from 145 minutes to 100 minutes for its second run in theaters.
The edited version, which circulated for years, used narration to conceal the fact that large chunks of the film had been cut out. In the full-length version, restored in 1998 and released on DVD in 2004, the voiceover narration is heard only at the beginning of the film. Film noir is associated with the voiceover technique; the golden age of first-person narration was during the 1940s. Film noir used male voiceover narration but there are a few rare female voiceovers. In radio, voiceovers are an integral part of the creation of the radio program; the voiceover artist might be used to remind listeners of the station name or as characters to enhance or develop show content. During the 1980s, the British broadcasters Steve Wright and Kenny Everett used voiceover artists to create a virtual "posse" or studio crew who contributed to the programmes, it is believed. The American radio broadcaster Howard Stern has used voiceovers in this way; the voiceover has many applications in non-fiction as well. Television news is presented as a series of video clips of newsworthy events, with voiceover by the reporters describing the significance of the scenes being presented.
Television networks such as The History Channel and the Discovery Channel make extensive use of voiceovers. On NBC, the television show Starting Over used Sylvia Villagran as the voiceover narrator to tell a story. Live sports broadcasts are shown as extensive voiceovers by sports commentators over video of the sporting event. Game shows made extensive use of voiceovers to introduce contestants and describe available or awarded prizes, but this technique has diminished as shows have moved toward predominantly cash prizes; the most prolific have included Don Pardo, Johnny Olson, John Harlan, Jay Stewart, Gene Wood and Johnny Gilbert. Voiceover commentary by a leading critic, historian, or by the production personnel themselves is ofte
A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion. It was a cylindrical variation of the phénakisticope, suggested immediately after the stroboscopic discs were introduced in 1833; the definitive version, with replaceable picture strips, was introduced as a toy by Milton Bradley in 1866 and became successful. The name zoetrope was composed from the Greek root words ζωή zoe, "life" and τρόπος tropos, "turning" as a transliteration of "wheel of life"; the term was coined by inventor William E. Lincoln; the zoetrope consists of a cylinder with cuts vertically in the sides. On the inner surface of the cylinder is a band with images from a set of sequenced pictures; as the cylinder spins, the user looks through the slits at the pictures across. The scanning of the slits keeps the pictures from blurring together, the user sees a rapid succession of images, producing the illusion of motion.
From the late 19th century, devices working on similar principles have been developed, named analogously as linear zoetropes and 3D zoetropes, with traditional zoetropes referred to as "cylindrical zoetropes" if distinction is needed. The zoetrope works on the same principle as its predecessor, the phenakistoscope, but is more convenient and allows the animation to be viewed by several people at the same time. Instead of being radially arrayed on a disc, the sequence of pictures depicting phases of motion is on a paper strip. For viewing, this is placed against the inner surface of the lower part of an open-topped metal drum, the upper part of, provided with a vertical viewing slit across from each picture; the drum, on a spindle base, is spun. The faster the drum is spun, the smoother the animation appears. An earthenware bowl from Iran, over 5000 years old, could be considered a predecessor of the zoetrope; this bowl is decorated in a series of images portraying a goat jumping toward a tree and eating its leaves.
The images are sequential and seem evenly distributed around the bowl, but the bowl would have to rotate quite fast and steady as a stroboscopic effect is needed for the images to appear as an animation. It remains uncertain if the artist who created the bowl intended to create an animation. According to a 4th-century Chinese historical text, the 1st-century BCE Chinese Han craftsman Ding Huan created a lamp with a circular band with images of birds and animals that moved "quite naturally" when the heat of the lamp caused the band to rotate. However, it is unclear whether this created the illusion of motion or whether the account was an interpretation of the spatial movement of the pictures of animals; the same device was referred to as "umbrella lamp" and mentioned as "a variety of zoetrope" which "may well have originated in China" by historian of Chinese technology Joseph Needham. It had pictures painted on thin panes of paper or mica on the sides of a light cylindrical canopy bearing vanes at the top.
When placed over a lamp it would give an impression of movement of men. Needham mentions several other descriptions of figures moving after the lighting of a candle or lamp, but some of these have a semi-fabulous context or can be compared to heat operated carousel toys, it is possible that all these early Chinese examples were the same as, or similar to, the "trotting horse lamp" known in China since before 1000 CE. This is a lantern which on the inside has cut-out silhouettes or painted figures attached to a shaft with a paper vane impeller on top, rotated by heated air rising from a lamp; the moving silhouettes are projected on the thin paper sides of the lantern. Some versions added extra motion with jointed heads, feet or hands of figures triggered by a transversely connected iron wire. None of these lamps are known to have featured sequential substitution of images depicting motion and thus don't display animation in the way that the zoetrope does. John Bate described a simple device in his 1634 book "The Mysteries of Nature and Art".
It consisted of "a light card, with several images set upon it" fastened on the four spokes of a wheel, turned around by heat inside a glass or horn cylinder, "so that you would think the immages to bee living creatures by their motion". The description seems rather close to a simple four-phase animation device depicted and described in Henry V. Hopwood's 1899 book Living Pictures. Hopwood gave date or any additional information for this toy that rotated when blown upon. A similar device inside a small zoetrope drum with four slits, was marketed around 1900 by a Parisian company as L'Animateur. However, Bate's device as it is seen in the accompanying illustration seems not to have animated the images, but rather to have moved the images around spatially. Simon Stampfer, one of the inventors of the phenakistiscope animation disc, suggested in July 1833 in a pamphlet that the sequence of images for the stroboscopic animation could be placed on either a disc, a cylinder or a looped strip of paper or canvas stretched around two parallel rollers.
Stampfer chose to publish his invention in the shape of a disc. After taking notice of Joseph Plateau's invention of the phénakisticope British mathematician William George Horner thought up a cylindrical variation and published details about its mathematical principles in January 1834, he called his device the Dædaleum, as a reference to the Greek myth of Daedalus. Horner's revolving drum had viewing slits between the pictures, instead of above as the zoetrope variations would have. Horner planned to publish the dædaleum with optici
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
William Melvin Hicks was an American stand-up comedian, social critic and musician. His material—encompassing a wide range of social issues including religion and philosophy—was controversial and steeped in dark comedy. At the age of 16, while still in high school, Hicks began performing at the Comedy Workshop in Houston, Texas. During the 1980s, he toured the U. S. extensively and made a number of high-profile television appearances, but it was in the UK that he amassed a significant fan base, filling large venues during his 1991 tour. He achieved a modicum of recognition as a guitarist and songwriter. Hicks died of pancreatic cancer on February 26, 1994, at the age of 32. In subsequent years, his work gained significant acclaim in creative circles—particularly after a series of posthumous album releases—and he developed a substantial cult following. In 2007, he was No. 6 on Channel 4's list of the "100 Greatest Stand-Up Comics", rose to No. 4 on the 2010 list. In 2017, Rolling Stone magazine ranked him No. 13 on its list of the 50 best stand-up comics of all time.
Hicks was born in Valdosta, the son of James Melvin "Jim" Hicks and Mary Reese Hicks. He had an older sister, an older brother, Steve; the family lived in Alabama and New Jersey before settling in Houston, Texas when Hicks was seven years old. He was drawn to comedy at an early age, emulating Woody Allen and Richard Pryor, would write routines with his friend Dwight Slade. At school, he began performing comedy for his classmates. At home, he would write his own one-liners and slide them under the bedroom door of Steve, the only family member he respected, for critical analysis. Steve told him. You're good at this."Early on, Hicks began to mock his family's Southern Baptist religious beliefs. He joked to the Houston Post in 1987, "We were Yuppie Baptists. We worried about things like,'If you scratch your neighbor's Subaru, should you leave a note?'" Biographer Cynthia True described a typical argument with his father: Hicks did not, reject spiritual ideology itself, throughout his life he sought various alternative methods of experiencing it.
Kevin Slade, elder brother of Dwight, introduced him to Transcendental Meditation and other forms of spirituality. Over one Thanksgiving weekend, he took Hicks and Dwight to a Transcendental Meditation residence course in Galveston. Worried about his rebellious behavior, his parents took him to a psychoanalyst at age 17. According to Hicks, the analyst took him aside after the first group session and told him, "You can continue coming if you want to, but it's them, not you." Hicks was associated with the Texas Outlaw Comics group developed at the Comedy Workshop in Houston in the 1980s. By January 1986, Hicks was using recreational drugs and his financial resources had dwindled; however his career received another upturn in 1987, when he appeared on Rodney Dangerfield's Young Comedians Special. The same year, he moved to New York City, for the next five years performed about 300 times a year. On the album Relentless, he jokes that he quit using drugs because "once you've been taken aboard a UFO, it's kind of hard to top that", although in his performances, he continued to extol the virtues of LSD, psychedelic mushrooms.
He fell back to chain smoking, a theme that would figure in his performances from on. His nicotine addiction, love of smoking, occasional attempts to quit became a recurring theme in his act throughout his years. In 1988, Hicks signed on with Jack Mondrus. On the track "Modern Bummer" of his 1990 album Dangerous, Hicks says he quit drinking alcohol in 1988. In 1989, he released his first Sane Man. In 1990, Hicks released his first album, performed on the HBO special One Night Stand, performed at Montreal's Just for Laughs festival, he was part of a group of American stand-up comedians performing in London's West End in November. Hicks was a huge hit in the UK and Ireland and continued touring there throughout 1991; that year, he returned to filmed his second video, Relentless. Hicks made a brief detour into musical recording with the Marble Head Johnson album in 1992 collaborating with Houston high school friend Kevin Booth and Austin Texas drummer Pat Brown. During the same year he toured the UK, where he recorded the Revelations video for Channel 4.
He closed the show with his soon-to become-famous philosophy regarding life, "It's Just a Ride." In that tour he recorded the stand-up performance released in its entirety on a double CD titled Salvation. Hicks was voted "Hot Standup Comic" by Rolling Stone magazine in 1993, he moved to Los Angeles in 1992. Progressive metal band Tool invited Hicks to open a number of concerts in its 1993 Lollapalooza appearances, where Hicks once asked the audience to look for a contact lens he had lost. Thousands of people complied. Members of Tool felt that they and Hicks "were resonating similar concepts". Intending to raise awareness about Hicks's material and ideas, Tool dedicated their triple-platinum album Ænima to Hicks. Both the lenticular casing of the Ænima album packaging as well as the chorus of the title track "Ænema" make reference to a sketch from Hicks's Arizona Bay album, in which he contemplates the idea of Los Angeles falling into the Pacific Ocean. Ænima's final track, "Third Eye" contains samples from Hicks's Relentless albums.
An alternate version of the Ænima artwork shows a painting of Bill Hicks, calling him "Another Dead Hero," and mentions of Hicks are found both in the liner notes an
Makhanda is a town of about 70,000 people in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. It is situated about 110 kilometres northeast of Port Elizabeth and 130 kilometres southwest of East London. Grahamstown is the largest town in the Makana Local Municipality, the seat of the municipal council, it hosts Rhodes University, the Eastern Cape Division of the High Court, The South African Library for the Blind and a diocese of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa and 6 South African Infantry Battalion. The name change to Makhanda was gazetted on 29 June 2018 and the town was renamed to Makhanda in order to "rightfully" immortalise the memory of Xhosa warrior and prophet Makhanda ka Nxele. Grahamstown was founded in 1812 as a military outpost by Lieutenant-Colonel John Graham as part of the effort to secure the eastern frontier of British influence in the Cape Colony against the Xhosa, forcibly pushed out to the lands that lay just to the east on the Fish River; the brutal expulsion of some 20 000 Xhosa people, including their leader Ndlambe ka Rharhabe, from the Zuurveld and the adoption of a "scorched earth" tactic by Graham and his forces to destroy Xhosa crops to prevent their return was part of the 4th "Frontier" War.
On 22 April 1819, a large number of Xhosa warriors, under the leadership of Nxele, launched an attack against the British colonial forces. The Xhosas had warned Colonel Willshire, the commanding officer, of their planned attack on Grahamstown, it was one of countless attacks launched on the nascent colony by the Xhosas. During the course of the battle, the British were running low on ammunition. A woman, by the name of Elizabeth Salt, risked her life by walking into the battle carrying weapons and ammunition to the British troops, she disguised ammunition as an infant whom she was cradling. The Xhosa warriors were reluctant to attack a woman and child and so allowed her to pass and resupply the troops; the Xhosas, with a force of 10,000 troops under the overall command of Ndlambe's warrior son Mdushane, were unable to overpower the colonial garrison of some 300 men. Nxele was taken captive and imprisoned on Robben Island. On Christmas Day, 1819 he tried to escape, drowned. Grahamstown grew during the 1820s as many 1820 Settlers and their families left farming to establish themselves in more secure trades.
In 1833, Grahamstown was described as having "two or three English merchants of considerable wealth, but scarcely any society in the ordinary sense of the word. The Public Library is a wretched affair"; as of 1833, it was estimated that the population of Grahamstown was 6,000. In a few decades it became the Cape Colony's largest town after Cape Town, it became a bishopric in 1852. It was traditionally the capital and cultural centre of the Albany area, a former traditionally English-speaking district with a distinctive local culture. In 1872, the Cape Government Railways began construction of the railway line linking Grahamstown to Port Alfred on the coast, to the developing national railway network inland; that was completed and opened on 3 September 1879. Grahamstown was the location of the testing of the first diamond. In 1904, Rhodes University College was established in Grahamstown through a grant from the Rhodes Trust. In 1951 it became Rhodes University. Arts and Culture Minister Nathi Mthethwa announced the name change from Grahamstown in the Government Gazette no. 641 of 29 June 2018.
The purpose of gazetting was to publicise the Minister's decision for objections or comments by 28 July 2018. Prompted by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission recommendation that geographic features, including geographical names, be renamed as a "symbolic reparation" to address an unjust past, it is proposed that the town be renamed after Makhanda, the prophet and military man, who led a failed attack against the British garrison in Grahamstown in 1819. On 2 October 2018, Grahamstown was renamed to Makhanda in order to "rightfully" immortalise the memory of Makhanda ka Nxele. St. Michael and St. George Cathedral is the seat of the Anglican Diocese of Grahamstown. Makhanda has Roman Catholic, Ethiopian Episcopal, Baptist, Pinkster Protestante, Dutch Reformed, Charismatic and Pentecostal churches. There are meeting places for Hindus, Quakers, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Muslims. For historic reasons the vibrancy of evangelism during Grahamstown's heyday, the City is home to more than forty religious buildings, the nickname the "City of Saints" has become attached to the town.
However, there is another story. It is said that in about 1846 there were Royal Engineers stationed in Grahamstown who were in need of building tools, they sent a message to Cape Town requesting a vice to be forwarded to them from the Ordnance Stores. A reply came back,'Buy vice locally'; the response was, "No vice in Grahamstown". According to the 2011 census the population of Grahamstown was 67,264, of whom 78.9% described themselves as "Black African", 11.3% as "Coloured" and 8.4% as "White". Since 1994, there has been a considerable influx of Black people from the former Ciskei Xhosa homeland, which lies just to the east; the first language of 72.2% of the population is Xhosa, while 13.7% speak Afrikaans and 10.8% speak English Makhanda is home to many schools, Rhodes University, several institutes, most the South African National Library for the Blind, the National English Literary Museum, the South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, the Intern