The Scarlets are one of the four professional Welsh regional rugby union teams and are based in Llanelli, Wales. Their home ground is the Parc y Scarlets stadium, they play in the European Rugby Champions Cup. The club was named the Llanelli Scarlets but was renamed at the start of the 2008–09 rugby season, following the lead of the Ospreys in 2005; the Llanelli Scarlets were founded in 2003, as one of the five regional teams created by the Welsh Rugby Union. The Scarlets are affiliated with a number of semi-professional and amateur clubs throughout the area, including Welsh Premier Division sides Llanelli RFC, Carmarthen Quins RFC and Llandovery RFC. Through the 2007–08 season, they played most of their games at Stradey Park in Llanelli, but they have played matches at the Racecourse Ground in Wrexham; the club's new stadium, Parc y Scarlets, was constructed in nearby Pemberton, opened in November 2008. In 2003, the WRU elected to reduce the top tier of Welsh professional rugby from nine clubs into five regions during the introduction of regional rugby union teams in Wales, attempting to mirror the successful formats in Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand.
It was planned to have a region playing at Stradey Park, with players coming from Llanelli and Neath. This was modified to have Llanelli and Swansea merging, while Neath joined with Bridgend. Llanelli requested standalone status. Llanelli and Cardiff were allowed to remain independent; the Llanelli Scarlets brand was launched on 7 July 2003. Despite always having been a 100% owned Llanelli RFC subsidiary, the Scarlets were conceived as representing the whole of West and North Wales. In the early seasons of Regional Rugby, the Scarlets played a small number of games in the Racecourse Ground in Wrexham. Whilst nominally continuing to be the Regional Franchisee for North Wales, the Scarlets presence there has withered; as of 2018, the Scarlets consider their region to represent the three counties of Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire. Following the Scarlets' short lived forays into North Wales, the vacuum has in effect been filled by RGC1404, which has become something of an unofficial'four and a halfth' region.
Llanelli RFC, which owns the Scarlets franchise continues as a Principality Premiership semi professional side, in the same way as Cardiff RFC, alongside other Scarlets Feeder Clubs, RGC1404, Carmarthen Quinns. Drawn from the successful Llanelli RFC side of the preceding year, the Scarlets carried that success forward into their inaugural season, they reached the last eight of the 2003–04 Heineken Cup and finished the Celtic League season as champions by four points over Ulster. In the Heineken Cup, the Scarlets were drawn in Pool Four along with Northampton Saints and Border Reivers; the Scarlets won five of their six matches, losing only to Agen, finished at the top of their pool before losing to French club Biarritz 27–10 in the quarter-final. The following season, was less successful. Plagued by injuries and retirements, as well as the transfer of influential fly-half Stephen Jones to Clermont, the Scarlets finished a disappointing fifth in the league, they were less successful in the Heineken Cup, winning just two of their six pool games to finish third in the pool behind Northampton Saints and Toulouse.
The salvation of their season came in reaching the final of the Celtic Cup, in which they lost 26–17 to Munster. The Scarlets again failed to qualify from their Heineken Cup group in 2005–06 and finished sixth in the Celtic League, they did, find more success in the newly restructured Anglo-Welsh Cup. After finishing at the top of their pool, they defeated Bath by one point in the semi-finals to reach the final against London Wasps at Twickenham. In the Heineken Cup, it was a similar story to the previous season, with the Scarlets winning two of their six fixtures to finish third in the pool again, behind Toulouse and Wasps. Despite finishing sixth in the Celtic League, the team qualified for the Heineken Cup for the 2006–07 season as the second-best-placed Welsh team in the league, they re-signed Stephen Jones and full-back Barry Davies extended his contract to stay with the Scarlets. The Scarlets' Director of Rugby, Gareth Jenkins, had been appointed as Wales' national team coach, having been with the region since its inception.
Phil Davies coach of Leeds Tykes, replaced Jenkins at the Scarlets. At the first home game of the 2006–07 season, an information sheet was handed out to supporters with details of the club's financial situation. There was opposition by local residents to plans by the Scarlets to move to a new stadium and sell their current ground for housing development; the information sheet stated that, due to delays caused by the opposition and benefactors pulling out of the club, it was "extremely unlikely that could survive to the end of the present season unless other financial assistance is found", which would result in "the loss for all time, of professional rugby in West Wales." Local residents believed, that the infrastructure, such as roads and schools, will not cope with 450 new houses being built on the site. On 28 November 2006, the regions secured investment from a London-based businessman. In the 2006–07 Heineken Cup, the Scarlets recorded one of the most famous victories in their brief hist
Paul Warwick (rugby union)
Paul Warwick is a former Australian rugby union player. He played at Fullback or Centre. Warwick joined Irish province Connacht from Manly in 2004 on a one-year contract. A 97-point return in the 2004–05 European Challenge Cup saw Warwick awarded with a two-year extension on his contract. In a total of 19 appearances in the Challenge Cup, he scored 157 points. Warwick joined Munster in 2007, straight from Connacht, he scored 21-point on his full debut for Munster against Llanelli Scarlets on 22 September 2007. He was on the bench for Munster for the 2008 Heineken Cup Final against Toulouse, but did not come on. In April 2009, Warwick scored two monster drop-goals and a try in Munster's 2008–09 Heineken Cup quarter-final against Ospreys, a game in which he won the Man-of-the-Match award. On 27 January 2009, he signed a three-year deal with Aviva Premiership club London Irish, starting at the start of the 2009–10 Guinness Premiership season. However, there was speculation as to whether he would be joining London Irish or remaining with Munster for the start of the next season, a Tug-of-War started between the two sides looking to secure his services.
On 9 April 2009, Munster and London Irish announced that the issue over Warwick has been resolved to the satisfaction of all parties and that Warwick would be remaining with Munster for 2010–11. He was part of the Munster team. Warwick scored all of Munster's points during their historic 15–6 win over Australia in November 2010, kicking 3 penalties and 2 drop goals. On 20 December 2010, Munster confirmed, he attracted the interest of several European clubs. Warwick's last appearance for Munster was when he came off the bench during the 2011 Celtic League Grand Final. Munster won the match, against newly crowned Heineken Cup champions and fierce rivals Leinster, 19–9 in Thomond Park; as Warwick has played Rugby sevens with the Australia Sevens, he will never be eligible to play for Ireland, despite the fact that he would now qualify through marriage and residency. He joined Stade Français in 2011 on a two-year contract, it was announced on 25 January 2013 that Warwick will join Aviva Premiership side Worcester Warriors at the beginning of the 2013–14 season.
He made his debut for the club on 5 October 2013. On 19 May 2014, Warwick was forced to retire from rugby due to severe neck problems. On 20 August 2014, Warwick stayed with Worcester Warriors as part of their backroom coaching staff. Heineken Cup: Winner: 2007–08 Celtic League: Winner: 2008–09, 2010–11Barbarians 2010 vs England and Ireland Munster Profile Worcester Profile Barbarians Profile ERC Profile ESPN Profile Munster v Ospreys HC QF April 2009 Highlights
Leinster Schools Rugby Senior Cup
The Leinster Schools Senior Challenge Cup is the premier rugby union competition for secondary schools affiliated to the Leinster Branch of the IRFU. First held in 1887, the Cup celebrated its 120th anniversary in 2007. Schools Senior Cup Rugby is divided into 4 tiers in two sections and each cup competition bears a name as follows: Section A Leinster Schools Rugby Senior Development Cup, Section A Leinster Schools Rugby McMullen Cup, Section B Leinster Schools Vinnie Murray Cup, Section B Leinster Schools Senior Challenge Cup. Attendances are high for a schoolboy competition, with up to 25,000 present at the final; this match traditionally takes place on Saint Patrick's Day at Lansdowne Road. In 2008, the final was played at the Royal Dublin Society Grounds after Donnybrook proved to be way too small for the 2007 final, has been the home since. Since the move to the RDS the attendance has decreased and is now 10,000- 14,000; the competition has been subject to criticism from various quarters as being "elitist" and for putting undue pressure on its participants.
It is the subject of satire through the Ross O'Carroll Kelly newspaper column and novels. The competition and schools rugby in the four provinces has been praised though with "Irish game in debt to schools rugby". Blackrock College are the most successful school in the Cup's history, having lifted the Cup 69 times, an accumulative total larger than all other teams combined. Three schools have won the Cup at their first attempt. St. Fintan's High School are the most recent'new' school to the competition, making their debut in 2016/17 season. To date only five schools have achieved the Senior and Junior Cup "double"; these are Blackrock, who have achieved this feat 27 times, St Michaels twice, Belvedere and Castleknock. More rare is to lose both the Senior and Junior Cup Finals in the same year; this depressing feat has been achieved by seven schools on 12 occasions. Terenure College leads with 4, followed by Belvedere College with 3, next St Michaels College, St Mary's College, Newbridge College, Cistercian College Roscrea and Blackrock College with 1 each.
This happened to Blackrock College for the first time in 2017. Blackrock College have only been defeated in successive finals on two occasions. In the 1920s they were runners up three times in a row, defeated by St Andrews in 1921 & 1922 followed by Belvedere in 1923; the second occasion was in 1979 & 1980 when they were defeated in successive finals by Terenure College. The 91st Leinster Senior Schools Cup Final in 1977 between Blackrock College and St Mary’s College finished level at 12 points each at the end of normal time. Having played 70 minutes the two sides now faced an additional 15 minutes extra time. Six minutes into extra time Blackrock got a try from fullback Patrick Hinkson. Hugo MacNeill kicked the sideline conversion. Two further MacNeill penalties in the second half of extra time sealed victory for Blackrock. Among the future Irish senior internationals playing that day were Hugo MacNeill and Paul Dean; the 1977 Leinster Senior Schools Cup Final was played on Sunday 20 March 1977 and not the normal St Patrick’s Day.
This decision was made to protect the Lansdowne Road pitch following poor weather prior to the Ireland v France Five Nations fixture on the 19 March. Grainey video footage is available on archives on www.rte.ie. The edition of Sports Club was broadcast 31 March 1977; the commentator is Fred Cogley. The Cup, the Schools who play for it, have a history of producing fine rugby players, many of whom go on to play for Ireland. Players such as Denis Hickie, who captained his St. Mary's College team to win the cup in 1994, Gordon D'Arcy have impressive senior cup records; the most international players produced have come from Blackrock College, with players such as Brian O'Driscoll, Victor Costello, Shane Byrne, Bob Casey, Leo Cullen and more Luke Fitzgerald, Ian Madigan, Jordi Murphy, Garry Ringrose and Joey Carbery. Terenure College has produced many Irish international players including Mick Hipwell, Kevin Flynn, Paul Haycock, Niall Hogan, Conor O'Shea, Ciaran Clarke, Girvan Dempsey. Four captains have gained the distinction of lifting the cup twice, Larry McMahon, Garret Gill, Jonny Mion in 1989 and 1990, Barry Gibney in 1995 and 1996.
¹ Corrig School moved premises to Monkstown Park in 1950 and was renamed C. B. C. Monkstown. ² Mountjoy School was amalgamated with other schools in 1972 to become Mount Temple Comprehensive School. Drawn finals are replayed. In this table, the result of the replay is given below the result of the drawn game; the point values of scores in rugby union have changed many times in its history. This table summarises them. Most consecutive wins: 6, Blackrock College 1900–05 Greatest winning margin in final: 63 points, 1900: Blackrock College 63-0 Corrig School Narrow
Edinburgh Rugby is one of the two professional rugby teams from Scotland. The club competes in the Pro14, along with its oldest rival. Edinburgh plays most of its home games at Murrayfield Stadium; the original Edinburgh District team played the first inter-district match against Glasgow District in 1872, winning the match 3–0. The amateur district team was reformed with professionalism, as Edinburgh Rugby, in 1996 to compete in the Heineken Cup, its best performance coming in the 2011–12 season, when the club reached the semi-final but lost narrowly to Ulster, 22–19; the quarter-final tie against Toulouse attracted a club record crowd of over 38,000 spectators to Murrayfield. In 2003–04 Edinburgh became the first Scottish team to reach the quarter-finals. In 2014–15 Edinburgh became the first Scottish club to reach a major European final, when they met Gloucester Rugby in the European Rugby Challenge Cup showpiece at Twickenham Stoop in London. Edinburgh District played in the world's first inter-district match, against Glasgow District, in 1872.
For the history of the District prior to professionalism, see: Following the introduction of professional rugby in 1995, the Scottish Rugby Union considered that Scottish club sides would not be able to compete against the best teams from France and England. The SRU therefore decided that the four district teams were to be Scotland's vehicle for professional rugby and in 1996 the Edinburgh District team was reformed as Edinburgh Rugby to compete in the Heineken Cup; because of the SRU's significant debt as a result of the redevelopment of Murrayfield Stadium, further reorganisation soon became necessary and the four professional sides were reduced to two. After two seasons as Edinburgh Rugby, the club was merged with Border Reivers to form a new team known as Edinburgh Reivers. For the 1999 and 2000 seasons the Scottish Rugby Union and Welsh Rugby Union joined forces, with the expansion of the Welsh Premier Division to include Edinburgh Reivers and Glasgow Caledonians, under the name Welsh-Scottish League.
However, further change was imminent and in 2001 an agreement was made between the Irish Rugby Football Union, Scottish Rugby Union and Welsh Rugby Union to create a new competition which would bring in the four Irish provinces. 2001 saw the first incarnation of the Celtic League. In that inaugural season Edinburgh finished in sixth place; the following season, to coincide with the re-establishment of the Border Reivers, a Scottish League competition modelled on the Tri-Nations was introduced alongside the Celtic League, however this survived for only a single season, Edinburgh becoming the only champions. Following the reduction of Scotland's professional structure from four to two sides, a further rebranding took place; the Edinburgh Reivers name was replaced by Edinburgh Rugby, with the Glasgow Caledonians undergoing a similar renaming process, as part of a "major revamp" of the professional structure in Scotland. In the 2003–04 season the team found some success, when it reached the Final of the inaugural Celtic Cup, beating Cardiff Blues and Connacht en route in the quarter-finals and semi-finals respectively.
The team's good run came to an end in the Final, with a 21–27 loss to Ulster, at Murrayfield. David Humphreys kicked 17 points in the match to earn the Irish province the trophyFor the 2005–06 season, the Edinburgh team found itself looking for a new coach after the departure of Frank Hadden to coach Scotland. Sean Lineen Glasgow Warriors assistant coach, was linked with the post before Todd Blackadder acquired the position for the season after a spell as interim coach. During the same season the team nickname was incorporated into the official name, which became the Edinburgh Gunners; the "Gunners" moniker was dropped on 29 September 2006, after the club had become Scottish rugby's first private franchise during the summer. The team name reverted to Edinburgh Rugby. One reason for the change was that the name The Gunners was a registered Trademark of Arsenal Football Club. Another reason was the wish of the new owners for a re-branding, including a different name and the introduction of a new logo.
In 2006, it was announced that from the end of the 2005–06 season, Edinburgh would become a franchise. Finance would come from a private company headed by Bob Carruthers; this was thought to be a saving grace for Border Reivers. The team was thought to be the favourite to be folded, after the Scottish Rugby Union warned that funding problems could force it to scrap one of its Celtic League sides; the SRU was to retain a seat on the new company board and continue to provide development funding and support to the new owners. Following the departure of Todd Blackadder to join the Crusaders coaching setup in Super Rugby, Lynn Howells was appointed as head coach by Edinburgh's new Executive Chairman, Alex Carruthers. In July 2007, a dispute arose between the Scottish Rugby Union and the owners of the newly franchised Edinburgh team. According to owner Bob Carruthers the SRU owed Edinburgh a six-figure sum which, he said, had not been paid. Carruthers claimed that SRU had threatened to withdraw funding should Edinburgh continue with legal action relating to the sum.
During the dispute, Alex Carruthers resigned along with Managing Director Graeme Stirling. The dispute caused much disruption in Scottish rugby at the time, leading to the temporary withdrawal of 12 players from the Scotland squad training for the 2007 Rugby World Cup; this included leading players such as Chris Paterson and Mike BlairThe dispute escalated when, on 9 July 2007, Edinburgh revoked its associate membership of the SRU. This led to doubts about Edinburgh Rugby's ability to fulfil fixtures in the Celtic League and Heineken Cup a
Rugby union known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts at each end. Rugby union is a popular sport around the world, played by male and female players of all ages. In 2014, there were more than 6 million people playing worldwide, of whom 2.36 million were registered players. World Rugby called the International Rugby Football Board and the International Rugby Board, has been the governing body for rugby union since 1886, has 101 countries as full members and 18 associate members. In 1845, the first football laws were written by Rugby School pupils. An amateur sport, in 1995 restrictions on payments to players were removed, making the game professional at the highest level for the first time.
Rugby union spread from the Home Nations of Great Britain and Ireland and was absorbed by many of the countries associated with the British Empire. Early exponents of the sport included New Zealand, South Africa and France. Countries that have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport include Fiji, Madagascar, New Zealand and Tonga. International matches have taken place since 1871 when the first game took place between Scotland and England at Raeburn Place in Edinburgh; the Rugby World Cup, first held in 1987, takes place every four years. The Six Nations Championship in Europe and The Rugby Championship in the Southern Hemisphere are other major international competitions, held annually. National club or provincial competitions include the Premiership in England, the Top 14 in France, the Mitre 10 Cup in New Zealand, the National Rugby Championship in Australia, the Currie Cup in South Africa. Other transnational club competitions include the Pro14 in Europe and South Africa, the European Rugby Champions Cup in Europe, Super Rugby, in the Southern Hemisphere and Japan.
The origin of rugby football is reputed to be an incident during a game of English school football at Rugby School in 1823, when William Webb Ellis is said to have picked up the ball and run with it. Although the evidence for the story is doubtful, it was immortalised at the school with a plaque unveiled in 1895. Despite the doubtful evidence, the Rugby World Cup trophy is named after Webb Ellis. Rugby football stems from the form of game played at Rugby School, which former pupils introduced to their university. Old Rugbeian Albert Pell, a student at Cambridge, is credited with having formed the first "football" team. During this early period different schools used different rules, with former pupils from Rugby and Eton attempting to carry their preferred rules through to their universities. A significant event in the early development of rugby football was the production of the first written laws of the game at Rugby School in 1845, followed by the Cambridge Rules drawn up in 1848. Other important events include the Blackheath Club's decision to leave the Football Association in 1863 and the formation of the Rugby Football Union in 1871.
The code was known as "rugby football". Despite the sport's full name of rugby union, it is known as rugby throughout most of the world; the first rugby football international was played on 27 March 1871 between Scotland and England in Edinburgh. Scotland won the game 1-0. By 1881 both Ireland and Wales had representative teams, in 1883 the first international competition, the Home Nations Championship had begun. 1883 is the year of the first rugby sevens tournament, the Melrose Sevens, still held annually. Two important overseas tours took place in 1888: a British Isles team visited Australia and New Zealand—although a private venture, it laid the foundations for future British and Irish Lions tours. During the early history of rugby union, a time before commercial air travel, teams from different continents met; the first two notable tours both took place in 1888—the British Isles team touring New Zealand and Australia, followed by the New Zealand team touring Europe. Traditionally the most prestigious tours were the Southern Hemisphere countries of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa making a tour of a Northern Hemisphere, the return tours made by a joint British and Irish team.
Tours would last for months, due to the number of games undertaken. Touring international sides would play Test matches against international opponents, including national and county sides in the case of Northern Hemisphere rugby, or provincial/state sides in the case of Southern Hemisphere rugby. Between 1905 and 1908, all three major Southern Hemisphere rugby countries sent their first touring teams to the Northern Hemisphere: New Zealand in 1905, followed by South Africa in 1906 and Australia in 1908. All three teams brought new styles of play, fitness levels and tactics, were far more successful than critics had expected; the New Zealand 1905 touri
Munster Rugby is one of the four professional provincial rugby teams from the island of Ireland. They compete in the European Rugby Champions Cup; the team represents the IRFU Munster Branch, one of four primary branches of the IRFU, is responsible for rugby union throughout the geographical Irish province of Munster. Their main home ground is Thomond Park, though some smaller profile games are played at Irish Independent Park, Cork; the team motto is "To the brave and faithful, nothing is impossible." This is derived from the motto of the MacCarthy clan – "Forti et Fideli nihil difficile". Munster was founded in 1879, at the same time as Leinster and Ulster, with Connacht being founded ten years in 1889; the first Interprovincial matches between Leinster and Munster, were held in 1875. The founding of the Munster branch of the IRFU was intended to organise and oversee the game within the province and prevent any club bias by providing neutral selectors for the representative side. In amateur days, the four Irish provinces played against each other in the IRFU Interprovincial Championship and played touring international sides.
Munster traditionally drew its strength from the clubs of Limerick, with the game popular in the city and played at all levels. Teams such as Shannon and Young Munster built up fierce rivalries with one another, helping push standards in the province higher as a result. Munster has a great tradition of impassioned displays against touring sides; the first touring side to play Munster were the famous Original All Blacks led by Dave Gallaher, who lined out against Munster in the Markets Field, Limerick in November 1905. Munster were defeated that day 33–0. Throughout the years, Munster were to record a number of near-misses and last minute defeats against South Africa and New Zealand; the first tangible result against a touring side was to come in 1958, when the Wallabies were held to a 3–3 draw in Thomond Park. Munster became the first Irish provincial side to defeat a major touring team when they defeated Australia 11–8 in Musgrave Park, Cork on 25 January 1967. Munster were captained that day by Tom Kiernan.
Munster first played the All Blacks in 1905. They have played each other many times since then. Munster drew with New Zealand 3–3 in 1973 and, in 1978, became, at the time, the only Irish side to have beaten the All Blacks; the 12–0 victory occurred on Tuesday 31 October 1978 at Thomond Park, in front of a crowd of 12,000, though many times that number still claim to have been present, such was the occasion. Christy Cantillon scored a try with Tony Ward converting. Ward added a drop-goal in each half; until the national team's victory on 5 November 2016, it was the only time an All Blacks team lost to any Irish side and forms part of Munster Rugby mythology. A stage play named Alone it Stands and a book entitled Stand Up and Fight: When Munster Beat the All Blacks by Alan English were both based on the event. Both have been commercially successful. Alone it Stands has had several sell-out runs in Ireland and abroad. Stand Up and Fight was a bestseller in 2005; the All Blacks returned to Thomond Park in November 2008 to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the 1978 match and to celebrate the opening of the new stadium.
After 76 minutes of the match, Munster were winning 16–13, but a late try from Joe Rokocoko meant the All Blacks won 18–16. On 11 November 2016, Munster welcomed the Māori All Blacks to Thomond Park; the Māori players paid tribute to Anthony Foley by placing a jersey with his initials on the halfway line before performing the Haka. Māori captain Ash Dixon presented the jersey to Foley's sons. Munster went on to win the historic game 27–14. Like the All Blacks, Munster have played Australia many times, they first met in 1947, where Australia won 6–5. Munster claimed their first victory over the Wallabies in 1967, when they won 11–8. In 1992, reigning world champions, having won the 1991 Rugby World Cup, visited Munster as part of a European Tour. Munster won 22–19 in a rough encounter in Cork. Ten years London newspaper The Daily Telegraph recounted part of the legend in a feature on Munster prop Peter Clohessy: "The Wallabies coach, Bob Dwyer, not a man who accepted that opposition sides could legitimately score more points than his team branded the Munster Number 3 a'disgrace'.
It had been a rugged and memorable Munster triumph, with leather and fists flying on both sides. Clohessy, who wouldn't be known for misconduct, was no more guilty than the next man but world champions are not supposed to lose against a hastily assembled Irish provincial XV. There had to be a reason, an excuse, Dwyer rounded on Clohessy". History repeated itself in 2010 when Munster defeated the Wallabies 15–6, with their Australian fly-half, Paul Warwick, kicking all fifteen points; the match was played in ferocious weather, with Munster playing into a gale-force wind and driving rain in the first half. Indeed, the conditions made the half time score of 6–6 all the more significant, as Australia could neither cope with the weather nor the Munster pressure in the second half. On 26 August 1995, the International Rugby Board declared rugby union an "open" game, removing all restrictions on payments or benefits to those connected with the game; this was done due to a committee conclusion having an open game was the only way to end the hypocrisy of shamateurism, keep control of the sport.
The threat to amateur rugby union prevalent in the Southern hemisphere in Australia where Super League was threatening to entice players to rugby le
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011; the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census. 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. Vancouver is named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place; the original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.. As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North"; the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands.
The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", the origin of the name that became "Vancouver". Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish and Tseil-Waututh peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579; the explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities. A sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging, it was followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street; this mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, it remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew around