George Briscoe Kerferd, Australian colonial politician, was the 10th Premier of Victoria. Kerferd was born in Liverpool, the son of G. B. Kerferd, a merchant Kerferd was educated at the Collegiate Institute, with intentions of studying law. Kerferd emigrated to Victoria in 1853 with plans to open a branch of the family business, but this did not eventuate. After trying his luck as a gold miner at Bendigo, he settled in Beechworth and became a brewer and wine merchant, he was mayor of Beechworth three other occasions. In 1853 he married Ann Martindale. Kerferd did not practise as a lawyer. Kerferd was elected to the Legislative Assembly for the Ovens in November 1864, represented the area continuously until February 1886, he began studying law in 1864 and was Minister for Mines and Vice-President of the Board of Land and Works in the government of James McCulloch 1868, Solicitor-General 1872-1874, Attorney-General in 1874 in the government of James Francis. When the Francis government was defeated in July 1874, Kerferd succeeded him at the head of a new conservative ministry.
Kerferd's Treasurer, James Service, like most colonial conservatives, a convinced free trader, the government's 1875 budget proposed repealing the tariffs imposed by Charles Gavan Duffy's liberal government, replacing the lost revenue with a land tax and a tax on beer and spirits. But this offended both the landowners and the business community, Kerferd's government was defeated in August 1875. Kerferd was again appointed as Attorney-General in conservative governments. In 1883 Kerferd was a Victorian representative to the federal convention. In 1886, he quit politics and on 1 January 1886 was appointed to the Supreme Court of Victoria; the appointment was not without controversy as several barristers had served longer in the legal profession, but Kerferd had eight years as attorney-general. There was general agreement. Kerferd served as a judge until his death in 1889 while on a holiday at Victoria. Kerferd Road in Albert Park is named after him. Kerferd Road Avenue, in Sorrento is named after him.
Judiciary of Australia List of Judges of the Supreme Court of Victoria Victorian Bar Association Geoff Browne, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1900-84, Government Printer, Melbourne, 1985 Don Garden, Victoria: A History, Thomas Nelson, Melbourne, 1984 Kathleen Thompson and Geoffrey Serle, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1856-1900, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1972 Raymond Wright, A People's Counsel. A History of the Parliament of Victoria, 1856-1990, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1992 Supreme Court of Victoria Website
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Sir Charles Sladen, Australian colonial politician, was the 6th Premier of Victoria. Sladen was born in England near Walmer, the second son of John Baker Sladen, deputy-lieutenant of the county, he was educated at Shrewsbury and at Trinity Hall, Cambridge. In 1840, he graduated with a Bachelor of Laws, he migrated to Australia in 1841, in February 1842 arrived in the Port Phillip District. He was soon admitted to the Victorian bar, practised as a solicitor in Geelong until 1854, when he took up farming near Winchelsea. In 1840 he married Harriet Amelia Orton. In 1851–52 he played cricket for Victoria. On 28 November 1855 Sladen was nominated to the Victorian Legislative Council, was appointed acting Treasurer; when Victoria gained responsible government in 1856, Sladen was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly as Member for Geelong, became Treasurer in the ministry of William Haines, a position he held until March 1857. He advocated the creation of increased immigration. Sladen lost the 1861 election for Geelong East.
A firm conservative, Sladen re-entered politics in November 1864 when he was elected to the Legislative Council for Western Province in a by-election. When the liberal Premier James McCulloch resigned in May 1868 during the conflict between the government and the Council over the proposed grant to retiring Governor Charles Darling, Sladen was asked by the new Governor, Sir John Manners-Sutton, to form a government. Sladen found himself in a hopeless situation, since he was a member of the upper house at a time when it was accepted that the leader of the government must come from the Assembly — he is the only member of the Council to serve as Premier. Since he had little support in the Assembly, his government had no prospect of long-term survival. Following the resolution of the Darling grant crisis, he stepped down in July, in September he retired from the Council. In September 1876 Sladen was again elected to the Council for Western Province, became the de facto leader of the Council in its conflicts with the Assembly.
Despite being conservative, Sladen recommended that the franchise for the Council be extended, that the property qualifications for membership be reduced. These reforms were enacted in 1881. Sladen died in 1884 in Geelong. Sladen was created a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1875. A portrait of him hangs in the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne. Geoff Browne, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1900–84, Government Printer, Melbourne, 1985 Don Garden, Victoria: A History, Thomas Nelson, Melbourne, 1984 Kathleen Thompson and Geoffrey Serle, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1856–1900, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1972 Raymond Wright, A People's Counsel. A History of the Parliament of Victoria, 1856–1990, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1992 "Sir Charles Sladen". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Retrieved 6 May 2005. "Charles Sladen". Pakistan Cricket Board website. Archived from the original on 20 April 2008.
Retrieved 6 May 2005
Sir Stanley Seymour Argyle KBE, Australian politician, was the 32nd Premier of Victoria. He was born in Kyneton, the son of a grazier, was educated at Brighton Grammar School and Trinity College within the University of Melbourne, where he graduated in medicine, he studied bacteriology at King's College London. After further study in the United Kingdom, he went into general practice in Kew, was a pioneer of radiology in Australia, he was a member of the Kew City Council 1898–1905 and was mayor in 1903–05. During World War I he was consultant radiologist to the Australian Imperial Force in Egypt and in France, with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. After the war he invested in milk processing and citrus growing. Argyle was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly for the seat of Toorak in 1920, as an independent Nationalist, he was Chief Secretary and Minister for Health in the ministries of Harry Lawson, John Allan, Alexander Peacock and William McPherson between 1923 and 1928. When McPherson resigned as leader of the Nationalist Party, Argyle was chosen to succeed him, in 1931 the party was renamed the United Australia Party.
He led the opposition to Ned Hogan's minority Labor Party government, unable to cope with the effects of the Great Depression and was defeated at the May 1932 elections. Argyle formed a coalition government with the Country Party, led by Allan and by Albert Dunstan; the government had a huge majority – 45 seats to Labor's 16. Ministers included the rising star of the UAP, Robert Menzies, who became Deputy Premier, Attorney-General and Minister for Railways. Argyle, a firm fiscal conservative, held to the orthodox view that in a time of depression government spending must be cut so that the budget remained in balance; this soon brought him into conflict with both the trade unions and the farmers, but at the time there seemed to be no alternative policy. Argyle was lucky in that the economy began to improve from 1932, the unemployment rate fell from 27 percent in 1932 to 20 percent in 1934 and 14 percent in 1935; this led a reduction in unemployment relief payments and an increase in taxation revenue, easing the state's financial crisis.
Argyle fought the March 1935 election with an improving economy, a record of sound, if unimaginative, management. With the Labor Party opposition still divided and demoralised, he was rewarded with a second comfortable majority, his United Australia Party, but at this point he was unexpectedly betrayed by his erstwhile Country Party allies. The Country Party leader, Albert Dunstan, was a close friend of the gambling boss John Wren, very close to the Labor leader Tom Tunnecliffe. Wren, aided by the Victorian Labor Party President, Arthur Calwell, persuaded Dunstan to break off the coalition with Argyle and form a minority Country Party government, which Labor would support in return for some policy concessions. Dunstan agreed to this deal, in April 1935 he moved a successful no confidence vote in the government from which he had just resigned; the UAP never forgave the Country Party for this treachery. Henry Bolte Victoria's longest-serving Premier, was 27 in 1935, Dunstan's betrayal of Argyle lay behind his lifelong and intense dislike of the Country Party, whom he called "political prostitutes".
Argyle remained in politics as Leader of the Opposition until his death in 1940. Throughout his life, Argyle showed a keen interest in the quality of Melbourne's milk supply. Argyle founded the Willsmere Certificated Milk Co. in 1898, of which he was a director until 1920. As a member of the Legislative Assembly, he objected to the metropolitan milk bill, intended to improve the quality of Melbourne's milk. After the bill was held up in the Legislative Council in 1921, he was nominated to a committee to consider amendments, visited New Zealand to report on milk-supply there. Geoff Browne, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1900–84, Government Printer, Melbourne, 1985 Don Garden, Victoria: A History, Thomas Nelson, Melbourne, 1984 Kate White, John Cain and Victorian Labour 1917–1957, Hale and Iremonger, Sydney, 1982 Raymond Wright, A People's Counsel. A History of the Parliament of Victoria, 1856–1990, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1992
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Electoral district of Brighton
The electoral district of Brighton is an electoral district of the Victorian Legislative Assembly. It covers an area of 19 square kilometres in south-eastern Melbourne, including the suburbs of Brighton and Elwood, parts of Brighton East and Hampton, it lies within the Southern Metropolitan Region of the Legislative Council. It is one of only three electorates to have existed continuously since 1856. Brighton was defined in the Victoria Constitution Act, 1855, as: "Commencing on the Sea Coast at the South-west Angle of Section 25, Parish of Moorabbin, thence by a Line East to the South-east Angle of Section 55. Electorate profile: Brighton District, Victorian Electoral Commission
Sandringham is an affluent, beachside suburb of Melbourne, Australia, located 19 km southeast of Melbourne's central business district. Its local government area is the City of Bayside and its federal division is the Division of Goldstein. At the 2011 Census, Sandringham had a population of 9,309. Sandringham formed part of the early estates in the parish of Moorabbin purchased by Josiah Holloway in 1852. Named Gipsy Village, lots were sold between 1852 and 1854 notwithstanding little settlement taking place at the time. Bluff Town Post Office opened on 1 April 1868, closed in 1871, reopened in 1873 and was renamed Sandringham in 1887. Sandringham is one of Melbourne's bayside suburbs, located beside Port Phillip at the end of the Sandringham railway line. Sandringham is a popular location for beachgoers, walkers, photographers and shoppers, it has a quaint village atmosphere with a number of cafes, coffee shops and restaurants, take-away food outlets, gourmet food outlets, clothing stores, boutique homewares, professional offices, multi-story apartments, real estate agents, bakeries, a modern bookshop, a news agency, Coles supermarket, a health food store, a chemist, an award-winning library, a historical society, a large modern police station, a medical centre, a Life Saving club, a video store, a hardware store, a wine store, a bank, a large modern hotel with a balcony overlooking the bay, a bike track and a coastal walking track.
The trip by train to and from Melbourne city takes 27 minutes. Buses travel between the Sandringham railway station and St Kilda, Westfield's Southland, Chadstone shopping centre and other places; the Sandringham Yacht Club is host to a number of Sydney to Hobart yacht race winners. The main streets are home including the railway station. In the 2011 census the most common ancestries in Sandringham were English 29.3%, Australian 25.8%, Irish 9.7%, Scottish 9.3% and German 3.1%. Sandringham Primary School, that opened in 1855, is one of the oldest schools in Victoria. Sandringham College - a State secondary college - has two campuses in east Sandringham, one on Bluff Road and one on Holloway Road. Private schools in the area include Firbank Girls' Grammar School junior school and Sacred Heart Parish School. Another school in the area is Sandringham East Primary, which celebrated its 80th anniversary in 2011. Former Mayor Brighton Mayor and Brighton Icebergs Founder John Locco once taught at Sandringham East Primary.
Locco once locked a class. The Melbourne International School of Japanese, a part-time Japanese education programme, once held its classes at Sandringham East Primary; the Sandringham Football Club, known as the Zebras, of the Victorian Football League, has had a number of players go on to play in the AFL, including Trevor Barker, Ian Cooper, radio personality Rex Hunt, Andrew Krakouer, Paul Dimattina, Matthew Warnock and Tom Langdon. Its games record holder is Nick Sautner; the club's home ground is the Trevor Barker oval on Beach Road. Based at the RG Chisholm Reserve, Duncan Street, the East Sandringham Boys Cricket Club features in suburban competitions throughout the cricket season; the club has developed cricketers at a junior level, notably Shane Warne who has on occasion returned to play for his junior club. The R G Chisholm Reserve is home to the East Sandringham Junior Football Club, which produced future Brownlow Medallists Chris Judd and Jobe Watson; the city hosts the Sandringham Soccer Club, which features both a men's and a women's team.
The city hosts the Sandringham Amateur Athletic Club, founded at a meeting held on 8 April 1930. The first recorded event was an 880 yards handicap at the Beach Oval. Trevor Barker Beach Oval Picnic Point Sandringham Rotunda Tjilatjirrin Reserve Sandringham Yacht Club Chris Judd, two-time AFL Brownlow Medallist, West Coast Eagles premiership captain and former Carlton Blues captain, was born in Sandringham and played football for East Sandringham Junior Football Club and the Sandringham Dragons in the TAC Cup as a junior. Bob Hawke, Prime Minister of Australia from March 1983 to December 1991, lived in Keats Street, from 1958 to 1964. Hawke moved to Royal Avenue, Sandringham in 1964. Tim Flannery and Australian of the Year 2007, grew up in Sandringham in the 1950s. Brad Hodge - Australian Test Cricketer and former captain of the Victorian Bushrangers. Jared Rivers - Geelong Football Club player in the Australian Football League. Lisa McIntosh – Paralympic sprinter and five-time gold medallist was born in Sandringham.
Bayside City Council Website Sandringham Yacht Club