John Nicholas Cassavetes was a Greek-American actor, film director, screenwriter. Cassavetes was a pioneer of American independent film and directing over a dozen movies, which he self-financed, pioneered the use of improvisation and a cinéma vérité style, he acted in many Hollywood films, notably Rosemary's Baby and The Dirty Dozen. He studied acting with Don Richardson, utilizing an alternative technique to method acting which privileged character over traditional narrative, his income from acting made it possible. Cassavetes was nominated for three separate Academy Awards: Best Supporting Actor for The Dirty Dozen, Best Original Screenplay for Faces and Best Director for A Woman Under the Influence, he collaborated with various actors, including his wife Gena Rowlands, Peter Falk, Ben Gazzara, Seymour Cassell. His children Nick Cassavetes, Zoe Cassavetes, Xan Cassavetes are filmmakers. Cassavetes was born in New York City, the son of Greek American Katherine Cassavetes, to be featured in some of his films, Greek immigrant Nicholas John Cassavetes.
His early years were spent with his family in Greece. He was reared on New York, he attended Port Washington High School from 1945 to 1947 and participated in Port Weekly, Red Domino and the Port Light. Next to his photo on page 55 of his 1947 yearbook is written: "'Cassy' is always ready with a wisecrack, but he does have a serious side. A'sensational' personality. Drives his'heap' all over." Cassavetes attended Blair Academy in New Jersey and spent a semester at Champlain College before being expelled due to his failing grades. He spent a few weeks hitchhiking down to Florida and transferred to the American Academy of Dramatic Arts after running into friends who had just enrolled, stating the school was packed with girls, encouraging Cassavetes to enroll, he graduated in 1950 and met his future wife Gena Rowlands at her audition into the Academy in 1953 and they were married four months in 1954. He continued acting in the theater, took small parts in films and began working on television in anthology series, such as Alcoa Theatre.
By 1956, Cassavetes had begun teaching an alternative to method acting in his own workshop in New York City. An improvisation exercise in his workshop inspired the idea for his writing and directorial debut, Shadows. Cassavetes raised the funds for the production from friends and family, as well as listeners to Jean Shepherd's late-night radio talk-show Night People, his stated purpose was to make a film about little people, different from Hollywood studio productions. Cassavetes was unable to gain American distribution of Shadows, but it won the Critics Award at the Venice Film Festival. European distributors released the movie in the United States as an import. Although the box-office of Shadows in the United States was slight, it did gain attention from the Hollywood studios. Cassavetes played bit-parts in B pictures and in television serials, until gaining notoriety in 1955 as a vicious killer in The Night Holds Terror, as a juvenile delinquent in the live TV drama Crime in the Streets. Cassavetes would repeat this performance in the 1956 film version.
His first starring role in a feature film was Edge of the City. He was under contract to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and co-starred with Robert Taylor in the western Saddle the Wind, written by Rod Serling. In the late 1950s, Cassavetes guest-starred in Beverly Garland's groundbreaking crime drama, about a New York City woman police undercover detective. Thereafter, he played Johnny Staccato, the title character in a television series about a jazz pianist who worked as a private detective. In total he directed five episodes of the series, which features a guest appearance by his wife Gena Rowlands, it was broadcast on NBC between September 1959 and March 1960 when it was acquired by ABC and although critically acclaimed, the series was cancelled in September 1960. Cassavetes would appear on the NBC interview program, Here's Hollywood. In 1961 Cassavetes signed a seven year deal with Paramount. Cassavetes directed two movies for Hollywood in the early 1960s – Too Late Blues and A Child Is Waiting. A Child Is Judy Garland.
He starred in the CBS western series Rawhide, in the episode "Incident Near Gloomy River". In the 1962–1963 season, Cassavetes guest-starred on the CBS anthology series, The Lloyd Bridges Show, directed two episodes, including "A Pair of Boots", in which his friend Seymour Cassel guest-starred. In the 1963–1964 season, Cassavetes appeared in Jason Evers's ABC drama about college life, Channing; that same season he was cast in the ABC medical drama about psychiatry. In 1964, he again co-starred with his wife, this time in an episode of The Alfred Hitchcock Hour anthology program, in 1965, he appeared on ABC's western series, The Legend of Jesse James; the same year he guest-starred in the World War II series, Combat!, in the episode "S. I. W." as well as insane nuclear scientist Everett Lang in Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea, season 2, episode "The Peacemaker". With payment for his work on television, as well as a handful of film acting jobs, he was able to relocate to California and to make his subsequent films independent of any studio, as Shadows had been.
The films in which he acted with this intention include Don Siegel's The Killers, the motorcycle gang movie Devil's Angels
Tobias Edward Heslewood Jones is an English actor. After appearing in supporting roles in films between 1992 and 2005, Jones made his breakthrough as Truman Capote in the biopic Infamous. Since his films have included The Mist, W. Frost/Nixon, Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, Berberian Sound Studio, The Hunger Games, Tale of Tales, Dad's Army, Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, he provided the voice of Dobby in the Harry Potter films, Aristides Silk in The Adventures of Tintin and Owl in Disney's Christopher Robin, portrayed Arnim Zola in the Marvel Cinematic Universe films Captain America: The First Avenger and Captain America: The Winter Soldier. Jones' television credits include the 2012 Titanic miniseries, Agent Carter, Wayward Pines and Doctor Who, he was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Miniseries or Television Film for his role as Alfred Hitchcock in The Girl and won a Best Male Comedy BAFTA for his role in Detectorists. In 2017, he portrayed Culverton Smith in "The Lying Detective", an episode of the BBC crime drama Sherlock.
Jones was born in Hammersmith, the son of actors Jennifer and Freddie Jones. He has two brothers: Rupert, a director, Casper an actor, he attended Christ Church Cathedral Abingdon School in Oxfordshire in the 1980s. He studied drama at the University of Manchester from 1986 to 1989, at L'École Internationale de Théâtre Jacques Lecoq in Paris from 1989 to 1991. Jones has appeared in more than 20 films since his first acting role in the 1992 film Orlando, he voiced Dobby in two Harry Potter films: Chamber of Secrets and The Deathly Hallows – Part 1. He played Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury in the HBO/Channel 4 production Elizabeth I. In 2006, he portrayed Truman Capote in the biopic Infamous, he appeared in the film adaptation of Stephen King's The Mist in 2007. In 2008, he portrayed Karl Rove in Hollywood agent Swifty Lazar in Frost/Nixon, he appeared alongside his father in the 2004 film Ladies in Lavender. Jones appeared in the 2010 episode "Amy's Choice", of Doctor Who, as the Dream Lord, in the Big Finish Productions series' Dark Eyes as Kotris.
He played the role of Samuel Ratchett in Agatha Christie's Poirot TV Series 12 episode "Murder on the Orient Express". In 2011, he played the role of the British spy master Percy Alleline in the adaptation of John Le Carré's Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy and Arnim Zola in Captain America: The First Avenger, a role which he reprised in the sequel Captain America: The Winter Soldier three years as well as in a cameo in the TV series Agent Carter the following year. In 2012, he had a leading role in the ITV mini-series Titanic, starred as one of the seven dwarves in Snow White and the Huntsman, played Dr. Paul Shackleton in Red Lights, Max in Virginia, he portrayed film director Alfred Hitchcock in the HBO television film The Girl, a role that earned him his first Golden Globe Award nomination, as well as his first Primetime Emmy Award nomination. He appears in the music video for Gomez's song "Whippin' Picadilly", he played Neil Baldwin in the BBC drama Marvellous in 2014. Sam Wollaston, in The Guardian, praised Jones's "lovely human, performance", one that earned him his second British Academy Television Award nomination.
From 2014, he appeared in the BBC Four television series Detectorists, for which he received a nomination for the British Academy Television Award for Best Male Comedy Performance in 2016 before winning the award in 2018. In 2015, Jones played the part of Roger Yount, a banker, in the three-part BBC series Capital based on John Lanchester's novel of the same name. Discussing working with Jones on Capital, writer Peter Bowker said, "I think Toby is a genius and thought that long before I worked with him, he always wants to know a character's needs, what's beneath those needs. He takes all that material and somehow embeds it into the character and physically inhabits the character, so that you never think he's playing the character. It's fascinating to watch him close up, he carries the emotional complexities in every tiny gesture that his character makes so that you can see what his character is like. A character like Roger is full of contradictions, a city banker with an air of entitlement but a little insecurity picking away at him.
Toby can portray that in his walk alone. That's what's great about him, he can portray cold he can portray warm and he can portray both of those things at once."He plays Captain Mainwaring in the film Dad's Army, released in February 2016. In July the same year he starred as the eponymous agent Verloc in the BBC's The Secret Agent, a 3-part television adaptation of Joseph Conrad's 1907 novel. In 2017, he portrayed Culverton Smith in "The Lying Detective", an episode of the BBC crime drama Sherlock, he played the malevolent industrialist "Gunnar Eversoll" in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, the fifth installment of the Jurassic Park series. In 2003 Jones played the part of Lord Brideshead in BBC Radio adaptation of Brideshead Revisited. Jones voiced the title character of the 2005 BBC Radio 4 adaptation of Oblomov, he read the 2009 Radio 4 adaptation of John Irving's A Prayer for Owen Meany. He played Inspector Goole in 2010 BBC Radio adaptation of An Inspector Calls. Since 2013 Jones has been the voice of the lead character, Joey Oldman in the BBC Radio 4 series The Corrupted an adaptation of the G. F. Newman novel Crime and Punishment.
On 2 December 2012 he played Napoleon Bonaparte in Anthony Burgess's Napoleon Rising on Radio 3. In 2013 he played Kotris in the award-winning Doctor, Dark Eyes. In 2001, he starred in the London West E
Irwin Lawrence "Paul" Mazursky was an American film director and actor. Known for his dramatic comedies that dealt with modern social issues, he was nominated for five Academy Awards: three times for Best Original Screenplay, once for Best Adapted Screenplay, once for Best Picture for An Unmarried Woman, his other films include Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice, Blume in Love and Tonto, Moscow on the Hudson, Down and Out in Beverly Hills. He was born in to a Jewish family in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Jean, a piano player for dance classes, David Mazursky, a laborer. Mazursky's grandfather was an immigrant from Ukraine. Mazursky graduated from Brooklyn College in 1951, he was an atheist. Mazursky was married to Betsy Mazursky from 1953 until his death. Mazursky began his film career as an actor in Stanley Kubrick's first feature and Desire. Kubrick asked for verification of his name for the credits and at that point he decided on a first-name change to Paul. Two years he appeared in a featured position as one of a classroom of teenagers with issues towards authority in The Blackboard Jungle.
His acting career continued for several decades, starting with parts in episodes of television series such as The Twilight Zone and The Rifleman. Mazursky appeared in supporting cameos in most of his own films. In Moon over Parador, with the Rio Opera House available for only three days of shooting, Mazursky cast himself as a dictator's mother when Judith Malina was unavailable, playing the character in drag. Mazursky played supporting roles in The Other Side of the Wind, A Star Is Born, History of the World Part I, Into the Night, Man Trouble, Carlito's Way, Love Affair, 2 Days in the Valley, Miami Rhapsody, Crazy in Alabama, I Want Someone to Eat Cheese With, he performed the voice of the Psychologist in Antz. In years, Mazursky had a small part as "Sunshine" the poker dealer in The Sopranos, he appeared in five episodes of season 4 of Curb Your Enthusiasm as Mel Brooks' associate Norm, a role that he reprised in a season 7 episode. Soon after starting his acting career, Mazursky became a writer and worked on The Danny Kaye Show in 1963.
In 1965, he collaborated with Larry Tucker in crafting the script of the original pilot of The Monkees television series, in which they both appeared in cameos. Mazursky's debut as a film screenplay writer was the Peter Sellers comedy I Love You, Alice B. Toklas; the following year he directed his first film Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice, which proved to be a major critical and commercial success. The film earned Mazursky his first Oscar nomination, his career behind the camera continued for the next two decades as he wrote and directed a prolific string of quirky and critically popular films. His most successful films were contemporary dramatic comedies and include the Academy Award-winning Harry and Tonto, the Best Picture-nominated An Unmarried Woman, popular hits such as Moscow on the Hudson and Down and Out in Beverly Hills. In light of his comedies that tackled a number of modern social subjects, The Hollywood Reporter has stated that "from the late'60s through the'80s, seemed to channel the zeitgeist..." and Variety has stated that "his oeuvre smacks of cultural significance."Other films made by Mazursky during this time include the Hollywood satire Alex in Wonderland, the cutting Los Angeles relationship comedy Blume in Love, the semi-autobiographical coming of age story Next Stop, Greenwich Village, the New York City-based Jules and Jim homage Willie & Phil, the contemporary Shakespeare comedy Tempest, the Caribbean-set political farce Moon over Parador, the acclaimed Isaac Bashevis Singer adaptation Enemies, a Love Story.
Film critic Roger Ebert was a particular fan of Mazursky's work, giving six of his films the optimal four stars in his reviews. In 1986, Ebert stated that "Mazursky has a way of making comedies that are more intelligent and relevant than most of the serious films around."Mazursky experienced less success in the 1990s, beginning with Scenes from a Mall, starring Woody Allen and Bette Midler. Following his filmmaking satire The Pickle, his last writing credit, Mazursky worked only sporadically as a director on such films as Faithful and Coast to Coast, his final film was the independent documentary Yippee. Every film written and directed by Mazursky used New York City or Los Angeles as one of its settings, his films received a total of twelve Academy Award nominations, with one win, nineteen Golden Globe nominations, with two wins. In his autobiography Show Me the Magic, Mazursky recounts his experiences in filmmaking and with several well-known screen personalities including Peter Sellers. Mazursky appeared as himself in a number of documentaries on film, including A Decade Under the Influence, New York at the Movies and Screenwriters: Words Into Image.
Late in his life, Mazursky was developing a Broadway musical adaptation of his 1988 film Moon Over Parador. From 2011 until his death in 2014, Mazursky served as a film critic for Vanity Fair. Mazursky received five Academy Award nominations, four for his screenplay writing on Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice and Tonto, An Unmarried Woman and Enemies, a Love Story, once as producer of An Unmarried Woman, he was twice nominated for a
Robert Towne is an American screenwriter, producer and actor. He was part of the New Hollywood wave of filmmaking, he is best known for his Academy Award-winning original screenplay for Roman Polanski's Chinatown, considered one of the greatest screenplays written. He said it was inspired by a chapter in Carey McWilliams's Southern California Country: An Island on the Land and a West magazine article on Raymond Chandler's Los Angeles. Towne wrote the sequel, The Two Jakes. Towne directed the sports dramas Personal Best and Without Limits, the crime thriller Tequila Sunrise, the romantic crime drama Ask the Dust. Towne was born in Los Angeles, where he grew up in the son of Helen and Lou Schwartz. Towne's parentage was Romanian on his father's side, he graduated from Pomona College in California. Towne sought work as a writer and actor, he did an acting class with Roger Corman taught by Jeff Corey where his classmates included Jack Nicholson, Irvin Kershner and Sally Kellerman. Corman was renowned for giving work to untested people of talent.
Towne wrote the screenplay for the Corman-financed Last Woman on Earth, in which Towne played one of the lead roles. The following year he starred in the Corman-financed Creature from the Haunted Sea. Towne started writing for television on such programs as The Lloyd Bridges Show, Breaking Point, The Outer Limits, The Man from U. N. C. L. E.. He wrote a screenplay for the Corman-directed The Tomb of Ligeia. In 1981 Towne said "I worked harder on... screenplay for him than on anything I think I have done."Towne went back to working in television when Corman hired him to write a script for a Western, which became A Time for Killing. Corman left the project during Towne took his name off the credits. Towne said he "hated" the film. Towne's script for A Time for Killing had been read and admired by Warren Beatty who asked Towne to help out on the script for Bonnie and Clyde. Towne claimed his main contributions were removing the menage a trois relationship between Bonnie, Clyde and WD, making some structural changes.
Towne was on continued to work during post production. The film was a huge success and although Towne's contribution was only "special consultant", he began to earn a reputation in Hollywood as a top "script doctor". Towne was credited on Villa Rides, which he said he did as a favor for Robert Evans head of Paramount, he hated the experience. Towne did uncredited work on the scripts for Drive, He Said, he did uncredited work for Francis Ford Coppola during the making of The Godfather the final scene between Michael and Vito, shortly before Vito dies. Coppola thanked Towne in his speech. Towne did some work on The Parallax View at the behest of star Warren Beatty.. Towne received great acclaim for his film scripts The Last Detail and Shampoo, he was nominated for an Oscar for all three scripts. Towne was credited for his work on The Yakuza and did script doctoring on The Missouri Breaks and Heaven Can Wait. Towne turned to directing with Personal Best, he wrote the script for Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes, hoping to direct, but Personal Best was a financial failure, meaning he had to sell the Greystoke script.
He grew dissatisfied with the production and credited his dog, P. H. Vazak, with the script. Vazak became the first dog nominated for an Oscar for screenwriting. Towne did uncredited work on Deal of the Century, 8 Million Ways to Die, Tough Guys Don't Dance and Frantic, his second feature film as director was Tequila Sunrise. Towne told The New York Times that Tequila Sunrise is "a movie about the use and abuse of friendship." Robert Towne expressed his disappointment in The Two Jakes in many interviews. He told writer Alex Simon "In the interest of maintaining my friendships with Jack Nicholson and Robert Evans, I’d rather not go into it, but let’s just say The Two Jakes wasn’t a pleasant experience for any of us. But, we’re all still friends, that’s what matters most."In a November 5, 2007 interview with MTV, Jack Nicholson claimed that Towne had written the part of Gittes for him. In the same interview, Nicholson said that Towne had conceived Chinatown as a trilogy, with the third film set in 1968 and dealing in some way with Howard Hughes.
However, Towne says he "does not know how that got started" and denies there was any trilogy planned. Towne formed a close relationship with its star Tom Cruise, he was one of the writers on Cruise's The Firm Beatty's Love Affair. Cruise brought him on to Mission: Impossible and co produced Towne's third film as director, Without Limits, he co-wrote Mission Impossible II for Cruise. A project Towne had long sought to bring to the screen came to fruition in 2006 with Ask the Dust, a romantic period piece set in Los Angel
Jeremy Bernard Corbyn is a British politician serving as Leader of the Labour Party and Leader of the Opposition since 2015. Corbyn was first elected Member of Parliament for Islington North in 1983. Ideologically, he identifies himself as a democratic socialist. Born and raised in Wiltshire, Corbyn joined Labour as a teenager. Moving to London, he became a trade union representative. In 1974, he was elected to Haringey Council and became Secretary of Hornsey Constituency Labour Party, until elected as the MP for Islington North in 1983, his activism has included roles in Anti-Fascist Action, the Anti-Apartheid Movement and the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, advocating for a united Ireland. As a backbench MP, he voted against the Labour whip, including "New Labour" governments under Tony Blair and Gordon Brown, he chaired the Stop the War Coalition from 2011 to 2015. Corbyn was elected Labour leader in 2015. Taking the party to the left, he advocated renationalisation of public utilities and the railways, a less interventionist military policy, reversals of austerity cuts to welfare and public services.
After Labour MPs sought to remove him in 2016, he won a second leadership contest. Although critical of the European Union, he supported continued membership in the 2016 referendum. In the 2017 general election, Labour again finished as the second-largest party in parliament, but increased their share of the vote to 40%, resulting in a net gain of 30 seats and a hung parliament. Corbyn has been criticised in relation to allegations of antisemitism in the Labour Party and for alleged antisemitic associations prior to becoming leader. Corbyn has apologised and asserted his record of opposing antisemitism and his commitment to rooting it out in the party. Corbyn was brought up in nearby Kington St Michael in Wiltshire, he is the youngest of the four sons of Naomi Loveday, a maths teacher, David Benjamin Corbyn, an electrical engineer and expert in power rectifiers. His brother Piers Corbyn is a physicist and weather forecaster, his parents were Labour Party members and peace campaigners who met in the 1930s at a committee meeting in support of the Spanish Republic at Conway Hall during the Spanish Civil War.
When Corbyn was seven years old, the family moved to Pave Lane in Shropshire, where his father bought Yew Tree Manor, a 17th-century country house, once part of the Duke of Sutherland's Lilleshall estate. Corbyn was educated at Castle House School, an independent preparatory school near Newport, before attending Adams' Grammar School as a day student. While still at school, he became active in The Wrekin constituency Young Socialists, his local Labour Party, the League Against Cruel Sports, he joined the Labour Party at age 16 and achieved two E-grade A-Levels, the lowest-possible passing grade, before leaving school at 18. Corbyn joined the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in 1966 whilst at school and became one of its three vice-chairs and subsequently vice-president. After school, Corbyn worked as a reporter for a local newspaper, the Newport and Market Drayton Advertiser. At around the age of 19 he spent two years doing Voluntary Service Overseas in Jamaica as a youth worker and geography teacher.
He subsequently travelled through Latin America in 1969 and 1970, visiting Brazil, Argentina and Chile. Whilst in Brazil he participated in a student demonstration in São Paulo against the Brazilian military government, he attended a May Day march in Santiago, where the atmosphere around Salvador Allende's Popular Unity alliance which swept to power in the Chilean elections of 1970 made an impression on him: " noticed something different from anything I had experienced... What Popular Unity and Allende had done was weld together the folk tradition, the song tradition, the artistic tradition and the intellectual tradition". Returning to the UK in 1971, he worked as an official for the National Union of Tailors and Garment Workers. Corbyn began a course in Trade Union Studies at North London Polytechnic but left after a year without a degree after a series of arguments with his tutors over the curriculum, he worked as a trade union organiser for the National Union of Public Employees and Amalgamated Engineering and Electrical Union, where his union was approached by Tony Benn and "encouraged... to produce a blueprint for workers' control of British Leyland".
He was appointed a member of a district health authority and in early 1974, at the age of 24, he was elected to Haringey Council in South Hornsey ward. After boundary changes in 1978 he was re-elected in Harringay ward as councillor, remaining so until 1983; as a delegate from Hornsey to the Labour Party conference in 1978, Corbyn moved a motion calling for dentists to be employed by the NHS rather than private contractors. He spoke in another debate, describing a motion calling for greater support for law and order as "more appropriate to the National Front than to the Labour Party". Corbyn became the local Labour Party's agent and organiser, had responsibility for the 1979 general election campaign in Hornsey. Around this time, he became involved with the London Labour Briefing. Described by The Times in 1981 as "Briefing's founder", The Economist in a 1982 article named Corbyn as "Briefing's general secretary figure", as did a profile on Corbyn compiled by parliamentary biographer Andrew Roth in 2004, which alleges that he joined the editorial board as General Secretary in 1979.
Michael Crick in his 2016 edition of Militant says Corbyn was "a member of the editorial board", as does Lansley and Wolmar's 1989 work, The
BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, comedy and history. It replaced the BBC Home Service in 1967; the station controller is Gwyneth Williams, the station is part of BBC Radio and the BBC Radio department. The station is broadcast from the BBC's headquarters at London. On 21 January 2019 Williams announced. There are no details of when, it is the second most popular domestic radio station in the UK, broadcast throughout the UK, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands on FM, LW and DAB, can be received in eastern and south eastern counties of Ireland, the north of France and Northern Europe. It is available through Freeview, Virgin Media and on the Internet, its sister station, BBC Radio 4 Extra, complements the main channel by broadcasting repeats from the Radio 4 archive, extended versions of Radio 4 programmes and supplements to series such as The Archers and Desert Island Discs.
It is notable for its news bulletins and programmes such as Today and The World at One, heralded on air by the Greenwich Time Signal "pips" or the chimes of Big Ben. Radio 4 broadcasts the Shipping Forecast, which reached 150 years old in August 2017; the pips are only accurate on FM, LW, MW as there is a delay on DAB and digital radio of 3 to 5 seconds longer online. BBC Radio 4 is the second most popular British domestic radio station by total hours, after Radio 2 – and the most popular in London and the South of England, it recorded its highest audience, of 11 million listeners, in May 2011 and was "UK Radio Station of the Year" at the 2003, 2004 and 2008 Sony Radio Academy Awards. It won a Peabody Award in 2002 for File On 4: Export Controls. Costing £71.4 million, it is the BBC's most expensive national radio network and is considered by many to be its flagship. There is no comparable British commercial network: Channel 4 abandoned plans to launch its own speech-based digital radio station in October 2008 as part of a £100m cost cutting review.
In 2010 Gwyneth Williams replaced Mark Damazer as Radio 4 controller. Damazer became Master of Oxford. Music and sport are the only fields that fall outside the station's remit, it broadcasts occasional concerts, documentaries related to various forms of both popular and classical music, the long-running music-based Desert Island Discs. Prior to the creation of BBC Radio 5 it broadcast sports-based features, notably Sport on Four, since the creation of BBC Radio 5 Live has become the home of ball-by-ball commentaries of most Test cricket matches played by England, broadcast on long wave; as a result, for around 70 days a year listeners have to rely on FM broadcasts or DAB for mainstream Radio 4 broadcasts – the number relying on long wave is now a small minority. The cricket broadcasts take precedence over on-the-hour news bulletins, but not the Shipping Forecast, carried since its move to long wave in 1978 because that can be received at sea; the station is the UK's national broadcaster in times of national emergency such as war, due to the wide coverage of the Droitwich signal: if all other radio stations were forced to close, it would carry on broadcasting.
It has been claimed that the commanders of nuclear-armed submarines believing that Britain had suffered nuclear attack were required to check if they could still receive Radio 4 on 198 long wave, if they could not they would open sealed orders that might authorise a retaliatory strike. As well as news and drama, the station has a strong reputation for comedy, including experimental and alternative comedy, many successful comedians and comedy shows first appearing on the station. Following the six o'clock news from Monday to Friday, the station broadcasts a thirty-minute comedy programme; the station is available on FM in parts of Ireland and the north of France. Freesat and Virgin have a separate channel which broadcasts the Radio 4 LW output in mono, in addition to the FM output; the BBC Home Service was the predecessor of Radio 4 and broadcast between 1939 and 1967. It had regional variations and was broadcast on medium wave with a network of VHF FM transmitters being added from 1955. Radio 4 replaced it on 30 September 1967, when the BBC renamed many of its domestic radio stations, in response to the challenge of offshore radio.
It moved to long wave in November 1978, taking over the 200 kHz frequency held by Radio 2, moved to 198 kHz as a result of international agreements aimed at avoiding interference and to mark the station becoming a national service for the first time the station became known as Radio 4 UK, a title that remained until mid 1984. For a time during the 1970s Radio 4 carried regional news bulletins Monday to Saturday; these were broadcast twice at breakfast, at lunchtime and an evening bulletin was aired at 5.55pm. There were programme variations for the parts of England not served by BBC Local Radio stations; these included Roundabout East Anglia, a VHF opt-out of the Today programme broadcast from BBC East's studios in Norwich each weekday from 6.45 am to 8.45 am. Roundabout East Anglia came to an end in mid-1980, when local radio services were introduced to East Anglia with the launch of BBC Radio Norfolk. All regional news bulletins broadcast
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma