Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor public areas and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioral, or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the investigation of existing social and soil conditions and processes in the landscape. A practitioner in the profession of architecture is called a landscape architect. The most valuable contribution can be made at the first stage of a project to generate ideas with technical understanding and creative flair for the design and use of spaces. The landscape architect can conceive the concept and prepare the master plan, from which detailed design drawings. They can review proposals to authorize and supervise contracts for the construction work, other skills include preparing design impact assessments, conducting environmental assessments and audits, and serving as an expert witness at inquiries on land use issues. e. They often work in forestry, nature conservation and agriculture, Landscape scientists have specialist skills such as soil science, geomorphology or botany that they relate to the practical problems of landscape work.
Their projects can range from surveys to the ecological assessment of broad areas for planning or management purposes. They may report on the impact of development or the importance of species in a given area. Landscape planners are concerned with planning for the location, scenic and recreational aspects of urban. Some may apply an additional specialism such as landscape archaeology or law to the process of landscape planning, green roof designers design extensive and intensive roof gardens for storm water management, evapo-transpirative cooling, sustainable architecture and habitat creation. An example is the work by André Le Nôtre at Vaux-le-Vicomte for King Louis XIV of France at the Palace of Versailles. The first person to write of making a landscape was Joseph Addison in 1712, the term landscape architecture was invented by Gilbert Laing Meason in 1828, and John Claudius Loudon was instrumental in the adoption of the term landscape architecture by the modern profession. He took up the term from Meason and gave it publicity in his Encyclopedias and in his 1840 book on the Landscape Gardening, the practice of landscape architecture spread from the Old to the New World.
IFLA was founded at Cambridge, England, in 1948 with Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe as its first president, representing 15 countries from Europe, later, in 1978, IFLAs Headquarters were established in Versailles. Through the 19th century, urban planning became a focal point, the combination of the tradition of landscape gardening and the emerging field of urban planning offered Landscape Architecture an opportunity to serve these needs. In the second half of the century, Frederick Law Olmsted completed a series of parks which continue to have an influence on the practices of Landscape Architecture today. Among these were Central Park in New York City, Prospect Park in Brooklyn, New York, jens Jensen designed sophisticated and naturalistic urban and regional parks for Chicago and private estates for the Ford family including Fair Lane and Gaukler Point
George P. Mitchell
George Phydias Mitchell was an American businessman, real estate developer and philanthropist from Texas credited with pioneering the economic extraction of shale gas. According to The Economist, few businesspeople have done as much to change the world as George Mitchell, Mitchell was born to Greek immigrant parents in the port city of Galveston, Texas in 1919. His father, Savvas Paraskevopoulos, was from the village of Nestani in Arcadia, tended goats before immigrating to the United States in 1901 and he worked for railroads, and gradually moved west. When a paymaster got tired of writing his name and threatened to fire him, Mr. Paraskevopoulos took the paymaster’s name. Mike Mitchell settled in Galveston, where he ran a succession of shoe-shining and pressing shops, when he saw the picture of a beautiful woman in a local Greek newspaper, he headed for Florida, where she had settled, according to family lore. He persuaded her to abandon her fiancé and marry him and they lived above the shoeshine shop.
In 1940, Mitchell earned a degree in engineering with an emphasis in geology from Texas A&M University. He graduated as the valedictorian in his class and was the captain of the tennis team. He started an independent oil and gas company, Mitchell Energy & Development Corp. and he participated in the development of about 10,000 wells, including more than 1000 wildcat wells. The new approach has been adopted by the gas industry. The Potential Gas Committee estimates that U. S. recoverable reserves will last 118 years at current production levels, but production is expected to more than triple by 2020. Extracting natural gas from shale rock is rapidly spreading to countries outside the United States, some consider his innovation important in the context of energy security, making the United States less dependent on foreign sources of energy. Because of the progress in industry fracking, George Mitchell is now known as the “pioneer of shale. ”For this reason. Mitchell Energy & Development Corp. was acquired by Devon Energy and he brought on landscape architect Ian McHarg to consult on the project.
The master plan for the community called for preserving trees, protecting the environment, in 2010, The Woodlands was home to 97,000 people. When fully developed the population will have reached 130,000 and he and his wife Cynthia have played a major role in the revitalization of his hometown of Galveston. Mitchell had a passion for tennis, and the tennis center at Texas A&M University. Built for an estimated $4.2 million, the ribbon cutting ceremony was held on October 23,1998
The Woodlands, Texas
The Woodlands is a master-planned community and census-designated place in the U. S. state of Texas in the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area. According to The Woodlands Development Company, the population was 107,769 as of a January 2014 estimate and it is 28 miles north of Houston along Interstate 45. It won a Special Award for Excellence in 1994 from the Urban Land Institute and it was dedicated by George P. Mitchell in 1974 and managed by The Woodlands Corporation as an extension of Mitchell Energy & Development. Mitchell, an oil businessman, planned to establish a center, office parks, retail malls, large distribution centers. Houses would range from affordable to expensive and large, Bill Schadewald of the Houston Business Journal said that Mitchell wanted the development to entice city slickers looking for far-flung suburban quality of life. Schadewald said that sources stated that the HUD New Town program. The Woodlands Corporation was acquired on July 31,1997, by a partnership between Morgan Stanley and Crescent Real Estate Equities, in December 2003, The Rouse Company acquired Crescents interest, and Rouse was bought by General Growth Properties on November 12,2004.
In 2011 The Woodlands was sold to the Howard Hughes Development Corporation, the land was previously occupied by the Grogan-Cochran Lumber Mill, hence Grogans Mill and Cochrans Crossing neighborhoods, called villages. The original development plan included environmental design principles espoused by Ian McHarg and it continues to grow residentially and commercially as many companies are moving there. The Town Center includes shopping and eating facilities, a waterway resembling the San Antonio River Walk, on September 13,2008, it sustained extensive damage from Hurricane Ike. Sustained winds of 85 mph brought down thousands of trees, Ike was the first hurricane to directly affect the area since Hurricane Alicia in 1983. The summer of 2011 brought an unprecedented drought throughout Texas, which caused thousands of trees to die and requiring they be taken down, in 2011, Schadewald said Now, The Woodlands had quite a future. Somewhere between First Colony and The Woodlands, I realized why visionary real estate developers strike it rich more often than real estate reporters.
In 2012, the U. S. Mitchells original plan was for The Woodlands to be annexed by the city of Houston, in the middle part of the 2000s, some residents feared such an annexation, as had happened to the Kingwood development almost a decade before. To counteract any possible move by the city, a movement began to create an independent city government, the formation of an independent government would require authorization by the State of Texas and the City of Houston, as Houston held extraterritorial jurisdiction over the area. In 2007, two state legislators representing Woodlands, Sen. Tommy Williams and Rep. Robert Eissler and passed two bills in the 2007 Legislature – House Bill 4109 and Senate Bill 1012, the passage of these bills allowed an opportunity for The Woodlands to incorporate itself. The Woodlands is primarily in Montgomery County, with a portion of the CDP in Harris County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has an area of 43.9 square miles, of which 43.3 square miles is land and 0.58 square miles, or 1. 32%, is water
Cal Poly Pomona College of Environmental Design
The Cal Poly Pomona College of Environmental Design is a college part of the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. The college houses over 1,600 students, making it one of largest environmental design programs in the United States, the college offers bachelors degrees in five departments, as well as three masters degree programs. It is the academic unit within the California State University system to be associated with a Pritzker Prize laureate. The planning programs at Cal Poly Pomona evolved from the landscape architecture program that originally was part of the School of Agriculture. After approval of the creation of a new School of Environmental Design, the Department of Urban Planning was created and soon after a Department of Architecture. Department of Urban Planning was renamed Department of Urban and Regional Planning in 1983 to reflect an expanded program, the School was renamed the College of Environmental Design in 1988. The Department of Art was transferred to Environmental Design from the College of Arts in 1992, in 1978, the College was briefly led by Richard Saul Wurman, founder of the TED and given credit for coining the term information architect.
In the summer of 2009 the University hired former Los Angeles City Councilman, current plans are for a new Architecture Building adjacent to the IDC. The Department of Architecture is a member of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, two programs are accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board. In 2009, the program was named one of three schools in the nation that excel in sustainable design by Arch Ed 2009 published by Architecture, the program has been impacted since its inception over 40 years ago, with many more students applying than can be accommodated. In 2002 the department admitted 15 percent of undergraduate applicants making it the 5th most selective Bachelor of Architecture program in the country, by 2007 the departments acceptance rate was down to 9 percent, or 225 out of 2,551 applicants, of which 100 enrolled. Due to the studio based structure of the program, the student to faculty ratio is a relatively low 17 to 1. Prior to graduation students are required to complete a 500-hour internship under NCARB, after a falling out with university administrators, a group went on to form the Southern California Institute of Architecture in 1972.
Past faculty include, Aaron Betsky, Michael Folonis, Hsin Ming Fung, the Bachelor of Science in Landscape Architecture is a general professional degree, nationally accredited by the American Society of Landscape Architects. The undergraduate and graduate program both ranked 10th nationally by DesignIntelligence 2014, the departments students won 5 out of 20 awards from the American Society of Landscape Architects student competition in 2008, more awards than Harvard and University of Pennsylvania. Longtime faculty member Takeo Uesugi designed the George and Takaye Aratani Japanese Garden adjacent to the CLA building on campus, in 2005, the college awarded Jack Dangermond, a department graduate and Forbes 400 richest persons in America, an honorary degree. Due to the studio based structure of the program, the student to faculty ratio is a relatively low 16 to 1. The Bachelor of Science in Urban and Regional Planning is designed for students interested in working with the issues of social, environmental
Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregationalist and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, james Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College, Harvards $34.5 billion financial endowment is the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large, highly residential research university, the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the Universitys large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. Harvards alumni include eight U. S. presidents, several heads of state,62 living billionaires,359 Rhodes Scholars. To date, some 130 Nobel laureates,18 Fields Medalists, Harvard was formed in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
In 1638, it obtained British North Americas first known printing press, in 1639 it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard an alumnus of the University of Cambridge who had left the school £779 and his scholars library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650 and it offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational. The leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701, in 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not a clergyman, which marked a turning of the college toward intellectual independence from Puritanism. When the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year later, in 1804, in 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College.
Agassizs approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans participation in the Divine Nature, agassizs perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the divine plan in all phenomena. When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on an archetype for his evidence. Charles W. Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. While Eliot was the most crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education, during the 20th century, Harvards international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the universitys scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new schools were begun and the undergraduate College expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.
In the early 20th century, the student body was predominately old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, by the 1970s it was much more diversified
Baltimore is the largest city in the U. S. state of Maryland, and the 29th-most populous city in the country. It was established by the Constitution of Maryland and is not part of any county, thus, it is the largest independent city in the United States, with a population of 621,849 as of 2015. As of 2010, the population of the Baltimore Metropolitan Area was 2.7 million, founded in 1729, Baltimore is the second largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic. Baltimores Inner Harbor was once the leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a city of neighborhoods, in the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote The Star-Spangled Banner, the American national anthem, in Baltimore. More than 65,000 properties, or roughly one in three buildings in the city, are listed on the National Register, more than any city in the nation. The city has 289 properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives.
The city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore, of the Irish House of Lords, Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland. Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, in 1608, Captain John Smith traveled 210 miles from Jamestown to the uppermost Chesapeake Bay, leading the first European expedition to the Patapsco River. The name Patapsco is derived from pota-psk-ut, which translates to backwater or tide covered with froth in Algonquian dialect, a quarter century after John Smiths voyage, English colonists began to settle in Maryland. The area constituting the modern City of Baltimore and its area was first settled by David Jones in 1661. He claimed the area today as Harbor East on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was populated, if at all. The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, one Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period.
During the Late Woodland period, the culture that is called the Potomac Creek complex resided in the area from Baltimore to the Rappahannock River in Virginia. It was located on the Bush River on land that in 1773 became part of Harford County, in 1674, the General Assembly passed An Act for erecting a Court-house and Prison in each County within this Province. The site of the house and jail for Baltimore County was evidently Old Baltimore near the Bush River. In 1683, the General Assembly passed An Act for Advancement of Trade to establish towns, one of the towns established by the act in Baltimore County was on Bush River, on Town Land, near the Court-House
Parachute Regiment (United Kingdom)
The Parachute Regiment, colloquially known as the Paras, is an elite airborne infantry regiment of the British Army. One battalion is permanently under the command of the Director Special Forces in the Special Forces Support Group, the other battalions are the parachute infantry component of the British Armys rapid response formation,16 Air Assault Brigade. The Paras are the line infantry regiment of the British Army that has not been amalgamated with another unit since the end of the Second World War. The Parachute Regiment was formed on 22 June 1940 during the Second World War, in Europe, these battalions formed part of the 1st Airborne Division, the 6th Airborne Division and the 2nd Independent Parachute Brigade Group. Another three battalions served with the British Indian Army in India and Burma, the regiment took part in six major parachute assault operations in North Africa, Greece, the Netherlands and Germany, often landing ahead of all other troops. At the end of the Second World War, the regiment was reduced to three regular army battalions first assigned to the 16th Parachute Brigade and the 5th Airborne Brigade, the reserve 16th Airborne Division was formed using the regiment reserve battalions in the Territorial Army.
Defence cuts gradually reduced the TA formations to a parachute brigade, the Parachute Regiment consists of three regular army battalions, the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd, and an Army Reserve battalion, the 4th. The 1st is based at St Athan, and is attached to the Special Forces Support Group. They receive further training on weapons, communications equipment and specialist assault skills. All men within the Parachute Regiment can expect to serve with the SFSG on rotation and this ensures that the advanced military skills taught to the SFSG are maintained in the other two regular battalions. The 2nd and 3rd battalions are the infantry component of the 16 Air Assault Brigade, the armys rapid response brigade. The reserve 4th Battalion has its headquarters at Pudsey and companies in Glasgow, volunteers for the Parachute Regiment are invited to a 3-day insight course at the Parachute Regiment Assessment Course at Catterick Garrison. Over the three days, they have to pass a series of fitness assessments. All recruit training is undertaken over a 30-week course with 2nd Infantry Training Battalion at the Infantry Training Centre at Catterick.
P company puts recruits through a number of physical assessments designed to test fitness, stamina, at the end of P Company, recruits take part in eight pre-parachute selection tests. Those who are successful are awarded their maroon beret, recruits for the Parachute Regiment must be male and aged 16 to 33 for the regular Army, or 18 to 40 for the Army Reserve. Potential Officers must be aged 18 to 29, on completion of his basic training and entry into his battalion, recruits are posted to RAF Brize Norton for a Basic Parachute Course. Since 1995, all jumps are carried out from powered aircraft
Pardisan Park is a complex covering more than 270 hectares, located in the northwest of Tehran. It is connected to Hemmat Expressway in the north, and to Sheikh Nouri Expressway in the east, the original design of the park is attributed to Ian McHarg of the University of Pennsylvania. The planning phase of the park was begun by Wallace McHarg Roberts & Todd in 1975, under the reign of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Due to the conflicts of the 1979 Revolution, the project was suspended, the final construction phase was finished after the revolution. Several animals live in the park, including monkeys, rabbits, in addition to the wildlife park, the complex contains playgrounds, a theater, and a biodiversity museum
University of Pennsylvania School of Design
The University of Pennsylvania School of Design is the design school of the University of Pennsylvania. It is currently ranked 3rd in urban planning by The Best Colleges, 10th in urban planning by Planetizen, the School of Design is known for its distinguished faculty, which have included architects Louis Kahn and Robert Venturi and pioneer of landscape architecture Ian McHarg. Denise Scott Brown graduated from the School of Design in 1960, architectural courses were first offered by the University of Pennsylvania in 1868, making the school the second oldest architectural program in the United States. In 1903, these architects were joined by Frenchman Paul Philippe Cret, the School of Fine Arts joined with the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and the Museum School to offer programs in painting and sculpture. In 1924, Landscape Architecture was made into an autonomous department, in the 1950s the school was under the leadership of G. Holmes Perkins, recruited from Harvard to reinvigorate the offerings.
Perkins, founded the city planning department and focused the landscape architecture program on urban ecology, the Department of Architecture saw the arrival of structural engineers Robert LeRicolais and August Komendant, along with architects Romaldo Giurgola, Robert Venturi, Robert Geddes. He included 1924 Penn graduate Louis I. Kahn among the architecture faculty, a dedicated educator and philosopher, Kahn became the spiritual leader of the revived Philadelphia School at Penn. In 1958 the School was renamed the Graduate School of Fine Arts, and before long, a renewed Department of Landscape Architecture came under the dynamic leadership of Ian McHarg, while Peter Shepheard, landscape architect and planner, succeeded Perkins as dean. A Civic Design Program renamed Urban Design and led by David Crane was established as a joint offering by Architecture, the Fine Arts Department became a full-fledged professional program under the leadership of Piero Dorazio, Neil Welliver, and Robert Engman.
And in the early 1980s, the added a program in Historic Preservation. The Graduate Program in Historic Preservation is headed by Randall F Mason, as Chair, John Moore brought internationally renowned artists and critics to the School of Design, including Robert Storr, Robert Hughes, Chuck Close and Eric Fischl. Other associated centers and institutes include the T. C. Chan Center for Building Simulation and Energy Studies, the Center for Redevelopment Excellence, and she has replaced outgoing Dean Gary Hack. A. /M. C. P. PDF archive available here Via Publications viaPublications is a student-edited and student-managed publishing entity based at the University of Pennsylvania School of Design, viaPublications includes VIA Journal, and viaBooks. WORK The WORK series of publications documents student work in architectural design studios and courses each year, as well as events, faculty news and it includes abstracts of PhD dissertations defended that year. The building houses student works and studios for arts students.
Duhring Wing Attached to the Fisher Fine Arts Library and Jerome Fisher Fine Arts Library The historic library is the major masterpiece of Philadelphias most important Victorian architect, Frank Furness. Combining genius in planning and form, it is a seminal library design that expresses function while merging the imagery of cathedral, additions in 1916,1922, and 1931, Restored from 1986-91 by Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates. The 1931 McGoodwin addition, is home to the Arthur Ross Gallery, Meyerson Hall Meyerson Hall houses the University of Pennsylvanias School of Design
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in Philadelphia, United States. Incorporated as The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn is one of 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, the university coat of arms features a dolphin on the red chief, adopted directly from the Franklin familys own coat of arms. Penn was one of the first academic institutions to follow a multidisciplinary model pioneered by several European universities and it was home to many other educational innovations. The first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate school. With an endowment of $10.72 billion, Penn had the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, all of Penns schools exhibit very high research activity. In fiscal year 2015, Penns academic research budget was $851 million, over its history, the university has produced many distinguished alumni. S. House of Representatives,8 signers of the United States Declaration of Independence, in addition, some 30 Nobel laureates,169 Guggenheim Fellows, and 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, have been affiliated with Penn.
In addition, Penn has produced a significant number of Fortune 500 CEOs, in 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons. The building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time and it was initially planned to serve as a charity school as well, however, a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklins autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years. Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard and Mary, Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern.
The original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklins group to assume their debts and, accordingly, on February 1,1750 the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13,1751, the Academy of Philadelphia, using the hall at 4th and Arch Streets. A charity school was chartered July 13,1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original New Building donors, June 16,1755, the College of Philadelphia was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction. All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were considered to be part of the same institution, the institution of higher learning was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Rev. William Smiths Loyalist tendencies, the result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791 the Legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into a new University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new Board of Trustees
Richard Milhous Nixon was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States from 1969 until 1974, when he became the only U. S. president to resign from office. He had previously served as a U. S, Representative and Senator from California and as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961 under the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower. Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, after completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law. He and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government and he subsequently served on active duty in the U. S. Navy Reserve during World War II. Nixon was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950 and his pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist, and elevated him to national prominence. He was the mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election.
Nixon served for eight years as vice president and he waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, and lost a race for Governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected by defeating incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey, Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973 and brought the American POWs home, and ended the military draft. His administration generally transferred power from Washington D. C. to the states and he imposed wage and price controls for a period of ninety days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools and established the Environmental Protection Agency. Nixon presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the moon race and he was reelected in one of the largest electoral landslides in U. S. history in 1972, when he defeated George McGovern. The year 1973 saw an Arab oil embargo, gasoline rationing, the scandal escalated, costing Nixon much of his political support, and on August 9,1974, he resigned in the face of almost certain impeachment and removal from office.
After his resignation, he was issued a pardon by his successor, in retirement, Nixons work writing several books and undertaking of many foreign trips helped to rehabilitate his image. He suffered a stroke on April 18,1994. Richard Milhous Nixon was born on January 9,1913 in Yorba Linda and his parents were Hannah Nixon and Francis A. Nixon. His mother was a Quaker and his father converted from Methodism to the Quaker faith, Nixons upbringing was marked by evangelical Quaker observances of the time, such as refraining from alcohol and swearing. Nixon had four brothers, Donald, four of the five Nixon boys were named after kings who had ruled in historical or legendary England, for example, was named after Richard the Lionheart. Nixons early life was marked by hardship, and he quoted a saying of Eisenhower to describe his boyhood, We were poor. The Nixon family ranch failed in 1922, and the moved to Whittier
Demonstrations against the Shah commenced in October 1977, developing into a campaign of civil resistance that included both secular and religious elements and which intensified in January 1978. Between August and December 1978 strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country, the Shah left Iran for exile on 16 January 1979, as the last Persian monarch, leaving his duties to a regency council and an opposition-based prime minister. Ayatollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran by the government, the royal reign collapsed shortly after on 11 February when guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting, bringing Khomeini to official power. It was a relatively non-violent revolution, and helped to redefine the meaning, the Shahs regime became increasingly oppressive, brutal and extravagant. It suffered from basic functional failures that brought economic bottlenecks, the Shah was perceived by many as beholden to – if not a puppet of – a non-Muslim Western power whose culture was affecting that of Iran.
The Shia clergy had a significant influence on Iranian society, the clergy first showed itself to be a powerful political force in opposition to the monarchy with the 1891 Tobacco Protest. On 20 March 1890, Nasir al-Din Shah granted a concession to Major G. F. Talbot for a monopoly over the production, sale. The boycotts and protests against it were widespread and extensive because of Mirza Hasan Shirazis fatwa, finally Nasir al-Din Shah found himself powerless to stop the popular movement and cancelled the concession. The Tobacco Protest was the first significant Iranians resistance against the Shah and foreign interests, and revealed the power of the people, the growing discontent continued until the Constitutional Revolution. The revolution led to the establishment of a Parliament and approval of the first constitution, although the constitutional revolution was successful in weakening the autocracy of the Qajar regime, it failed to provide a powerful alternative government. Consequently, within the following the establishment of the new parliament.
Many of these events can be viewed as a continuation of the struggle between the constitutionalists and the Shahs of Persia, many of whom were backed by foreign powers against the parliament. He established a monarchy, deposing the last of the Qajar shah in 1925 and introduced many social, economic. A number of reforms led to public discontent which provides circumstances for an Iranian revolution. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavis father, Reza Shah, replaced Islamic laws with Western ones, police forcibly removed and tore chadors off women who resisted his ban on the public hijab. In 1935, dozens were killed and hundreds injured in the Goharshad Mosque rebellion, on the other hand, in the early rise of Reza Shah, Abdul-Karim Haeri Yazdi founded the Qom Seminary and created important changes in seminaries. However, he would avoid entering into political issues, as did other leaders who followed him. Hence, no widespread anti-government attempts were organized by clergy during the Reza Shah Rule, the future Ayatollah Khomeini was a student of Sheikh Abdul Karim Ha’eri