Robert Peter Williams is an English singer-songwriter and entertainer. He found fame as a member of the pop group Take That from 1989 to 1995, but achieved greater commercial success with his solo career, beginning in 1997. Williams has released 7 UK number 1 singles and all but one of his 11 studio albums have reached number one in the UK, he is the best-selling British solo artist in the United Kingdom and the best selling non-Latino artist in Latin America. Six of his albums are among the top 100 biggest-selling albums in the United Kingdom–four albums in the top 60–and in 2006 he entered the Guinness Book of World Records for selling 1.6 million tickets of his Close Encounters Tour in a single day. Williams has received a record eighteen Brit Awards—winning Best British Male four times, two awards for Outstanding Contribution to Music and the 2017 Brits Icon for his "lasting impact on British culture", twelve German ECHO Awards, three MTV European Music Awards. In 2004, he was inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame after being voted the "Greatest Artist of the 1990s".
According to the British Phonographic Industry, Williams has been certified for 19.8 million albums and 7 million singles in the UK as a solo artist. He is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold 75 million records worldwide. Williams topped the 2000–2010 UK airplay chart, racking up 50% more plays than the Sugababes at number 2. In 2014, he was awarded the freedom of his home town of Stoke-on-Trent, as well as having a tourist trail created and streets named in his honour. After a fifteen year hiatus from the group, he was re-united with Take That on 15 July 2010, co-writing and performing lead vocals on their album Progress, which became the second fastest-selling album in UK chart history and the fastest-selling record of the century at the time; the subsequent stadium tour, which featured seven songs from Williams's solo career, became the biggest-selling concert in UK history, selling 1.34 million tickets in less than 24 hours. In late 2011, Take That's frontman Gary Barlow confirmed that Williams had left the band for a second time to focus on his solo career, although the departure was amicable and that Williams was welcome to rejoin Take That in the future.
He has since performed with Take That on three separate television appearances, has collaborated with Gary Barlow on a number of projects - including the West End musical The Band, Williams's 2012 solo-single "Candy", which reached #1 in the UK Charts. Following the completion of The Heavy Entertainment Show Stadium Tour in late 2018, he has temporarily retired from world touring to ensure he is present for his three children with whom he resides in Los Angeles. Williams was born on 13 February 1974 in Stoke-on-Trent, England, his parents and Peter Williams, ran a pub called the Red Lion in Burslem, before his father became the licencee at the Port Vale FC Social Club. His maternal grandfather was hailed from Kilkenny. Williams attended St Margaret Ward Catholic School in Tunstall, before attending dance school UKDDF in Tunstall, he participated in several school plays, his biggest role was that of the Artful Dodger in a production of Oliver!, the musical adaptation of the Charles Dickens novel Oliver Twist.
In 1990, the sixteen-year-old Williams was the youngest member. According to the documentary Take That: For the Record, his mother read an advertisement seeking members for a new boy band and suggested that he try out for the group, he met fellow member Mark Owen on the day of his audition/interview with Nigel Martin-Smith. Although the majority of the group's material was written and performed by Gary Barlow, Williams performed lead vocals on their first Top Ten hit "Could It Be Magic", "I Found Heaven", "Everything Changes". However, he had conflicts with Martin-Smith over the restrictive rules for Take That members, he began drinking more alcohol and dabbling in cocaine. In November 1994, Williams's drug abuse had escalated. According to the documentary For the Record, he was unhappy with his musical ideas not being taken by lead singer Barlow and Martin-Smith. Barlow explained in interviews. Noting Williams' belligerent behaviour and poor attendance at rehearsals, worried that he might drop out during the group's upcoming tour and Barlow took their concerns to Martin-Smith.
During one of the last rehearsals before the tour commenced, the three confronted Williams about his attitude and stated they wanted to do the tour without him. He agreed to quit and left the group in July 1995. Despite the departure of Williams, Take That completed their Nobody Else Tour as a four-piece, they disbanded on 13 February 1996, Williams's 22nd birthday. Shortly afterwards, Williams was photographed by the press partying with the members of Oasis at Glastonbury Festival. Following his departure, he became the subject of talk shows and newspapers as he acknowledged his plans to become a solo singer, he was spotted partying with George Michael in France. However, a clause in his Take That contract prohibited him from releasing any material until after the group was dissolved, he was sued by Martin-Smith and forced to pay $200,000 in commission. After various legal battles over his r
Northumberland is a county in North East England. The northernmost county of England, it borders Cumbria to the west, County Durham and Tyne and Wear to the south and the Scottish Borders to the north. To the east is the North Sea coastline with a 64 miles path; the county town is Alnwick. The county of Northumberland included Newcastle upon Tyne until 1400, when the city became a county of itself. Northumberland expanded in the Tudor period, annexing Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1482, Tynedale in 1495, Tynemouth in 1536, Redesdale around 1542 and Hexhamshire in 1572. Islandshire and Norhamshire were incorporated into Northumberland in 1844. Tynemouth and other settlements in North Tyneside were transferred to Tyne and Wear in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. Lying on the Anglo-Scottish border, Northumberland has been the site of a number of battles; the county is noted for its undeveloped landscape of high moorland, now protected as the Northumberland National Park. Northumberland is the least densely populated county in England, with only 62 people per square kilometre.
Northumberland meant'the land of the people living north of the River Humber'. The present county is the core of that former land, has long been a frontier zone between England and Scotland. During Roman occupation of Britain, most of the present county lay north of Hadrian's Wall, it was controlled by Rome only for the brief period of its extension of power north to the Antonine Wall. The Roman road Dere Street crosses the county from Corbridge over high moorland west of the Cheviot Hills into present Scotland to Trimontium; as evidence of its border position through medieval times, Northumberland has more castles than any other county in England, including those at Alnwick, Dunstanburgh and Warkworth. Northumberland has a rich prehistory with many instances of rock art, hillforts such as Yeavering Bell, stone circles such as the Goatstones and Duddo Five Stones. Most of the area was occupied by the Brythonic-Celtic Votadini people, with another large tribe, the Brigantes, to the south; the region of present-day Northumberland formed the core of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia, which united with Deira to form the kingdom of Northumbria in the 7th century.
The historical boundaries of Northumbria under King Edwin stretched from the Humber in the south to the Forth in the north. After the battle of Nechtansmere its influence north of the Tweed began to decline as the Picts reclaimed the land invaded by the Saxon kingdom. In 1018 its northern part, the region between the Tweed and the Forth, was ceded to the Kingdom of Scotland. Northumberland is called the "cradle of Christianity" in England, because Christianity flourished on Lindisfarne—a tidal island north of Bamburgh called Holy Island—after King Oswald of Northumbria invited monks from Iona to come to convert the English. A monastery at Lindisfarne was the centre of production of the Lindisfarne Gospels, it became the home of St Cuthbert, buried in Durham Cathedral. Bamburgh is the historic capital of Northumberland, the royal castle from before the unification of the Kingdoms of England under the monarchs of the House of Wessex in the 10th century; the Earldom of Northumberland was held by the Scottish royal family by marriage between 1139–1157 and 1215–1217.
Scotland relinquished all claims to the region as part of the Treaty of York. The Earls of Northumberland once wielded significant power in English affairs because, as powerful and militaristic Marcher Lords, they had the task of protecting England from Scottish retaliation for English invasions. Northumberland has a history of revolt and rebellion against the government, as seen in the Rising of the North against Elizabeth I of England; these revolts were led by the Earls of Northumberland, the Percy family. Shakespeare makes one of the Percys, the dashing Harry Hotspur, the hero of his Henry IV, Part 1; the Percys were aided in conflict by other powerful Northern families, such as the Nevilles and the Patchetts. The latter were stripped of all power and titles after the English Civil War of 1642–1651. After the Restoration of 1660, the county was a centre for Roman Catholicism in England, as well as a focus of Jacobite support. Northumberland was long a wild county, where Border Reivers hid from the law.
However, the frequent cross-border skirmishes and accompanying local lawlessness subsided after the Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England under King James I and VI in 1603. Northumberland played a key role in the Industrial Revolution from the 18th century on. Many coal mines operated in Northumberland until the widespread closures in the 1980s. Collieries operated at Ashington, Blyth, Netherton and Pegswood; the region's coalfields fuelled industrial expansion in other areas of Britain, the need to transport the coal from the collieries to the Tyne led to the development of the first railways. Shipbuilding and armaments manufacture were other important industries before the deindustrialisation of the 1980s. Northumberland remains rural, is the least-densely populated county in England. In recent years the county has had considerable growth in tourism. Visitors are attracted both to its historical sites. Northumberland has a diverse physical geography, it is low and flat near the North Sea coast and mountainous toward the northwest.
BBC Television is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation. The corporation has operated in the United Kingdom under the terms of a royal charter since 1927, it produced television programmes from its own studios since 1932, although the start of its regular service of television broadcasts is dated to 2 November 1936. The BBC's domestic television channels have no commercial advertising and collectively they account for more than 30% of all UK viewing; the services are funded by a television licence. As a result of the 2016 Licence Fee settlement, the BBC Television division was split, with in-house television production being separated into a new division called BBC Studios and the remaining parts of television being renamed as BBC Content; the BBC operates several television networks, television stations, related programming services in the United Kingdom. As well as being a broadcaster, the corporation produces a large number of its own programmes in-house and thereby ranks as one of the world's largest television production companies.
John Logie Baird set up the Baird Television Development Company in 1926. Baird used his electromechanical system with a vertically-scanned image of 30 lines, just enough resolution for a close-up of one person, a bandwidth low enough to use existing radio transmitters; the simultaneous transmission of sound and pictures was achieved on 30 March 1930, by using the BBC's new twin transmitter at Brookmans Park. By late 1930, thirty minutes of morning programmes were broadcast from Monday to Friday, thirty minutes at midnight on Tuesdays and Fridays after BBC radio went off the air. Baird's broadcasts via the BBC continued until June 1932; the BBC began its own regular television programming from the basement of Broadcasting House, London, on 22 August 1932. The studio moved to larger quarters in 16 Portland Place, London, in February 1934, continued broadcasting the 30-line images, carried by telephone line to the medium wave transmitter at Brookmans Park, until 11 September 1935, by which time advances in all-electronic television systems made the electromechanical broadcasts obsolete.
After a series of test transmissions and special broadcasts that began in August 1936, the BBC Television Service launched on 2 November 1936 from a converted wing of Alexandra Palace in London. "Ally Pally" housed two studios, various scenery stores, make-up areas, dressing rooms and the transmitter itself, which broadcast on the VHF band. BBC television used two systems on alternate weeks: the 240-line Baird intermediate film system and the 405-line Marconi-EMI system; the use of both formats made the BBC's service the world's first regular high-definition television service. The first programme broadcast – and thus the first on a dedicated TV channel – was "Opening of the BBC Television Service" at 15:00; the first major outside broadcast was the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in May 1937. The two systems were to run on a trial basis for six months. However, the Baird system, which used a mechanical camera for filmed programming and Farnsworth image dissector cameras for live programming, proved too cumbersome and visually inferior, ended with closedown on Saturday 13 February 1937.
The station's range was a 40 kilometres radius of the Alexandra Palace transmitter—in practice, transmissions could be picked up a good deal further away, on one occasion in 1938 were picked up by engineers at RCA in New York, who were experimenting with a British television set. The service was reaching an estimated 25,000–40,000 homes before the outbreak of World War II which caused the service to be suspended in September 1939. On 1 September 1939, two days before Britain declared war on Germany, the station was taken off air with little warning. Many of the television service's technical staff and engineers would be needed for the war effort, in particular on the radar programme; the last programme transmitted was a Mickey Mouse cartoon, Mickey's Gala Premier, followed by test transmissions. According to figures from Britain's Radio Manufacturers Association, 18,999 television sets had been manufactured from 1936 to September 1939, when production was halted by the war. BBC Television returned on 7 June 1946 at 15:00.
Jasmine Bligh, one of the original announcers, made the first announcement, saying,'Good afternoon everybody. How are you? Do you remember me, Jasmine Bligh?'. The Mickey Mouse cartoon of 1939 was repeated twenty minutes later. Alexandra Palace was the home base of the channel until the early 1950s when the majority of production moved into the newly acquired Lime Grove Studios. Postwar broadcast coverage was extended to Birmingham in 1949 with the opening of the Sutton Coldfield transmitting station, by the mid-1950s most of the country was covered, transmitting a 405-line interlaced image on VHF; when the ITV was launched in 1955, the BBC Television Service showed popular programming, including comedies, documentaries, game shows, soap operas, covering a wide range
Leslie Townes Hope, known professionally as Bob Hope, was an American stand-up comedian, actor, dancer and author. With a career that spanned nearly 80 years, Hope appeared in more than 70 short and feature films, with 54 feature films with Hope as star, including a series of seven "Road" musical comedy movies with Bing Crosby as Hope's top-billed partner. In addition to hosting the Academy Awards show 19 times, more than any other host, he appeared in many stage productions and television roles, was the author of 14 books; the song "Thanks for the Memory" was his signature tune. Hope was born in the Eltham district of southeast London, UK, arrived in the United States with his family at the age of four, grew up in the Cleveland, area. After a brief career as a boxer in the late 1910s, he began his career in show business in the early 1920s as a comedian and dancer on the vaudeville circuit, before acting on Broadway. Hope began appearing on radio and in films starting in 1934, he was praised for his comedic timing, specializing in one-liners and rapid-fire delivery of jokes which were self-deprecating.
He helped establish modern American stand-up comedy. Celebrated for his long career performing in United Service Organizations shows to entertain active duty American military personnel, making 57 tours for the USO between 1941 and 1991, Hope was declared an honorary veteran of the U. S. Armed Forces in 1997 by an act of the United States Congress, he appeared in numerous specials for NBC television starting in 1950, was one of the first users of cue cards. Hope participated in the sports of golf and boxing and owned a small stake in his hometown baseball team, the Cleveland Indians. Hope retired in 1997, died at the age of 100 in 2003, at his home in the Toluca Lake neighborhood of Los Angeles. Hope, the fifth of seven sons, was born in Eltham, County of London, in a terraced house on Craigton Road in Well Hall where there is now a blue plaque in his memory, his English father, William Henry Hope, was a stonemason from Weston-super-Mare and his Welsh mother, was a light opera singer from Barry, Vale of Glamorgan, who worked as a cleaner.
William and Avis married in April 1891 and lived at 12 Greenwood Street in Barry before moving to Whitehall, to St George, Bristol. In 1908, the family emigrated to the United States, they passed through Ellis Island, New York before moving on to Cleveland, Ohio. From age 12, Hope earned pocket money by busking—public performing to solicit contributions, singing and performing comedy, he entered numerous dancing and amateur talent contests as Lester Hope, won a prize in 1915 for his impersonation of Charlie Chaplin. For a time, he attended the Boys' Industrial School in Lancaster, as an adult donated sizable sums of money to the institution. Hope had a brief career as a boxer in 1919, he had three wins and one loss, he participated in a few staged charity bouts in life. Hope worked as a lineman in his teens and early 20s, he had a brief stint at Chandler Motor Car Company. In 1921, while assisting his brother Jim in clearing trees for a power company, he was sitting atop a tree that crashed to the ground, crushing his face.
Deciding on a show business career and his girlfriend at the time signed up for dancing lessons. Encouraged after they performed in a three-day engagement at a club, Hope formed a partnership with Lloyd Durbin, a friend from the dancing school. Silent film comedian Fatty Arbuckle saw them perform in 1925 and found them work with a touring troupe called Hurley's Jolly Follies. Within a year, Hope had formed an act called the Dancemedians with George Byrne and the Hilton Sisters, conjoined twins who performed a tap dancing routine in the vaudeville circuit. Hope and Byrne had an act as Siamese twins as well, danced and sang while wearing blackface until friends advised Hope he was funnier as himself. In 1929, Hope informally changed his first name to "Bob." In one version of the story, he named himself after race car driver Bob Burman. In another, he said he chose the name because he wanted a name with a "friendly'Hiya, fellas!' Sound" to it. In a 1942 legal document, his legal name is given as Lester Townes Hope.
After five years on the vaudeville circuit, Hope was "surprised and humbled" when he failed a 1930 screen test for the French film production company Pathé at Culver City, California. In the early days, Hope's career included appearances on stage in vaudeville shows and Broadway productions, he began performing on the radio in 1934 with NBC radio, switched to television when that medium became popular in the 1950s. He began doing regular TV specials in 1954, hosted the Academy Awards nineteen times from 1939 through 1977. Overlapping with this was his movie career, spanning 1934 to 1972, his USO tours, which he conducted from 1941 to 1991. Hope signed a contract with Educational Pictures of New York for six short films; the first was a comedy. He was not happy with it, told newspaper gossip columnist Walter Winchell, "When they catch Dillinger, they're going to make him sit through it twice." Although Educational Pictures dropped his contract, he soon signed with Warner Brothers, making movies during the day and performing in Broadway shows in the evenings.
Hope moved to
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
University of Westminster
The University of Westminster is a public university in London, United Kingdom. Its antecedent institution, the Royal Polytechnic Institution, was founded in 1838 and was the first polytechnic institution in the UK. Westminster was awarded university status in 1992 meaning, its headquarters and original campus are in Regent Street in the City of Westminster area of central London, with additional campuses in Fitzrovia and Harrow. It operates the Westminster International University in Tashkent in Uzbekistan. Westminster's academic activities are organised into seven faculties and schools, within which there are around 45 departments; the University has numerous centres of research excellence across all the faculties, including the Communication and Media Research Institute, whose research is ranked in the Global Top 40 by the QS World University Rankings. Westminster had an income of £170.4 million in 2012/13, of which £4.5 million was from research grants and contracts. Westminster is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Association of MBAs, EFMD, the European University Association and Universities UK.
The Royal Polytechnic Institution was built by William Mountford Nurse in 1837 and opened at 309 Regent Street on 6 August 1838 to provide “an institution where the Public, at little expense, may acquire practical knowledge of the various arts and branches of science connected with manufacturers, mining operations and rural economy.” Sir George Cayley, the "father of aeronautical engineering", was the first chairman and the Polytechnic formally received a Royal charter in August 1839. The Polytechnic housed a large exhibition hall, lecture theatre and laboratories, public attractions included working machines and models, scientific lectures and demonstrations, rides in a diving bell and, from 1839, demonstrations of photography. Prince Albert visited the institution in 1840, when he descended in the diving bell, became a patron in 1841; the first public photographic portrait studio in Europe opened on the roof of the Polytechnic in March 1841. In 1848, a theatre was added to the building, purpose-built to accommodate the growing audiences for the Polytechnic’s optical shows.
These combined magic lantern images with live performances, music and spectres, illuminated fountains and fireworks in sophisticated displays, spreading the fame of what was arguably the world’s first permanent projection theatre.‘Professor’ John Henry Pepper joined the Polytechnic in the 1840s. Best known today for his illusion ‘Pepper’s Ghost’, his contribution to education deserves recognition. Pepper established evening classes in engineering, applied science and technical subjects for young working Londoners, beginning the tradition of widening access to education continued by the University of Westminster today. Expansion gave way to financial difficulty, reflecting a long-standing tension between education and the need to run a successful business. A fatal accident on the premises in 1859 caused the first institution to be wound up and a new one formed. Various regeneration schemes were considered, but in 1879 a fire damaged the roof, precipitating the final crisis. In September 1881, the Royal Polytechnic Institution closed, marking a transition to new ownership and a new era of educational development.
Christian philanthropist Quintin Hogg acquired the lease to the building in December 1881 for £15,000. Hogg had established a Ragged School and Boys Home in the Covent Garden area of London to provide a basic education for some of London’s poorest children. In 1873, he established the Youths' Christian Institute and Reading Rooms to provide educational, religious and social opportunities for young working men. Membership fees paid for free use of a library, social rooms and entertainments for members; the Institute was renamed the Young Men's Christian Institute. Following Hogg’s purchase of 309 Regent Street, the YMCI moved into the new premises, re-opening on 25 September 1882. About 6,000 members and students – three times the anticipated number – attended during the first 1882/3 session; the institute adopted the name the Polytechnic Young Men’s Christian Institute, or the Polytechnic, for short. From 1882 an expanded programme of classes began, including science and art classes held in conjunction with the Science and Art Department, a scheme of technical and trade education, related to the City and Guilds of London Institute of Technical Instruction and to the London Trades Council.
The building housed classrooms, a swimming bath, a refreshment room. Activities included daily chapels, Parliamentary debating, a Reading Circle and drama societies and several sports clubs. By 1888 membership was 4,200, in addition to 7,300 students, over 200 classes were held weekly as well as concerts, an annual industrial exhibition. Membership was open to those aged between 16 and 25. A Young Women's Branch, housed in separate premises in Langham Place, was established. In the early 1880s the Institute attracted much favourable attention from the technical education lobby. Following the City of London Parochial Charities Act in 1883, it became clear that funds would be available to endow the Polytechnic and to found and support institutions on the same model across London. A public appeal was launched in 1888 to raise the required matching funding; the Scheme was finalised under the auspices of the Charity Commissioners in 1891, when the Institute was recons
Take That are an English pop group formed in Manchester in 1990. The group consists of Gary Barlow, Howard Donald and Mark Owen; the original line-up featured Jason Orange and Robbie Williams. Barlow acts as the group's lead singer and primary songwriter, with Owen and Williams providing backing vocals and Donald and Orange serving as dancers; the group have had 28 top 40 singles and 17 top 5 singles in the United Kingdom, 12 of which have reached number one, as well as having eight number one albums. Internationally, the band have had 39 number one albums, they have received eight Brit Awards—winning awards for Best British Group and Best British Live Act. According to the British Phonographic Industry, Take That has been certified for 13.8 million albums and 10.8 million singles in the UK. Williams left the band in 1995 while the four remaining members completed their world tour and released a final single before splitting up in 1996. After filming a 2005 Take That: For the Record about the group and releasing a new greatest hits album, a four-piece Take That without Williams announced a 2006 reunion tour around the UK, entitled The Ultimate Tour.
On 9 May 2006, it was announced. The group achieved new success as a four-piece, scoring a string of chart hits across the UK and Europe while selling over 45 million records worldwide. Williams rejoined Take That in 2010 for Progress. Released on 15 November of that year, it was the first album of new material to feature Take That's original line-up since their 1995 album, Nobody Else, it became the fastest-selling album of the 21st century and the second fastest-selling album in British history. In 2014, the band recorded this time as a trio without Williams and Orange; the album, titled III, became the band's seventh number one. It was preceded by the single "These Days", which became the band's 12th number one single in the UK. Since 2011, Take That have set the new record for the fastest-selling tour of all time in the UK with Progress Live, beating the previous record set by their Circus Live Tour in 2009, won the 2011 Brit Award for Best British Group, were named as Amazon's top-selling music artist of all time.
In 2012, the band were announced by Forbes as the fifth highest-earning music stars in the world. In the same year, the Official Charts Company revealed the biggest-selling singles artists in British music chart history with Take That placed at 15th overall, making them the most successful boy band in UK chart history with four of their albums listed in the best-selling albums of the millennium. In 1989, Manchester-based Nigel Martin-Smith sought to create a British male vocal singing group modelled on New Kids on the Block. Martin-Smith's vision, was a teen-orientated group that would appeal to more than one demographic segment of the music industry. Martin-Smith was introduced to young singer-songwriter Gary Barlow, performing in clubs since the age of 15. Impressed with Barlow's catalogue of self-written material, Martin-Smith decided to build his new-look boy band around Barlow's musical abilities. A campaign to audition young men with abilities in dancing and singing followed and took place in Manchester and other surrounding cities in 1990.
At 22, Howard Donald was one of the oldest to audition, but he was chosen after he got time off work as a vehicle painter to continue the process. Prior to auditioning, Jason Orange had appeared as a breakdancer on the popular television programme The Hit Man and Her. Martin-Smith selected 18-year-old bank employee Mark Owen and 16-year-old Robbie Williams to round out the group, which went by the name Kick It. Take That's first TV appearance was on The Hit Man and Her in 1990, where they performed Barlow's self-written, unreleased song, "My Kind of Girl", they appeared a second time to perform "Waiting Around", which would become the B-side for the first single, "Do What U Like". "Promises" and "Once You've Tasted Love" were released as singles but were minor hits in the UK. Take That worked the same territory as their American counterparts, singing new jack R&B, urban soul, mainstream pop. However, they worked their way toward Hi-NRG dance music, while pursuing an adult contemporary ballad direction.
As they aimed to break into the mainstream music industry, they worked a manner of small clubs and events across the country building up a fanbase as they travelled to gigs for months. Take That's breakthrough single was a cover of the 1975 Tavares hit "It Only Takes a Minute", which peaked at number seven on the UK Singles Chart; this success was followed by "I Found Heaven" by the first Barlow ballad "A Million Love Songs", which reached number seven. Their cover of the Barry Manilow hit "Could It Be Magic" gave them their first big success, peaking at number three in the UK, their first album, Take That & Party, was released in 1992, included all the hit singles to date. 1993 saw the release of Everything Changes, based on Barlow's original material. It peaked at number one in the UK and spawned six singles, with four being consecutive UK number one singles – their first number one "Pray", "Relight My Fire", "Babe" and the title track "Everything Changes"; the lead single "Why Can't I Wake Up with You" had narrowly missed the top spot in the UK peaking at number two and the sixth and final single "Love Ain't Here Anymore" taken from the album reached number three on the UK charts.
Everything Changes saw the band gain international