An organist is a musician who plays any type of organ. An organist may play solo organ works, play with an ensemble or orchestra, or accompany one or more singers or instrumental soloists. In addition, an organist may play liturgical music; the majority of organists and professional, are principally involved in church music, playing in churches and cathedrals. The pipe organ still plays a large part in the leading of traditional western Christian worship, with roles including the accompaniment of hymns, choral anthems and other parts of the worship; the degree to which the organ is involved varies depending on the denomination. It may depend on the standard of the organist. In more provincial settings, organists may be more described as pianists obliged to play the organ for worship services; as most churches can afford to employ only one musician, the organist is also responsible for directing and rehearsing the choir. In the twentieth-century, many pipe organs were replaced by pipe-less electronic and digital organs as a low-cost alternative to rebuilding older pipe organs.
In the English cathedral tradition the organist is now called "Director of Music", although their function is in the training and direction of music rather than actual playing. Sometimes the organist will be assisted by an organ scholar; the post of organist at most of the great cathedrals includes choral training. Another function of an organist is as teacher to future players. Few organists hold special positions such as Carol Williams, the Civic Organist of San Diego, the last true Civic Organist position still active in the USA. Since the strengths and weaknesses of the organ are difficult to understand without a good deal of playing experience, most music composed for organ has been written by organists. Since the majority of pre-twentieth-century organs were installed in churches, classical organ literature was exclusively written for liturgical use. Many composers, are known for their performance talents, some historical examples being Johann Sebastian Bach, Dieterich Buxtehude, Felix Mendelssohn, Franz Liszt, César Franck, Camille Saint-Saëns, Charles-Marie Widor, Louis Vierne, Marcel Dupré.
In Europe, the historical importance of churches as employers of musicians meant that many composers who now are seldom remembered for their association with the organ were engaged as professional organists: for example, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Edward Elgar. In English churches and cathedrals the Organist may be known as Master of the Choristers, Choirmaster or Director of Music. A few carry on the tradition today. There are many organists employed in the production of jazz music. In the United States most of them play the Hammond organ, many are classically trained in piano rather than organ. In England and Japan, one of the most popular series of instruments is the Yamaha Electone; the Royal College of Organists in the United Kingdom is the oldest institution of organ studies. From that sprang the American Guild of Organists, the Gesellschaft der Orgelfreunde in Germany, the Royal Canadian College of Organists; the Incorporated Association of Organists is an international society fulfilling a similar role.
All these institutions are oriented toward the organist involved in classical music rather than popular music. There is the American Theatre Organ Society. List of organists List of jazz organists Organ recital Organ shoes Organ playing and teaching in the Encyclopedia of Music in Canada American Guild of Organists American Theatre Organ Society The Royal College of Organists Royal Canadian College of Organists Gesellschaft der Orgelfreunde Incorporated Association of Organists in the UK
Istituto agronomico per l'oltremare
The Istituto agronomico per l'oltremare in Florence, Italy, is a technical and scientific body of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Institute was established in 1904 in Florence by Italian agronomists and tropicalists as the Istituto Agricolo Coloniale Italiano, in order to promote the study and systematization of the tropical environment and agriculture and to implement vocational education and training of technicians and migrants, in the agricultural field; the institute was busy in the years between the two World Wars, under the leadership of Armando Maugini. It studied the agricultural and economic issues of Italian colonies and trained the technicians in charge of the economic valorization of the colonies and other regions. In 1938 the institute changed its name. After the Second World War, the institute shifted its focus to the technical assistance to the Italians migrating to Latin America on agricultural topics. In 1959 the Institute was assigned to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
The IAO mandate is to study, train and support initiatives dealing with tropical and sub-tropical agriculture and environmental protection. It is active in the field of development co-operation in Africa, Latin America and Eastern Europe, it runs agricultural development projects in developing countries on behalf of the Direzione generale per la cooperazione allo sviluppo of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The institute was active in international co-operation after the enactment of Law n. 49 framing "Italian Development Co-operation", since it has been dealing with agricultural and rural development topics and promotion of agricultural biodiversity and the development of sustainable agricultural technologies. The IAO collaborates with agricultural institutions, research centers, academies and rural communities; the institute directly funds small research programs on farming and the environment, in collaboration with research centers from developing countries and hosts vocational training courses, on such topics as irrigation and geomatics.
It is endowed with a teledetection and environmental analysis laboratory and owns the Bonistallo Farm in Poggio a Caiano, in the Province of Florence. Training courses have included field stages in Tuscany, the islands of Elba and Sardinia, in the developing countries in which the institute has field activities including Bolivia, Eritrea and Tunisia; the IAO Library was established in 1908 and specializes in tropical and sub-tropical agriculture and economics, gathering over 131,000 volumes and 800 periodical magazines. The institute has a photographic archive and a documentation center, where historic information on agriculture in the tropics, in the former Italian colonies, is stored; the institute publishes an international scientific magazine: The Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development and several series of monographic studies. The institute hosts a training center, botanical garden with a collection of tropical and subtropical plants, its main building hosts collections of tropical agriculture insects.
The Institute was involved in the several phases of the Italian overseas expansion. In the first twenty years of its existence, 1904 to 1924, it focused on the study of the natural resources and assets of Eritrea and Libya; this orientation accrued the institute expertise in farming, technology and economics of the tropics. Such studies were intensified from 1924 to 1941, when the Institute assisted the expansion of Italian economic colonization of Africa, it participated in the elaboration of agricultural settlements plans, as well as in the training and technology transfer to Italian farmers and their families settling in the colonies. This great body of information, gathered under the direction agronomist Armando Maugini, resulted in the collection of a wide set of written and photographic documents and in the establishment of a collection of agricultural products and other items, used in the training of technicians and dissemination of information; the output of the institute studies and its technical proposals were implemented in the field.
In order to host the growing staff and assets of the Institute and spacious offices were built in Florence, still home the institute today. After the Second World War, the repatriation of Italian colonists from Africa, the IAO collaborated with the Italian trust administration in Somalia, by supplying technical skills to the newly formed Somali federal government, it assisted Italian farmers migrating to Latin America, who were benefited by the same services, such as training, technical assistance, investments planning, etc. created for the development of the Italian colonies. Such work was completed with the reshaping of the Institute endowments, under directors Armando Maugini, Ferdinando Bigi, Arturo Marassi. Once the Italian agricultural migration flow faded, at the beginning of the 1970s, the Institute shifted its focus to the development co-operation policies of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, along the patterns established by Law n. 38 and Law n. 49. Such laws established the development co-operation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, collaborating with other scientific and technical institutions, in Italy and abroad.
Since 1974, Prof. Nicola Matarrese, following the plenipotentiary Minister Ernesto Mario Bolasco, gives a decisive contribution in shaping the future development of the activity of the Institute in the framework of laws in processing and issued as indicated above. Matarrese leaves the direction of the I
Institut d'études politiques de Lyon
The Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Lyon known as Sciences Po Lyon, is a grande école located in Lyon, France. It is one of nine Institutes of Political Studies in France, was established in 1948 by Charles de Gaulle’s provisional government following the model of the École Libre des Sciences Politiques, it is located at the Centre Berthelot within the buildings of a former military health college and operates as an autonomous institution within the University of Lyon. It is a member of the Association of the Grandes Ecoles of the Rhone-Alpes region and was the first Institute of Political Studies to join the prestigious Conférence des Grandes écoles. Sciences Po Lyon has partnerships with universities in France and abroad; the excellency of Science Po Lyon curriculum and academic training as well as the quality of its international network and policy have been appropriately recognized and praised by AERES, the French Evaluation Agency for Research and Higher Education. Sciences Po Lyon is renowned for its expertise in Asian affairs, graded A+ by AERES and accordingly recognized by its peers.
Through the Lyon Institute of East Asian Studies, considered as the best French research Institute in this field, Sciences Po Lyon is partnering with other prestigious universities such as the University of Beijing and Stanford University. Sciences Po Lyon was established following an executive decree by General de Gaulle in 1948. In common with the other Institutes of Political Studies in France, it was modelled on the former École Libre des Sciences Politiques in Paris; as such it is considered as a French "Grande École" or elite school and remains an autonomous body within the University of Lyon. The ELSP was established as a private institution in 1872 by Emile Boutmy, was dissolved in 1945 following a demand coming from the French Communist Party, the strongest political force at that time, as well as other political figures not affiliated with it, such as Jean-Pierre Cot and André Philip. J. P. Cot and André Philip were both members of the Parliamentary Committee on the reform of the State.
The ELSP, known as Sciences Po, was indeed considered as an institution providing the sole Parisian bourgeoisie with a quasi-monopoly over access to the most prestigious positions in the French civil service. More to the point, the ELSP was discredited for having trained many senior civil servants who supported and were the backbone of the Vichy France from July 1940 to August 1944; as per ordinance 45-2284, issued by Charles de Gaulle on 9 October 1945, the ELSP was thus replaced by the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de l'Université de Paris. The Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques was established by the same ordinance in order to oversee it as well as the other instituts d'études politiques -including the IEP in Lyon in 1948- subsequently established throughout the French territory. In order to democratize and rationalize access to the senior civil service, the "National School of Administration" was created on the basis of a project developed by Michel Debré and Emmanuel Monick. Otherwise, this project was not in the spirit of the programme developed by the National Council of the Resistance during World War II, willing to sanction and nationalize the ELSP.
Was established instead a tripartite and unbalanced structure composed of the FNSP, the ENA, the IEP in Paris and the subsequent IEPs in Strasbourg, Lyon, Toulouse, Aix and Lille. While the FNSP is a private foundation, the latter institutions are indeed public; the vocation of the French instituts d'études politiques has been the study and research of contemporary political science. They are quite distinct from the other traditional elite French schools, in particular the specialized Grandes Ecoles in business and engineering, given their multi-disciplinary approach to teaching. All students at the IEPs study a compulsory curriculum, practical and multidisciplinary during its first years and focuses on the full range of the social sciences and humanities; the IEPs, being modelled on the former ELSP, are known in the familiar language under the name of Sciences Po, followed by the name of the city where they are located. According to article 2 of an 18 December 1989 decree on the status of the instituts d'études politiques, their mission is to contribute to the training of higher civil servants as well as executives in the public, para-public and private sectors, notably in the State and decentralized communities as well as to develop the research in political and administrative sciences.
The Sciences Po approach and style inspired many universities abroad such as the London School of Economics. It is located at the Centre Berthelot within the buildings of a former military health college, used during World War II by the Lyon's Gestapo chief, Klaus Barbie, to torture resistance members, including Jean Moulin; the same buildings were used by the Ecole Polytechnique from 1940 to 1943 after the school decided to relocate to Lyon from its headquarters in the occupied Paris. Sciences Po occupies an area of 9,500 square meters, contiguous to the premises of the Center for the History of the Resistance and Deportation. Sciences Po has established satellite campuses in Bourg-en-Bresse as well as at Jean Monnet University in Saint-Etienne, which will lead to
The tetragrammaton, יהוה in Hebrew and YHWH in Latin script, is the four-letter biblical name of the God of Israel. The books of the Torah and the rest of the Hebrew Bible contain this Hebrew name. Religiously observant Jews and those who follow Talmudic Jewish traditions do not pronounce יהוה, nor do they read aloud transliterated forms such as Yahweh. Common substitutions for Hebrew forms are hakadosh baruch hu, HaShem; the letters, properly read from right to left, are: The letters. In unpointed Biblical Hebrew, most vowels are not written and the rest are written only ambiguously, as certain consonants can double as vowel markers; these are referred to as matres lectionis. Therefore, in general, it is difficult to deduce how a word is pronounced only from its spelling, the tetragrammaton is a particular example: two of its letters can serve as vowels, two are vocalic place-holders, which are not pronounced; the original consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible was, several centuries provided with vowel marks by the Masoretes to assist reading.
In places that the consonants of the text to be read differed from the consonants of the written text, they wrote the qere in the margin as a note showing what was to be read. In such a case the vowels of the qere were written on the ketiv. For a few frequent words, the marginal note was omitted: these are called qere perpetuum. One of the frequent cases was the tetragrammaton, which according to Jewish practices should not be pronounced but read as "Adonai", or, if the previous or next word was Adonai, as "Elohim"; the combination produces יְהֹוָה and יֱהֹוה non-words that would spell "Yehovah" and "Yehovih" respectively. The oldest complete or nearly complete manuscripts of the Masoretic Text with Tiberian vocalisation, such as the Aleppo Codex and the Leningrad Codex, both of the 10th or 11th century write יְהוָה, with no pointing on the first h, it could be because the o diacritic point plays no useful role in distinguishing between Adonai and Elohim and so is redundant, or it could point to the qere being Shema, Aramaic for "the Name".
The Hebrew scholar Wilhelm Gesenius suggested that the Hebrew punctuation יַהְוֶה, transliterated into English as Yahweh, might more represent the pronunciation of the tetragrammaton than the Masoretic punctuation "יְהֹוָה", from which the English name Jehovah has been derived. His proposal to read YHWH as "יַהְוֶה" was based in large part on various Greek transcriptions, such as ιαβε, dating from the first centuries CE but on the forms of theophoric names. In his Hebrew Dictionary, Gesenius supports Yahweh because of the Samaritan pronunciation Ιαβε reported by Theodoret, because the theophoric name prefixes YHW and YW, the theophoric name suffixes YHW and YH, the abbreviated form YH can be derived from the form Yahweh. Gesenius's proposal to read YHWH as יַהְוֶה is accepted as the best scholarly reconstructed vocalised Hebrew spelling of the tetragrammaton. An image on the piece of pottery found at Kuntillet Ajrud is adjacent to a Hebrew inscription "Berakhti etkhem l’YHVH Shomron ul’Asherato" dated around 800 BCE, on the walls of the second tomb on the southern slope of the Khirbet el-Qom hill, on the seal from the collections of the Harvard Semitic Museum, on ostracons from the collections of Shlomo Moussaieff, on silver rolls from Ketef Hinnom, on inscriptions in the tombs of Khirbet Beit Lei, on ostracons from Tel Arad, on the Lachish letters and on a stone from Mount Gerizim.
The Elephantine papyri, on which the jhw form appears, with the form of jhh are found on Elephantine. One time jh appears, but it was a form of jhw in which the final letter in disappeared. In eight cases, the tetragram occurs in the formula of the oath: "God's jhh". God's name appears in the Greek magical texts, the formation of, established between the second century BCE to CE, it takes the following forms: Ieoa, Iaoai, Ioa, Iaeo, Ieou, Iabas, Iabe, Iaon. God's name in the form of Ἰαῶ appears in: Diodorus Siculus, Marcus Terentius Varro according to the message of John the Lydian, Pedanius Dioscorides, Aelius Herodian, Hesychius of Alexandria. A form of the name appears on the following Egyptian inscriptions: on the list of Amenhotep III discovered in the Temple of Amon in Soleb and in its copy from the time of Ramesses II in West Amara, on the list of places in the temple of Ramesses III in Medinet Habu. Mesha Stele The oldest known inscription of the tetragrammaton dates to 840 BCE, on the Mesha Stele.
It bears the earliest certain extra-biblical reference to the Israelite God Yahweh. The most recent discovery of a tetragrammaton inscription, dating to the 6th century BCE, was found written in Hebrew on two silver scrolls recovered from Jerusalem. Magical papyri The spellings of the te
Interparliamentary Assembly on Orthodoxy
The Interparliamentary Assembly on Orthodoxy, or I. A. O. is a transnational, inter-parliamentary institution that in 1994 was established as European Interparliamentary Assembly on Orthodoxy. Based in Athens, the Interparliamentary Assembly on Orthodoxy constitutes a permanent communication structure between parliamentarians of the members' states aiming at unity in diversity of Orthodox Christians on the basis of the principles and values of Christianity and democracy. Inspired by a conference held from 30 June to 4 July 1993 in Chalkidiki on the topic of "Orthodoxy in the New European Reality", the European Interparliamentary Assembly on Orthodoxy was formed on initiative of the Hellenic Parliament. Following the 1993 Manifesto of the Participants, the official Founding Act was passed by the participants of the Founding Synod held in November 1994 in Athens. After in 2001, groups of MPs from Australia, Asia and the U. S. A. participated in the General Assembly, the organization was renamed Interparliamentary Assembly on Orthodoxy.
During the 2004 General Assembly in Kiev, Ukraine, in June 2004, it was decided to seek cooperation with the Parliamentary Union of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. A co-operation agreement was drafted at an Athens meeting of the two organizations on March 22, 2005. On 19 May 2010, a cooperation agreement with the Pan-African Parliament was signed by PUIC's President Idriss Ndele Moussa and I. A. O.'s Secretary-General Anastasios Nerantzis Supreme organ of the I. A. O. is the General Assembly consisting of the delegations of all member parliaments. It convenes annually in June; the President of the General Assembly is elected for a two-year tenure by the plenary session of the Assembly. The General Assembly convenes once annually during the month of June. Presidents of the General Assembly since 2004: Sergei Popov The International Secretariat appoints eight standing committees, it is headed by the Secretary-General, the Alternate Secretary and the Treasurer, consists of additional five members.
Secretary-General: Anastasios Nerantzis Alternate Secretary: Ioannis Amanatidis Treasurer: Maria Kollia-Tsaroucha The Assembly consists of parliamentary committees of 21 countries, namely: Additionally, delegations from Australia, Asia and the United States have been participating in the Assembly. Official website
Information Awareness Office
The Information Awareness Office was established by the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in January 2002 to bring together several DARPA projects focused on applying surveillance and information technology to track and monitor terrorists and other asymmetric threats to U. S. national security by achieving "Total Information Awareness". This was achieved by creating enormous computer databases to gather and store the personal information of everyone in the United States, including personal e-mails, social networks, credit card records, phone calls, medical records, numerous other sources, without any requirement for a search warrant; this information was analyzed to look for suspicious activities, connections between individuals, "threats". Additionally, the program included funding for biometric surveillance technologies that could identify and track individuals using surveillance cameras, other methods. Following public criticism that the development and deployment of this technology could lead to a mass surveillance system, the IAO was defunded by Congress in 2003.
However, several IAO projects continued to be funded and run under different names, as revealed by Edward Snowden during the course of the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures. The IAO was established after Admiral John Poindexter, former United States National Security Advisor to President Ronald Reagan, SAIC executive Brian Hicks approached the US Department of Defense with the idea for an information awareness program after the attacks of September 11, 2001. Poindexter and Hicks had worked together on intelligence-technology programs for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. DARPA agreed to host the program and appointed Poindexter to run it in 2002; the IAO began funding research and development of the Total Information Awareness Program in February 2003 but renamed the program the Terrorism Information Awareness Program in May that year after an adverse media reaction to the program's implications for public surveillance. Although TIA was only one of several IAO projects, many critics and news reports conflated TIA with other related research projects of the IAO, with the result that TIA came in popular usage to stand for an entire subset of IAO programs.
The TIA program itself was the "systems-level" program of the IAO that intended to integrate information technologies into a prototype system to provide tools to better detect and identify potential terrorists with the goal to increase the probability that authorized agencies of the United States could preempt adverse actions. As a systems-level program of programs, TIA's goal was the creation of a "counter-terrorism information architecture" that integrated technologies from other IAO programs; the TIA program was researching and integrating technologies to aggregate data, to follow subject-oriented link analysis, to develop descriptive and predictive models through data mining or human hypothesis, to apply such models to additional datasets to identify terrorists and terrorist groups. Among the other IAO programs that were intended to provide TIA with component data aggregation and automated analysis technologies were the Genisys, Genisys Privacy Protection, Evidence Extraction and Link Discovery, Scalable Social Network Analysis programs.
On August 2, 2002, Dr. Poindexter gave a speech at DARPAtech 2002 entitled "Overview of the Information Awareness Office" in which he described the TIA program. In addition to the program itself, the involvement of Poindexter as director of the IAO raised concerns among some, since he had been earlier convicted of lying to Congress and altering and destroying documents pertaining to the Iran-Contra Affair, although those convictions were overturned on the grounds that the testimony used against him was protected. On January 16, 2003, Senator Russ Feingold introduced legislation to suspend the activity of the IAO and the Total Information Awareness program pending a Congressional review of privacy issues involved. A similar measure introduced by Senator Ron Wyden would have prohibited the IAO from operating within the United States unless authorized to do so by Congress, would have shut the IAO down 60 days after passage unless either the Pentagon prepared a report to Congress assessing the impact of IAO activities on individual privacy and civil liberties or the President certified the program's research as vital to national security interests.
In February 2003, Congress passed legislation suspending activities of the IAO pending a Congressional report of the office's activities. In response to this legislation, DARPA provided Congress on May 20, 2003 with a report on its activities. In this report, IAO changed the name of the program to the Terrorism Information Awareness Program and emphasized that the program was not designed to compile dossiers on US citizens, but rather to research and develop the tools that would allow authorized agencies to gather information on terrorist networks. Despite the name change and these assurances, the critics continued to see the system as prone to potential misuse or abuse; as a result and Senate negotiators moved to prohibit further funding for the TIA program by adding provisions to the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2004. Further, the Joint Explanatory Statement included in the conference committee report directed that the IAO as program manager for TIA be terminated immediately.
IAO research was conducted along five major investigative paths: secure collaboration problem solving.
Sayak Airport known as Siargao Airport, is an airport serving the general area of Siargao Island, located in the province of Surigao del Norte in the Philippines. The airport is located in Barangay Sayak in the municipality of Del Carmen, where the airport derives its name from; the airport is classified as a Class 2 principal airport by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines, a body of the Department of Transportation and Communications, responsible for the operations of not only this airport but of all other airports in the Philippines except the major international airports. Siargao airport was built in 1963 by the late President Diosdado Macapagal. In 2008, President Gloria Arroyo initiated a project called Super Regions Program which aims to improve economic activity through infrastructure project; the airport could accommodate only 19-seater planes from Cebu. Sayak Airport was renovated and upgraded with the 150 meters runway extension that enabled the facility to accommodate bigger planes that carries more than 100 passengers.
On February 27, 2018, a SkyJet Airlines British Aerospace 146 overshot the runway. All 73 passengers and four crew members evacuated the aircraft unharmed; the cause of the incident is under investigation, but the CAAP is noting a possible bird strike after one of the passengers reported that the pilot attempted to dodge a passing eagle. List of airports in the Philippines