The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between the Balkans, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Western Asia. It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Southern Bug, Dniester and the Rioni. Many countries drain into the Black Sea, including Austria, Belarus and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Ukraine; the Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2, a maximum depth of 2,212 m, a volume of 547,000 km3. It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south, Caucasus Mountains to the east, Crimean Mountains to the north, Strandzha to the southwest, Dobrogea Plateau to the northwest, features a wide shelf to the northwest; the longest east–west extent is about 1,175 km. Important cities along the coast include Batumi, Constanța, Istanbul, Novorossiysk, Ordu, Rize, Sevastopol, Sukhumi, Varna and Zonguldak; the Black Sea has a positive water balance. There is a two-way hydrological exchange: the more saline and therefore denser, but warmer, Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea under its less saline outflow.
This creates a significant anoxic layer well below the surface waters. The Black Sea drains into the Mediterranean Sea, via the Aegean Sea and various straits, is navigable to the Atlantic Ocean; the Bosphorus Strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, the Strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean Sea region of the Mediterranean. These waters separate the Caucasus and Western Asia; the Black Sea is connected, to the North, to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch. The water level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the water level in the basin, the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been land. At certain critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established, it is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean. When this hydrological link is not present, the Black Sea is an endorheic basin, operating independently of the global ocean system, like the Caspian Sea for example.
The Black Sea water level is high. The Turkish Straits connect the Black Sea with the Aegean Sea, comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Black Sea as follows: On the Southwest. The Northeastern limit of the Sea of Marmara. In the Kertch Strait. A line joining Cape Takil and Cape Panaghia. Current names of the sea are equivalents of the English name "Black Sea", including these given in the countries bordering the sea: Abkhazian: Амшын Еиқәа, IPA: Adyghe: Хы шӏуцӏэ, IPA: Bulgarian: Черно море, IPA: Crimean Tatar: Къара денъиз, Qara deñiz IPA: Georgian: შავი ზღვა, translit.: shavi zghva, IPA: Laz and Mingrelian: უჩა ზუღა, IPA:, or ზუღა, IPA:, "Sea" Romanian: Marea Neagră, pronounced Russian: Чёрное мо́рe, IPA: Turkish: Karadeniz, IPA: Ukrainian: Чорне море, IPA: Such names have not yet been shown conclusively to predate the 13th century, but there are indications that they may be older. In Greece, the historical name "Euxine Sea", which holds a different meaning, is still used: Greek: Éfxeinos Póntos.
The principal Greek name "Póntos Áxeinos" is accepted to be a rendering of Iranian word *axšaina-, compare Avestan axšaēna-, Old Persian axšaina-, Middle Persian axšēn/xašēn, New Persian xašīn, as well as Ossetic œxsīn. The ancient Greeks, most those living to the north of the Black Sea, subsequently adopted the name and altered it to á-xenos. Thereafter, Greek tradition refers to the Black Sea as the "Inhospitable Sea", Πόντος Ἄξεινος Póntos Áxeinos, first attested in Pindar; the name was considered to be "ominous" and was changed into the euphemistic name "Hospitable sea", Εὔξεινος Πόντος Eúxeinos Póntos, for the first time attested in Pindar. This became the used designation for the sea in Greek. In contexts related to mythology, the older form Póntos Áxeinos remained favored, it has been erroneously suggested that the name was derived from the color of the water, or was at least related to climatic conditions. Black or dark in this context, referred to a system in which colors represent the cardinal points of the known world.
Black or dark represented the north. The symbolism based on cardinal points was used in multiple occasions and is therefore attested. For example, the "Red Sea", a body of water reported since the time of Herodotus in fact designated the Indian Ocean, together with bodies of water now known as the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. According to the same explanation and reasoning, it is therefore considered to be impossible
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal, denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, has a low melting point; when freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each include a major decay chain of heavier elements. Lead is a unreactive post-transition metal, its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature. Compounds of lead are found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group. Exceptions are limited to organolead compounds. Like the lighter members of the group, lead tends to bond with itself. Lead is extracted from its ores. Galena, a principal ore of lead bears silver, interest in which helped initiate widespread extraction and use of lead in ancient Rome. Lead production declined after the fall of Rome and did not reach comparable levels until the Industrial Revolution. In 2014, the annual global production of lead was about ten million tonnes, over half of, from recycling.
Lead's high density, low melting point and relative inertness to oxidation make it useful. These properties, combined with its relative abundance and low cost, resulted in its extensive use in construction, batteries and shot, solders, fusible alloys, white paints, leaded gasoline, radiation shielding. In the late 19th century, lead's toxicity was recognized, its use has since been phased out of many applications. However, many countries still allow the sale of products that expose humans to lead, including some types of paints and bullets. Lead is a toxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, it acts as a neurotoxin damaging the nervous system and interfering with the function of biological enzymes, causing neurological disorders, such as brain damage and behavioral problems. A lead atom has 82 electrons, arranged in an electron configuration of 4f145d106s26p2; the sum of lead's first and second ionization energies—the total energy required to remove the two 6p electrons—is close to that of tin, lead's upper neighbor in the carbon group.
This is unusual. The similarity of ionization energies is caused by the lanthanide contraction—the decrease in element radii from lanthanum to lutetium, the small radii of the elements from hafnium onwards; this is due to poor shielding of the nucleus by the lanthanide 4f electrons. The sum of the first four ionization energies of lead exceeds that of tin, contrary to what periodic trends would predict. Relativistic effects, which become significant in heavier atoms, contribute to this behavior. One such effect is the inert pair effect: the 6s electrons of lead become reluctant to participate in bonding, making the distance between nearest atoms in crystalline lead unusually long. Lead's lighter carbon group congeners form stable or metastable allotropes with the tetrahedrally coordinated and covalently bonded diamond cubic structure; the energy levels of their outer s- and p-orbitals are close enough to allow mixing into four hybrid sp3 orbitals. In lead, the inert pair effect increases the separation between its s- and p-orbitals, the gap cannot be overcome by the energy that would be released by extra bonds following hybridization.
Rather than having a diamond cubic structure, lead forms metallic bonds in which only the p-electrons are delocalized and shared between the Pb2+ ions. Lead has a face-centered cubic structure like the sized divalent metals calcium and strontium. Pure lead has a silvery appearance with a hint of blue, it tarnishes on contact with moist air and takes on a dull appearance, the hue of which depends on the prevailing conditions. Characteristic properties of lead include high density, malleability and high resistance to corrosion due to passivation. Lead's close-packed face-centered cubic structure and high atomic weight result in a density of 11.34 g/cm3, greater than that of common metals such as iron and zinc. This density is the origin of the idiom to go over like a lead balloon; some rarer metals are denser: tungsten and gold are both at 19.3 g/cm3, osmium—the densest metal known—has a density of 22.59 g/cm3 twice that of lead. Lead is a soft metal with a Mohs hardness of 1.5. It is somewhat ductile.
The bulk modulus of lead—a measure of its ease of compressibility—is 45.8 GPa. In comparison, that of aluminium is 75.2 GPa. Lead's tensile strength, at 12–17 MPa, is low; the melting point of lead—at 327.5 °C —is low compared to most metals. Its boiling point of 1749 °C is the lowest among the carbon group elements; the electrical resistivity of lead at 20 °C is 192 nanoohm-meters an order of magnitude higher than those of other industrial metals. Lead is a superconductor at temperatures lower than 7.19 K.
Jošanička Banja is a spa town in Serbia. It is situated in the Raška District. Jošanička Banja in Serbian means Jošanička Spa; the population of the town is 1,154 people. 500BC Hellenistic pottery including Megarian bowls were excavated in the town. List of spa towns in Serbia Unofficial site Official site
The Great Morava is the final section of the Morava, a major river system in Serbia. The Velika Morava begins at the confluence of the South Morava and the West Morava, located near the small town of Stalać, a major railway junction in Central Serbia. From there to its confluence with the Danube northeast of the city of Smederevo, the Velika Morava is 185 km long. With its longer branch, the West Morava, it is 493 km long; the South Morava, which represents the natural headwaters of the Morava, used to be longer than the West Morava, but due to the regulations of river bed and melioration, it is shorter nowadays. At one time the Morava was over 600 km long. Today, the most distant water source in the Morava watershed is the source of the Ibar River, the right and longest tributary of the Zapadna Morava, originating in Montenegro, which gives the Ibar-West Morava-Great Morava river system a length of 550 km, which still makes it the longest waterway in the Balkan Peninsula; the drainage basin of the Velika Morava is 6,126 km², of the whole Morava system is 38,207 km².
This drainage basin covers 42,38% the area of Serbia. Velika Morava flows through the most fertile and densely populated area of Central Serbia, called the Morava river valley or Pomoravlje. Pomoravlje was formed in a fossil bay of a vast, ancient Pannonian Sea which dried out 200,000 years ago. Through about half of its length it passes through beautiful Bagrdan gorge. In past centuries, it was known for its endless forests, but there is nothing left today of those old woods, it flows into the Danube between the villages of Kulič & Dubravica, in the coal mining basin of Kostolac, one of two major mines in its drainage basin. The average discharge of the Velika Morava on its confluence with Danube is 255 m³/s. Tributaries of the Velika Morava are short, the longest one being the Jasenica and others exceeding 50 km. Right tributaries are: Jovanovačka reka, Ravanica and Resavica. Left tributaries are more numerous, including: Kalenićka reka, Belica River, Lepenica, Rača, Jasenica. Many of them don't carry much water, but in rainy years, they are known for causing major floods, a big problem for the entire Morava river system.
Before it meets the Danube, the Velika Morava splits, creating a 47 km long arm called the Jezava, which flows into the Danube separately, in the town of Smederevo. It's joined by a longer river, the Ralja, from the left; the Velika Morava represents a textbook example of a meandering river. It used to be 245 km long, but directly from its origin to the Danube, there is only 118 km in distance; the river bed is 80–200 m wide, the depth as much as 10 m. Notorious for its flooding, the Morava has changed its course many times, old river bends have become small lakes, known as moravište. Južna Morava, with high erosion in its drainage basin, brings huge amounts of silt, elevating Velika Morava's river bed, making floods more frequent. Beginning in 1966, huge works began on all three rivers to prevent future floodings. Series of reservoirs were made on tributaries and meanders were cut through, making river courses straightened, which made them shorter, it was projected that it would shorten by as much as 152 km, that it would become navigable again.
The Morava and its tributaries still flood so its bed remains elevated, despite dozens of gravel-digging companies in cities and villages near the river's upper course. Today, Velika Morava is navigable for only 3 km from its mouth. In the past it was navigable all the way for about 3/4 of its length. But, as mentioned before, Velika Morava gets buried under the materials brought by the Južna Morava; when the melioration program began in 1966, it was projected it would become navigable again, in the first phase to Ćuprija, in the next all the way to Stalać, making it 100% navigable. None of this was accomplished. From time to time, the idea of digging Danube-Morava-Vardar-Aegean Sea a navigable canal pops up in the media. Technical problems of making this waterway would be enormous, the usefulness of its creation is debatable, the estimated costs are deemed prohibitive. Although Morava valley has always been the most populous part of Serbia, disastrous floodings prevented people from settling on the river banks itself.
The only urban settlement on the river banks is Ćuprija, but it suffers from floods. Other urban settlements, built a little further away from the river itself, include: Paraćin, Batočina, Svilajnac, Velika Plana, Požarevac and Smederevo. Smaller places and villages include: Varvarin, Markovac, Veliko Orašje, Miloševac and Lozovik; the Romans called. The modern-day city of Ćuprija existed in Roman times as Horreum Margi. In Serbian history, its valley became the cradle of the modern Serbian state in the beginnin
Leposavić, or Leposaviq or Albanik, is a town and the northernmost municipality in the Mitrovica District in Kosovo. As of 2015, it has an estimated population of 18,600 inhabitants; the municipality covers an area of 539 km2 which makes it the fifth largest in Kosovo, consists of the town and 72 villages. It is a part of North Kosovo, a region with an ethnic Serb majority that functions autonomously from the remainder of ethnic Albanian-majority Kosovo. After the 2013 Brussels Agreement, the municipality is expected to become part of the Community of Serb Municipalities; the Sočanica Monastery was founded in the 13th century by King Stefan Milutin. Many of the settlements were mentioned in the Studenica charters of King Stefan Dečanski. From 1877 to 1913 Leposavić was part of Kosovo vilayet. After the First Balkan War, Kosovo was internationally recognised as a part of Serbia and northern Metohija as a part of Montenegro at the Treaty of London in May 1913. In 1918, the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes named Yugoslavia was established by the merging of the Western South Slavic states.
Between 1929 and 1941, the region was administratively part of the Zeta Banovina. Lešak, Belo Brdo, Vračevo, Berberište were incorporated into the Leposavić municipality in 1953. In the mid–1950s, the Assembly of PR Serbia decided that the Leposavić municipality be ceded to Autonomous Region of Kosovo and Metohija, after requests by the Kosovo leadership, it had up until been part of the Kraljevo srez, of which the population was wholly Serb. After this, the number of Serbs drastically fell. In 1959, Leposavić was incorporated into the province. After the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, the political group Pokret za Leposavić was established, which sought to bring together those committed to cooperation and communication with the international community and the Albanians; the municipality assembly joined the Association of Serb Municipalities and Settlements of Kosovo and Metohija in 2003, which exercised legislative and executive authority over North Kosovo and other Serb enclaves. Although known as Leposavić in Serbian and Leposaviq in Albanian and being an area of Serbian settlement, since Kosovo's independence, the town has been referred to as Albanik on some maps produced by KFOR.
Albanik is preferred over Leposaviq in Kosovo's government documents translated into English. Aside from the town of Leposavić, the municipality includes the following villages: According to the 2011 estimations by the Government of Kosovo, Leposavić has 4,193 households and 13,773 inhabitants. In 2015 report by OSCE, the population of Leposavić municipality stands at 18,600 inhabitants. Municipality of Leposavić includes 72 villages; the majority of Leposavić municipality is composed of Kosovo Serbs with around 18,000 inhabitants, while 350 Bosniaks and 270 Kosovo Albanians live in the municipality. Kosovo Albanians live in the three southern villages of Košutovo, Šaljska Bistrica, Ceranje; the ethnic composition of the municipality of Leposavić, including IDPs: Almost all industrial facilities are closed or work with reduced capacity. The unemployment rate is high, it has been increased due to the closing down of most of the Trepča conglomerate facilities; the municipality is rich in natural and management, but current circumstances blocked all the potentials.
The municipality adopted the Development Agenda 2006 – 2009, in cooperation with UNOPS and with the support of UNMIK and the Italian Government, which foresees improvement in the local economy. Given the current difficult situation,however, there is not much hope the Agenda will be properly implemented; the municipality, led by a proactive CEO, pays noteworthy efforts toward identifying and initiating projects ideas. There are three lead and zinc mines operating on the territory of Leposavić: Belo Brdo and Crnac; the municipality has several monuments protected by the Republic of Serbia as part of the cultural heritage list. The following Serbian Orthodox churches are located in Leposavić: Sočanica Monastery Vračevo Monastery Church of Cosmas and Damian Church of St. Basil of Ostrog North Kosovo Community of Serb Municipalities District of Mitrovica Notes References Благоје Павловић. Насеља и миграције становништва општине Лепосавић. Институт за српску културу Приштина. Milka Stojanovic. ИБАРСКИ Колашин - природа и традицијска култура: зборник радова.
Centar za Naučna Istraživanja SANU i Univ. U Kragujevcu. ISBN 978-86-81037-24-9. Милисав В Лутовац. Ибарски Колашин: антропогеографска испитивања. Издавачко Предузеђе Народне Републике Србије. Official website
Kopaonik is a mountain located in Kosovo and Serbia. It is the largest mountain range in Serbia; the highest point is the Pančić's Peak with 2,017 m. The central part of the Kopaonik plateau was declared a national park in 1981 which today covers an area of 121.06 km2. Located on the slopes of Kopaonik, Kopaonik ski resort in Serbia one of the largest in Southeast Europe. There are 25 ski lifts with capacity of 32,000 skiers per hour. Stretching for 75 km in the north-south direction, between the rivers of Lab and Sitnica on the south and Jošanica on the north, Kopaonik is the largest and longest mountain range in Serbia, it belongs to the region of Raška. The Kopaonik mountain massif includes the mountains of Željin, Goč and Stolovi; the Pančić's Peak, with 2,017 m, is the highest point of the mountain. Kopaonik has a subarctic climate with short, fresh summers, long, cold winters with abundant snowfall; the snow season lasts from November to May. Kopaonik was hit 5 times by earthquakes of Mercalli intensity VII to VIII between 1978 and 1985.
The 1983 earthquake had an intensity of VIII and affected 7 villages, leaving 200 homeless, 1,200 buildings and dwellings damaged. Due to its rich mines, Kopaonik was named Silver Mountain and that name was used by the Romans and Ottomans, its current name Kopalnik, is connected to the ore mining as it comes from kopati, Serbian for digging. Kopaonik has a rich historical heritage. Oldest findings are from the Paleolithic and show that local people used metals. Localities include Veliki Krš and Jasova Bačija. Neolithic remains were discovered on the localities of Gornji Kaznovići, Tomovićko Brdo and the Neolithic range of Beglučka; the mining developed during the Classical antiquity. The Romans began to build the surrounding settlements; the remains from this period include the archaeo-metallurgic complex Zajačak and the locality of Dobrinac in Rvati. Dobrinac originates from the 3rd or 4th century AD and it was the administrative center of the mining and metallurgic operations on the western slope of the mountain.
The area remained an important mining center in the Middle Ages and by the 14th century it became the main mining area of Serbia. Emperor Dušan visited the Silver Mountain in August 1336. In 1412 despot Stefan Lazarević granted the Law on mines which mentions the mines of gold, iron, copper and zinc in the area. By that time, the mountain hosted the colonies of Saxons and Ragusians. Besides old churches and monasteries like Đurđevi stupovi, Studenica monastery, Sopoćani and Gradac Monastery, there are several early and medieval fortresses locally, built by Serbian dynasties; the nearest Serbian medieval castle is Maglič. During the Ottoman period, from the 15th century, the mining ceased, but they developed the thermal springs, building Turkish baths. Remains of one are found in modern spa of Jošanička Banja. First scientific exploration of the mountain's flora came in 1836-38 when the geologist Ami Boué visited the mountain, he made a collection of Kopaonik's plant life, today kept in the Imperial Natural History Museum in Vienna.
Botanist Josif Pančić gave the greatest scientific contribution to the plant life on Kopaonik. In 1851 he explored the mountain for the first time, followed by another 18 expeditions. During World War II the Yugoslav Partisans were active in the region. With territorial reorganization in the mid-1950s, the southern parts of Kopaonik were to be ceded from NR Serbia to its autonomous province Kosovo and Metohija. In 1959, Leposavić was incorporated into the province. In Pančić's honor, marking the 100th anniversary of his first expedition, the highest point was renamed from Milan's Peak to Pančić's Peak in 1951. A mausoleum was built on the peak and the remains of Pančić and his wife were reinterred in it, they were buried in the coffins made of Serbian spruce. In 1981, due to its location, rich forests, variety of herbs, area for holiday and recreation, 121.06 km2 of the range were proclaimed a national park. The national park is situated on a flat region, at an altitude of about 1,700 m; this central Kopaonik plateau is called Suvo Rudište.
It is surrounded by mountain peaks. To the north and northwest of this plateau stretches Banjski Kopaonik, the location of Jošanička Banja spa, whose strong springs' waters reach the temperature of 88 °C. Directly below the Suvo Rudište plateau starts the valley of the Samokovska River, with its steep run, numerous rapids and gorges. Kopaonik has over 160 days covered by snow. There is the Jelovarnik falls, one of the highest in Serbia. Kopaonik has several excellent natural lookouts: Suvo Rudište, Karaman, Kukavica, Vučak and Treska. On a clear day, a distant mountains in Montenegro and Albania can be observed. There are 13 localities within the park which are declared a strict nature reserves: Barska Reka, Bele Stene, Vučak, Duboka, Jankove Bare, Jelovarnik, Kozje Stene, Metođe, Samokovska Reka and Suvo Rudište. Soil erosion is a threat. Kopaonik's flora has a large number of autochthonous plant species. Deciduous forests and native coniferous woodland make up most of the fore
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, reflectivity of any metal; the metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many bullion coins, sometimes alongside gold: while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal, its purity is measured on a per-mille basis. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures. Other than in currency and as an investment medium, silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery.
Its compounds are used in X-ray film. Dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings and other medical instruments. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two vertical neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold, its 47 electrons are arranged in the configuration 4d105s1 to copper and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with a single electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell, accounts for many of the singular properties of metallic silver. Silver is an soft and malleable transition metal, though it is less malleable than gold. Silver crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12, where only the single 5s electron is delocalized to copper and gold. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are weak; this observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of silver.
Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high polish, and, so characteristic that the name of the metal itself has become a colour name. Unlike copper and gold, the energy required to excite an electron from the filled d band to the s-p conduction band in silver is large enough that it no longer corresponds to absorption in the visible region of the spectrum, but rather in the ultraviolet. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm. At wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silver's reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm. High electrical and thermal conductivity is common to the elements in group 11, because their single s electron is free and does not interact with the filled d subshell, as such interactions lower electron mobility; the electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater than copper, but it is not used for this property because of the higher cost.
An exception is in radio-frequency engineering at VHF and higher frequencies where silver plating improves electrical conductivity because those currents tend to flow on the surface of conductors rather than through the interior. During World War II in the US, 13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium because of the wartime shortage of copper. Pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity of any metal, although the conductivity of carbon and superfluid helium-4 are higher. Silver has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver forms alloys with copper and gold, as well as zinc. Zinc-silver alloys with low zinc concentration may be considered as face-centred cubic solid solutions of zinc in silver, as the structure of the silver is unchanged while the electron concentration rises as more zinc is added. Increasing the electron concentration further leads to body-centred cubic, complex cubic, hexagonal close-packed phases. Occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being more abundant.
This equal abundance is rare in the periodic table. The atomic weight is 107.8682 u. Both isotopes of silver are produced in stars via the s-process, as well as in supernovas via the r-process. Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45 days, 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13 hours. Silver has numerous nuclear isomers, the most stable being 108mAg, 110mAg and 106mAg. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes. Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 92.950 u