The Kingdom of Iberia was a medieval Eurasian monarchy under the Bagrationi dynasty which emerged circa 888 AD, succeeding the Principality of Iberia, in historical region of Tao-Klarjeti, or upper Iberia in north-eastern Turkey as well parts of modern southwestern Georgia, that stretched from the Iberian gates in the south and to the Lesser Caucasus in the north. The area comprised the following historical districts: West of the Arsiani Mountains were Tao, Klarjeti and Shavsheti, to the east lay Meskheti, Javakheti, Abotsi and Basiani; the landscape is characterised by the river-systems of the Çoruh and the Kura. The region played a crucial role in the unification of all Georgian lands and principalities into Kingdom of Georgia in 1008. In 813, the last Iberian prince Ashot I of the Bagrationi dynasty established himself in his patrimonial Duchy of Klarjeti, where he restored the castle of Artanuji, said to have been built by the king Vakhtang I of Iberia in the 5th century, received the Byzantine protection.
Being recognized as the presiding prince and curopalates of Iberia, Ashot fought the Arabs from there incorporating the surrounding lands from the Arab dominance. Ashot I encouraged resettlement of Georgians in these lands, patronized monastic life initiated by the prominent Georgian ecclesiastic figure Gregory of Khandzta. For a long time the region became a cultural safe-house and one of the most important religious centers of Georgia; as a result, the political and religious center of Iberia was transferred from central Iberia to the south-west, in Tao-Klarjeti. The geographical position of the princdom, between the great Empires of the East and the West, the fact that one branch of the Silk Road ran through its territory, meant that it was subject to a constant stream of diverging influences. With local Arab emirs in the Caucasus growing more independent, the Caliph recognized Ashot as the prince of Iberia in order to counter the rebellious emir of Tbilisi Isma’il ibn Shu’aib c. 818. The emir of Tbilisi had enlisted support of Ashot's foe, the prince Grigol of Kakheti and the Georgian highland tribes of Tsanars.
Ashot allied himself with king Theodosius II of Abkhazia and met the emir on the Ksani, winning a victory and pushing the Kakhetians from central Iberia. But when the governor of Arminiya, Khalid ibn Yazid al-Shaybani reasserted control over eastern Georgia, Ashot was pushed back to Tao-Klarjeti. Ashot the Great’s great divided his principality to his three sons: The eldest son Adarnase II, a grand duke, ruled the capital and the centre of his father’s territory and western Klarjeti; the middle son Bagrat I, Bagrat ruled the district of Kola and most of Tao, which reached deep into Anatolia and proved to be the strategic core of Ashot’s domain. The youngest son Guaram ruled the north: Samtskhe and Trialeti, had the non-regal title Mampali meaning ‘ruler’. Upon Ashot's death, Arabs demanded taxes from the remaining domains. Bagrat I allied himself with Caliph against Emirate of Tbilisi and Principality of Kakheti. In 853, now supporting Bugha al-Kabir, Bagrat regained central Iberia, but only for a brief time as the resurgent Abkhazians forced him out of this region.
Ashot's eldest son, Grand Duke Adarnase II, was the first brother to die. His possessions were divided among his sons: Gurgen I obtained Tao, while Sumbat I received Klarjeti. Ashot's youngest son, Guaram pursued an aggressive policy of expansion. In 880 he seized the Bagratids' traditional foe, the Arab emir of Tbilisi, named Gabulots, sent him in chains to Constantinople, a triumph which won him Trialeti and Javakheti. Prior to 876, Guaram handed over some of his possessions to his brothers and tetired himself at the Opiza convent where he was buried after his death in 882. Liparit, of the Liparitids, took over Trialeti, where he built the stronghold Klde-Karni and placed himself under suzerainty of Guaram's nephew David I soon after 876; these rearrangements left Guaram's son Nasra with no inheritance and induced him in 881 to murder his cousin David I in a plot. After the murder, Nasra fled to the Byzantine territory from where he was retrieved by his brother-in-law Bagrat I of Abkhazia, the latter managed to secure the Byzantine military aid and invaded the Bagratid possessions on Nasra's behalf.
Anxious to counterbalance the Byzantine influence in the Caucasus, Ashot I of Armenia interfered in support of David I’s son Adnarnase. Thus, a Bagratid dynastic feud evolved into a regional conflict. Nasra succeeded in taking the forts of Odzrkhe and Lomsianta, but was defeated and put to death at Aspindza; as Adarnase was still a minor, the Byzantine emperor – pursuant to the policy of division – appointed as curopalates, not Adarnase, but his cousin Gurgen I of Tao. Allied with the resurgent Armenians, Adarnase launched, from his base in Lower Tao, a policy of expansion. Not being a curopalates and having Armenia's example before him, Adarnase assumed the title of king; the relations between Adarnase and Gurgen degenerated into an open warfare. Gurgen was fatally wounded and captured at Mglinavi near Artaani by Adarnase and his ally Bagrat I of Klarjeti in 891; the Byzantine government adapted itself to the circumstances and, upon Gurgen death in 891, recognized Adarnase as curopalates. Gurgen I of Tao left two sons behind – Adarnase and Ashot the Immature – thus being a founder of the Bagratid "first house of Tao" which would become extinct with his grandson Gurgen II.
Adarnase rewarded Ash
Deportes Iberia is a Chilean football club based in Los Ángeles that plays in Primera B. The club hold its home games at Estadio Municipal de Los Ángeles which has a capacity of 5,000 spectators. In 1933, the club was established as Deportes Iberia, basing in Conchalí. Iberia joined the Asociación de Fútbol de Santiago, but in 1946 the club joined Primera División, spending there eight years until the 1954 season when they, after finishing in the bottom of the table, were relegated to second-tier, being the first Chilean relegated team in its football history. During its age playing at Segunda División on mid-1960s, the club moved to Puente Alto and stayed there two seasons from 1966 to 1968 before its move to Los Ángeles at Bío Bío Region in 1969; the team has a rivalry with Malleco Unido from Angol as well as with Curicó Unido. Iberia has won three Segunda División Profesional titles and a Copa Apertura Segunda División title in 1984; the institution was founded on June 15, 1933, by Cristian López, small merchants of La Vega Central Market and a Spanish catholic reverend called Gilberto Lizana, after the decision of that last one to create a football branch.
At the end of that year and for only eight days, the team adopted the name of Deportivo Ínser. In 1971, Iberia failed to reach its first promotion to first-level after losing the race for the title with Unión San Felipe of the coach Luis Santibáñez who achieved a feat following proclaiming champion of Primera División in 1972. In 1992, following 37 years playing in the second tier, the club was relegated to Tercera División. After winning the 2013–14 tournament, Iberia reached its promotion and broke a 21-year absence at second division, now called Primera B. Current squad of Deportes Iberia as of April 2018 Sources: ANFP Official Web Site Manager: Patricio Almendra Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Since Iberia moved from Puente Alto to Los Angeles in 1968 they play his home games at the Estadio Municipal de Los Ángeles which has a 4,125 capacity.
For a long time the ground was property of the public finance, but in 1990s the stadium became part of Los Angeles municipality. In August 2010, a running track financed by National Institute of Sports of Chile was built. On 21 May 2015, President of Chile Michelle Bachelet through his public account realized in the National Congress at Valparaíso, announced that Ovalle, La Calera, San Felipe and Los Angeles would have new stadiums, it was reported that in Los Angeles’ situation the new stadium wouldn’t be remodeled for establish a new ground of 5,000 capacity. Ronald Fuentes Nelson Soto Segunda División de Chile: 2012, 2013, 2013–14 Copa Apertura Segunda División: 1984 División de Honor Amateur: 1945 Chilean football league system Official Website
Images pour orchestre
Images pour orchestre, L. 122, is an orchestral composition in three sections by Claude Debussy, written between 1905 and 1912. Debussy had intended this set of Images as a two-piano sequel to the first set of Images for solo piano, as described in a letter to his publisher Durand as of September 1905. However, by March 1906, in another letter to Durand, he had begun to think of arranging the work for orchestra rather than two pianos; the original title of Gigues was Gigues tristes. Debussy used his memories of England as inspiration for the music, in addition to the song "Dansons la gigue" by Charles Bordes and the Tyneside folk tune "The Keel Row". Controversy exists over the role of André Caplet in the orchestration of Gigues. Robert Orledge and Williametta Spencer are two writers, for example, who have accepted Caplet as assisting with the orchestration. In contrast, François Lesure has stated, based on manuscript examination in the Bibliothèque nationale, that Caplet did not assist with the orchestration.
Ibéria is the most popular of the three orchestral Images and itself forms a triptych within a triptych. The three sections of Ibéria are: The music is inspired by impressions of Spain. Richard Langham Smith has commented on Debussy's own wish to incorporate ideas of juxtaposing elements of the visual arts in musical terms, including a quote from Debussy to Caplet from a letter of 26 February 1910: You can't imagine how the transition works between'Parfums de la nuit' and'Le Matin d'un jour de fête. Ça n'a pas l'air d'être écrit. Matthew Brown has commented on Debussy's use of techniques such as incomplete progressions, parenthetical episodes and interpolations in Ibéria; this is one of Debussy's most modern works. He used "Nous n'irons plus au bois" and "Do, do l'enfant do" in this movement. Brown and Headlam have analyzed the tonal structure of this movement; the first song plays a prominent role from the start of the 158 time until the end of the movement, in the solos and in the accompaniments and countermelodies.
Debussy had quoted the song Nous n'irons plus au bois in Images oubliées of 1894 for piano and in Jardins sous la pluie from Estampes. Images pour Orchestre: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project "Claude Achille Debussy – Iberia: Images for Orchestra, No. 2", Unknown author, 1935 article
The Iberians were a set of people that Greek and Roman sources identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC. The Roman sources use the term Hispani to refer to the Iberians; the term Iberian, as used by the ancient authors, had two distinct meanings. One, more general, referred to all the populations of the Iberian peninsula without regard to ethnic differences; the other, more restricted ethnic sense, refers to the people living in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian Peninsula, which by the 6th century BC had absorbed cultural influences from the Phoenicians and the Greeks. This pre-Indo-European cultural group spoke the Iberian language from the 7th to the 1st century BC. Other peoples related to the Iberians are the Vascones, though more related to the Aquitani than to the Iberians; the rest of the peninsula, in the northern, northwestern and southwestern areas, was inhabited by Celts or Celtiberians groups and the Pre-Celtic or Proto-Celtic Indo-European Lusitanians and the Turdetani.
The Iberian culture developed from the 6th century BC, as early as the fifth to the third millennium BC in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula. The Iberians lived in villages and oppida and their communities were based on a tribal organization; the Iberians in the Spanish Levant were more urbanized than their neighbors in the central and northwestern regions of the Iberian peninsula. The peoples in the central and northwest regions were Celtic, semi-pastoral and lived in scattered villages, though they had a few fortified towns like Numantia, they had a knowledge of writing, including bronze, agricultural techniques. In the centuries preceding Carthaginian and Roman conquest, Iberian settlements grew in social complexity, exhibiting evidence of social stratification and urbanization; this process was aided by trading contacts with the Phoenicians and Carthaginians. By the late 5th and early 4th centuries BC a series of important social changes led to the consolidation of an aristocracy and the emergence of a clientele system.
"This new political system led, among other things, to cities and towns that centered around these leaders known as territorial nucleation. In this context, the oppidum or fortified Iberian town became the centre of reference in the landscape and the political space."The settlement of Castellet de Banyoles in Tivissa was one of the most important ancient Iberian settlements in the north eastern part of the Iberian peninsula, discovered in 1912. The'Treasure of Tivissa', a unique collection of silver Iberian votive offerings was found here in 1927. Lucentum was another ancient Iberian settlement, as well as Castelldefels Castle. Mausoleum of Pozo Moro near the town of Chinchilla de Monte-Aragón in Castile-La Mancha seems to mark the location of another big settlement. Sagunto is the location of an ancient Iberian and Roman city of Saguntum, where a big fortress was built in the 5th century BC. Greek colonists made the first historical reference to the Iberians in the 6th century BC, they defined Iberians as non-Celtic peoples south of the Ebro river.
The Greeks dubbed as "Iberians" another people in the Caucasus region known as Caucasian Iberians. It is thought; the Iberians traded extensively with other Mediterranean cultures. Iberian pottery and metalwork has been found in France and North Africa; the Iberians had extensive contact with Greek colonists in the Spanish colonies of Emporion and Hemeroskopeion. The Iberians may have adopted some of the Greeks' artistic techniques. Statues such as the Lady of Baza and the Lady of Elx are thought to have been made by Iberians well acquainted with Greek art. Thucydides stated that one of the three original tribes of Sicily, the Sicani, were of Iberian origin, though "Iberian" at the time could have included what we think of as Gaul; the Iberians had contacts with the Phoenicians, who had established various colonies in southern Andalucia. Their first colony on the Iberian Peninsula was founded in 1100 BC and was called Gadir renamed by the Romans as Gades. Other Phoenician colonies in southern Iberia included Malaka and Abdera.
After the First Punic war, the massive war debt suffered by Carthage led them to attempt to expand their control over the Iberian peninsula. Hamilcar Barca began this conquest from his base at Cádiz by conquering the Tartessian Guadalquivir river region, rich in silver. After Hamilcar's death, his son-in-law Hasdrubal continued his incursions into Iberia, founding the colony of Qart Hadasht and extending his influence all the way to the southern bank of the river Ebro. After Hasdrubal's assassination in 221 BC, Hannibal assumed command of the Carthaginian forces and spent two years completing the conquest of the Iberians south of the Ebro. In his first campaign, Hannibal defeated the Olcades, the Vaccaei and the Carpetani expanding his control over the river Tagus region. Hannibal laid siege to Roman ally of Saguntum and this led to the beginning of the Second Punic War; the Iberian theater was a key battleground during this war and many Iberian and Celtiberian warriors fought for both Rome and Carthage, though most tribes sided with Carthage.
Rome sent Publius Cornelius Scipio to conquer Iberia from Carthage. Gnaeus subsequently defeated the Iberian Ilergetes tribe north of the Ebro who
The theme of Iberia was an administrative and military unit – theme – within the Byzantine Empire carved by the Byzantine Emperors out of several Georgian lands in the 11th century. It was formed as a result of Emperor Basil II’s annexation of a portion of the Bagrationi Dynasty domains and aggrandized at the expense of several Armenian kingdoms acquired by the Byzantines in a piecemeal fashion in the course of the 11th century; the population of the theme—at its largest extent—was multiethnic with a possible Georgian majority, including a sizable Armenian community of Chalcedonic rite to which Byzantines sometimes expanded, as a denominational name, the ethnonym "Iberian", a Graeco-Roman designation of Georgians. The theme ceased to exist in 1074 as a result of the Seljuk invasions; the theme was created by the emperor Basil II from the lands inherited from the Georgian prince David III of Tao. These areas – parts of the Armeno-Georgian marchlands centered on Thither Tao, including Theodosioupolis, Hark’, Apahunik’, Khaldoyarich, Ch’ormayari – had been granted to David for his crucial assistance to Basil against the rebel commander Bardas Sclerus in 979.
However, David's rebuff of Basil in Bardas Phocas’ revolt of 987 evoked Constantinople’s distrust of the Caucasian rulers. After the failure of the revolt, David was forced to make Basil II the legatee of his extensive possessions. Basil gathered his inheritance upon David’s death in 1000, forcing the successor Georgian Bagratid ruler Bagrat III to recognize the new rearrangement. Bagrat’s son, George I, inherited a longstanding claim to David’s succession. While Basil was preoccupied with his Bulgarian campaigns, George gained momentum to invade Tao and Phasiane in 1014. Defeated in the ensuing Byzantine-Georgian wars, George had to relinquish further lands – Kola and Javakheti – to the Byzantine crown in 1022; these provinces were organized by Basil II into the theme of Iberia with the capital at Theodosiopolis. Henceforth, the theme of Iberia was administered jointly with Ducate of Chaldia; as a result, the political center of the Georgian state moved north, as did a significant part of the Georgian nobility, while the empire gained a critical foothold for further expansion into the territories of Armenia and Georgia.
The exact chronology of the theme of Iberia and of its governors is not clear. The few Greek seals from the theme or from the ambiguous "Interior Iberia" can be dated precisely. Although many scholars maintain that the theme was created after the annexation of David of Tao's princedom, it is difficult to ascertain whether Byzantine rule extended into Tao permanently in 1000 or only after Georgia's defeat in 1022, it is impossible to identify any commander in Iberia before the appointment, in 1025/6, of the eunuch Niketas of Pisidia as the doux or katepano of Iberia. Some scholars believe, that the first doux of Iberia was either Romanos Dalassenos or his brother Theophylactos appointed between 1022 and 1027 in the aftermath of Basil's Georgian campaigns. After 1045 Iberia included the former Kingdom of Ani. Since 1071 Gregory Pakourianos was a governor of the Theme of Iberia; the Iberian governor was aided by tax officials, by co administrators who shared in the exercise of the military and civil duties.
Among these officials were the domesticos of the East, the administrators of the districts of which the theme was composed, the occasional extraordinary legates sent there by the emperor. Apart from the regular Byzantine garrisons, an indigenous army of peasant soldiers guarded the area and received in turn an allotment of tax-free government land; this changed, when Constantine IX dismantled the army of the theme of Iberia 5,000 men, converting its obligations from military service to the payment of tax. Constantine dispatched Nikolaos Serblias to conduct an inventory and to exact taxes that had never been demanded previously. Constantine's reforms caused great discontent in the theme and exposed it to hostile attack aided by the removal of regular troops from the region, first to crush the Macedonian revolt of Leo Tornicius, himself the former catapan of Iberia, to halt the Pecheneg advance. In 1048-9, the Seljuk Turks under Ibrahim Yinal made their first incursion in this region and clashed with a combined Byzantine-Armenian and Georgian army of 50,000 at the Battle of Kapetrou on September 10, 1048.
During this expedition, tens of thousands of Christians are said to have been massacred and several areas were reduced to piles of ashes. In 1051/52, Eustathius Boilas, a Byzantine magnate who moved from Cappadocia to the theme of Iberia, found the land "foul and unmanageable... inhabited by snakes and wild beasts."About 1053 Constantine IX disbanded what the historian John Skylitzes calls the "Iberian Army", which consisted of 50,000 men and it was turned as a contemporary Drungary of the Watch. Two other knowledgeable contemporaries, the former officials Michael Attaleiates and Kekaumenos, agree with Skylitzes that by demobilizing these soldiers Constantine did catastrophic harm to the Empire's eastern defenses. Kekaumenos says that Constantine's demobilization covered "Iberia and Mesopotamia", Attaliates refers to the demobilized district as "the Iberian land", evidently the same as "the land of the Iberians"; the region of the demobilized "Iberian Army" evidently included everything north of the ducates of Antioch and Edessa and east of the old Anatolian themes.
The other themes were called "Iberian" because after the conquest of Iberia in 1000 the general command over them was transferred from the Duke of Mesopotamia to the Duke of
Sasanian Iberia refers to the period the Kingdom of Iberia was under the suzerainty of the Sasanian Empire. The period includes when it was ruled by Marzbans appointed by the Sasanid Iranian king, through the Principality of Iberia; the Georgian kingdoms were contested between the Sasanids and the neighboring rivalling Roman-Byzantine Empire since the 3rd century. Over the span of the next hundreds of years, both the Byzantines and the Sasanids managed to establish hegemony over these regions. At the few remaining times, the Georgian kings managed to retain their autonomy. Sasanian governance was established for the first time early on in the Sasanian era, during the reign of king Shapur I. In 284, the Sasanians secured the Iberian throne for an Iranian prince from the House of Mihran, subsequently known by his dynastic name Mirian III. Mirian III became thus the first head of this branch of the Mihranid family in the Kingdom of Iberia, known as the Chosroid dynasty, whose members would rule Iberia into the sixth century.
In 363, Sasanian suzerainty was restored by king Shapur II when he invaded Iberia and installed Aspacures II as his vassal on the Iberian throne. The continuing rivalry between Byzantium and Sasanian Persia for supremacy in the Caucasus, the unsuccessful insurrection of the Georgians under Gurgen had severe consequences for the country. Thereafter, the king of Iberia had only nominal power, while the country was ruled by the Persians. By the time of Vezhan Buzmihr's tenure as marzban of Iberia, the hagiographies of the period implied that the "kings" in Tbilisi had only the status of mamasakhlisi, which means "head of the house"; when Bakur III died in 580, the Sassanid government of Persia under Hormizd IV seized on the opportunity to abolish the Iberian monarchy. Iberia became a Persian province, administrated through its direct rule by appointed marzbans, which in fact was, as Prof. Donald Rayfield states; the Iberian nobles acquiesced to this change without resistance, while the heirs of the royal house withdrew to their highland fortresses – the main Chosroid line in Kakheti, the younger Guaramid branch in Klarjeti and Javakheti.
However, the direct Persian control brought about heavy taxation and an energetic promotion of Zoroastrianism in a Christian country. Therefore, when the Eastern Roman emperor Maurice embarked upon a military campaign against Persia in 582, the Iberian nobles requested that he helped restore the monarchy. Maurice did respond, and, in 588, sent his protégé, Guaram I of the Guaramids, as a new ruler to Iberia. However, Guaram was not crowned as king, but recognized as a presiding prince and bestowed with the Eastern Roman title of curopalates; the Byzantine-Sassanid treaty of 591 confirmed this new rearrangement, but left Iberia divided into Roman- and Sassanid-dominated parts at the town of Tbilisi. Mtskheta came to be under Byzantine control. Guaram's successor, the second presiding prince Stephen I, reoriented his politics towards Persia in a quest to reunite a divided Iberia, a goal he seems to have accomplished, but this cost him his life when the Byzantine emperor Heraclius attacked Tbilisi in 626, during the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, marking the definite Byzantine predominance in most of Georgia by 627-628 at the expense of the Sasanids until the Muslim conquest of Persia.
Piran Gushnasp Arvand Gushnasp Vezhan Buzmihr Atashgah of Tbilisi Roman Georgia Muslim conquest of Persia Principality of Iberia Arab rule in Georgia Brunner, Christopher. "Geographical and Administrative divisions: Settlements and Economy". The Cambridge History of Iran: The Seleucid and Sasanian periods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 747–778. ISBN 978-0-521-24693-4. Mikaberidze, Alexander. Historical Dictionary of Georgia. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4422-4146-6. Rapp, Stephen H.. Studies in Medieval Georgian Historiography: Early Texts and Eurasian Contexts. Peeters. ISBN 978-2-87723-723-9. Rapp, Stephen H.. The Sasanian World through Georgian Eyes: Caucasia and the Iranian Commonwealth in Late Antique Georgian Literature. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-1472425522. Rayfield, Donald. Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1780230702. Suny, Ronald Grigor; the Making of the Georgian Nation. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-20915-3. Yarshater, Ehsan, ed..
Encyclopaedia Iranica. 10. Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0-933273-56-6
The prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula begins with the arrival of the first hominins 1.2 million years ago and ends with the Punic Wars, when the territory enters the domains of written history. In this long period, some of its most significant landmarks were to host the last stand of the Neanderthal people, to develop some of the most impressive Paleolithic art, alongside southern France, to be the seat of the earliest civilizations of Western Europe and to become a most desired colonial objective due to its strategic position and its many mineral riches. Hominin inhabitation of the Iberian Peninsula dates from the Paleolithic. Early hominin remains have been discovered at a number of sites on the peninsula. Significant evidence of an extended occupation of Iberia by Neanderthal man has been discovered. Homo sapiens first entered Iberia towards the end of the Paleolithic. For a time Neanderthals and modern humans coexisted until the former were driven to extinction. Modern man continued to inhabit the peninsula through the Neolithic periods.
Many of the best preserved prehistoric remains are in the Atapuerca region, rich with limestone caves that have preserved a million years of human evolution. Among these sites is the cave of Gran Dolina, where six hominin skeletons, dated between 780,000 and 1.2 million years ago, were found in 1994. Experts have debated whether these skeletons belong to the species Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, or a new species called Homo antecessor. In the Gran Dolina, investigators have found evidence of tool use to butcher animals and other hominins, to constitute the first evidence of cannibalism in a hominin species. Evidence of fire has been found at the site, suggesting they cooked their meat. In Atapuerca, is the site at Sima de los Huesos, or "Pit of Bones". Excavators have found the remains of 30 hominins dated to about 400,000 years ago; the remains have been tentatively classified as Homo heidelbergensis and may be ancestors of the Neanderthals. No evidence of habitation has been found at the site except for one stone hand-ax, all of the remains at the site are of young adults or teenagers.
The age similarity suggests. The deliberate placement of remains and lack of habitation may mean that the bodies were deliberately interred in the pit as a place of burial, which would make the site the first evidence of hominin burial. Around 200,000 BC, during the Lower Paleolithic period, Neanderthals first entered the Iberian Peninsula. Around 70,000 BC, during the Middle Paleolithic period the last ice age began and the Neanderthal Mousterian culture was established; the Escoural Cave has evidence of human activity starting in the Middle Palaeolithic, with an estimated date of 50,000 years BP. Around 35,000 BC, during the Upper Paleolithic, the Neanderthal Châtelperronian cultural period began. Emanating from Southern France this culture extended into Northern Iberia; this culture continued to exist until around 28,000 BC when Neanderthal man faced extinction, their final refuge has been said to be Gibraltar. Neanderthal remains have been found at a number of sites on the Iberian Peninsula.
A Neanderthal skull was found in Forbes' Quarry in Gibraltar in 1848 making it the second territory after Belgium where remains of Neanderthals were found. Neanderthals were not recognized as a separate species until the discovery of remains in Neandertal, Germany in 1856, though their classification as a separate species has been called into question. Subsequent Neanderthal discoveries in Gibraltar have been made including the skull of a four-year-old child and preserved excrement on top of baked mussel shells; the Neanderthals were present in Iberia until at least 28,000 or 27,000 BC. Evidence of their presence in this period is found in Figueira Brava and Salemas; the Cave of Salemas and the Cave of Pego do Diabo, both located in Loures Municipality, were inhabited in the Paleolithic. Archaeological industries of the Middle Paleolithic in Iberia lasted until about 28,000 or 26,000 BC. During this period, the Mousterian culture was replaced by the Aurignacian culture; the Mousterian culture is associated with Neanderthals and the Aurignacian culture is associated with modern humans.
In Zafarraya a Neanderthal mandible and Mousterian tools, associated with the Neanderthal culture, were found in 1995. The mandible was dated to about 28,000 BC and the tools to about 25,000 BC; these dates make the Zafarraya remains the youngest evidence of Neanderthals and have expanded the timeline of Neanderthal existence. The more recent dating of the remains provides the first evidence for prolonged co-existence between Neanderthals and modern man. L'Arbreda Cave in Catalonia contains Aurignacian cave paintings, as well as earlier remains from Neanderthals; some have suggested that the newer remains in Iberia suggest Neanderthals were driven out of Central Europe by modern man to the Iberian peninsula where they sought refuge. The Chatelperronian culture is found in Catalonia; the Aurignacian culture succeeds it and has the following periodization: Archaic Aurignacian: found in Cantabria, where it alternates with Chatelperronian, in Catalonia. The carbon-14 dates for Morín cave are late in the European context: c. 28,500 BP, but the occupation dates for El Pendo must be of earlier date.
Typical Aurignacian: is found in the Basque Country and Catalonia. Radiocarbon dating gives the following dates: 32,425 and 29,515 BP. Evolved Aurignacian: is found in Cantabria (Morin, El Pendo, El Otero, H