Jabir ibn Hayyan
Born and educated in Tus, he traveled to Kufa. He is sometimes referred to as the father of early chemistry, as early as the 10th century, the identity and exact corpus of works of Jabir was in dispute in Islamic circles. In 988 Ibn al-Nadim compiled the Kitab al-Fihrist which mentions Jabir as a follower and as a companion to Jafar as-Sadiq. In another reference al-Nadim reports that a group of philosophers claimed Jabir was one of their own members, another group, reported by al-Nadim, says only The Large Book of Mercy is genuine and that the rest are pseudographical. Their assertions are rejected by al-Nadim, joining al-Nadim in asserting a real Jabir, Ibn-Wahshiyya Rejecting a real Jabir, Abu Sulayman al-Mantiqi claims the real author is one al-Hasan ibn al-Nakad al-Mawili. The 14th century critic of Arabic literature, Jamal al-Din ibn Nubata al-Misri declares all the attributed to Jabir doubtful. Jabir was a philosopher who lived mostly in the 8th century, he was born in Tus, Khorasan, in Persia.
Jabir in the sources has been entitled differently as al-Azdi al-Barigi or al-Kufi or al-Tusi or al-Sufi. There is a difference of opinion as to whether he was a Persian from Khorasan who went to Kufa or whether he was, as some have suggested, of Syrian origin and lived in Persia and Iraq. His ethnic background is not clear, but most sources reference him as a Persian, in some sources, he is reported to have been the son of Hayyan al-Azdi, a pharmacist of the Arabian Azd tribe who emigrated from Yemen to Kufa during the Umayyad Caliphate. While Henry Corbin believes Geber seems to have been a client of the Azd tribe, Hayyan had supported the Abbasid revolt against the Umayyads, and was sent by them to the province of Khorasan to gather support for their cause. He was eventually caught by the Umayyads and executed and his family fled to Yemen, where Jabir grew up and studied the Quran and other subjects. Jabirs fathers profession may have contributed greatly to his interest in alchemy, after the Abbasids took power, Jabir went back to Kufa.
He began his practicing medicine, under the patronage of a Vizir of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. His connections to the Barmakid cost him dearly in the end, when that family fell from grace in 803, Jabir was placed under house arrest in Kufa, where he remained until his death. It has been asserted that Jabir was a student of the sixth Imam Jafar al-Sadiq and Harbi al-Himyari, in total, nearly 3,000 treatises and articles are credited to Jabir ibn Hayyan. The 112 Books dedicated to the Barmakids, viziers of Caliph Harun al-Rashid and this group includes the Arabic version of the Emerald Tablet, an ancient work that proved a recurring foundation of and source for alchemical operations. In the Middle Ages it was translated into Latin and widely diffused among European alchemists, the Seventy Books, most of which were translated into Latin during the Middle Ages
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī, known as Al-Biruni in English, was an Iranian scholar and polymath from Khwarezm. He studied almost all fields of science and was compensated for his research and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni to conduct research and study in order to uncover certain findings. He lived during the Islamic Golden Age, in which scholarly thought went hand in hand with the thinking and methodology of the Islamic religion. In addition to type of influence, Al-Biruni was influenced by other nations, such as the Greek. He was conversant in Khwarezmian, Arabic, Sanskrit and he spent a large part of his life in Ghazni in modern-day Afghanistan, capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty which was based in what is now central-eastern Afghanistan. In 1017 he traveled to the Indian subcontinent and authored Tarikh Al-Hind after exploring the Hindu faith practised in India and he was given the title founder of Indology. He was a writer on customs and creeds of various nations.
He made contributions to Earth sciences, and is regarded as the father of geodesy for his important contributions to that field and he was born in the outer district of Kath, the capital of the Afrighid dynasty of Khwarezm. The word Biruni means from the outer-district in Persian, and so became his nisba. Al-Birunis relatives took interest in the studies of science as well and he even had ties to royalty as there are links in his family to the families of prestigious elites. In order to conduct his research, Al-Biruni used different types of methods to tackle the different fields he studied, people consider Al-Biruni to be one of the greatest scientists in history and especially of Islam because of his discoveries and methodology. He lived during the Islamic Golden Age, which promoted astronomy and he was sympathetic to the Afrighids, who were overthrown by the rival dynasty of Mamunids in 995. He left his homeland for Bukhara, under the Samanid ruler Mansur II the son of Nuh, there he corresponded with Avicenna and there are extant exchanges of views between these two scholars.
In 998, he went to the court of the Ziyarid amir of Tabaristan and he visited the court of the Bavandid ruler Al-Marzuban. Accepting the definite demise of the Afrighids at the hands of the Mamunids and their court at Gorganj was gaining fame for its gathering of brilliant scientists. In 1017, Mahmud of Ghazni took Rey, most scholars, including al-Biruni, were taken to Ghazni, the capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty. Biruni was made court astrologer and accompanied Mahmud on his invasions into India and he was forty-four years old when he went on the journeys with Mahmud of Ghazni. Biruni became acquainted with all related to India
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus, often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a prominent Greek physician and philosopher in the Roman Empire. The son of Aelius Nicon, an architect with scholarly interests, Galen received a comprehensive education that prepared him for a successful career as a physician. Galens understanding of anatomy and medicine was influenced by the then-current theory of humorism. His theories dominated and influenced Western medical science for more than 1,300 years, Medical students continued to study Galens writings until well into the 19th century. Galen saw himself as both a physician and a philosopher, as he wrote in his treatise entitled That the Best Physician is Also a Philosopher. Many of his works have been preserved and/or translated from the original Greek, although many were destroyed, although there is some debate over the date of his death, he was no younger than seventy when he died. In medieval Europe, Galens writings on anatomy became the mainstay of the medieval university curriculum.
Some of Galens ideas were incorrect, he did not dissect a human body, Galens original Greek texts gained renewed prominence during the early modern period. In the 1530s, Belgian anatomist and physician Andreas Vesalius took on a project to many of Galens Greek texts into Latin. Vesaliuss most famous work, De humani corporis fabrica, was influenced by Galenic writing. Galens name Γαληνός, Galēnos comes from the adjective γαληνός, Galen describes his early life in On the affections of the mind. Galen describes his father as an amiable, good. His studies took in each of the philosophical systems of the time. His father had planned a career for Galen in philosophy or politics and took care to expose him to literary. However, Galen states that in around AD145 his father had a dream in which the god Asclepius appeared and commanded Nicon to send his son to study medicine, there he came under the influence of men like Aeschrion of Pergamon and Satyrus. Asclepiea functioned as spas or sanitoria to which the sick would come to seek the ministrations of the priesthood, romans frequented the temple at Pergamon in search of medical relief from illness and disease.
It was the haunt of notable people such as Claudius Charax the historian, Aelius Aristides the orator, Polemo the sophist, in 148, when he was 19, his father died, leaving him independently wealthy. In 157, aged 28, he returned to Pergamon as physician to the gladiators of the High Priest of Asia, one of the most influential and wealthy men in Asia
Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī, was a Persian polymath, alchemist and important figure in the history of medicine. An early proponent of experimental medicine, he became a successful doctor, as a teacher of medicine, he attracted students of all backgrounds and interests and was said to be compassionate and devoted to the service of his patients, whether rich or poor. He discovered numerous compounds and chemicals including alcohol and kerosene, through translation, his medical works and ideas became known among medieval European practitioners and profoundly influenced medical education in the Latin West. Some volumes of his work Al-Mansuri, namely On Surgery and A General Book on Therapy, Edward Granville Browne considers him as probably the greatest and most original of all the Muslim physicians, and one of the most prolific as an author. And has been described as a doctor, the father of pediatrics. Razi was born in the city of Ray situated on the Great Silk Road that for centuries facilitated trade and his nisba, Râzī, means from the city if Ray in Persian.
It is located on the slopes of the Alborz mountain range situated near Tehran, Iran. In his youth, Razi moved to Baghdad where he studied and practiced at the local bimaristan, later, he was invited back to Rey by Mansur ibn Ishaq, the governor of Rey, and became a bimaristans head. He dedicated two books on medicine to Mansur ibn Ishaq, The Spiritual Physic and Al-Mansūrī on Medicine, because of his newly acquired popularity as physician, Razi was invited to Baghdad where he assumed the responsibilities of a director in a new hospital named after its founder al-Muʿtaḍid. He spent the last years of his life in his native Rey suffering from glaucoma and his eye affliction started with cataracts and ended in total blindness. The cause of his blindness is uncertain, allegedly, he was approached by a physician offering an ointment to cure his blindness. The lectures of Razi attracted many students, as Ibn al-Nadim relates in Fihrist, Razi was considered a shaikh, an honorary title given to one entitled to teach and surrounded by several circles of students.
When someone raised a question, it was passed on to students of the first circle, if they did not know the answer, it was passed on to those of the second circle, when all students would fail to answer, Razi himself would consider the query. Razi was a person by nature, with a considerate attitude towards his patients. He was charitable to the poor, treated them without payment in any form, One former pupil from Tabaristan came to look after him, but as al-Biruni wrote, Razi rewarded him for his intentions and sent him back home, proclaiming that his final days were approaching. According to Biruni, Razi died in Rey in 925 sixty years of age, who considered Razi as his mentor, among the first penned a short biography of Razi including a bibliography of his numerous works. After his death, his fame spread beyond the Middle East to Medieval Europe, in an undated catalog of the library at Peterborough Abbey, most likely from the 14th century, Razi is listed as a part author of ten books on medicine.
Smallpox appears when blood boils and is infected, resulting in vapours being expelled, thus juvenile blood is being transformed into richer blood, having the color of mature wine
Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī, known as the Philosopher of the Arabs, was a Muslim Arab philosopher, mathematician and musician. Al-Kindi was a descendant of the Kinda tribe and he was born in Basra and educated in Baghdad. In the field of mathematics, al-Kindi played an important role in introducing Indian numerals to the Islamic and he was a pioneer in cryptanalysis and devised several new methods of breaking ciphers. Using his mathematical and medical expertise, he was able to develop a scale that would allow doctors to quantify the potency of their medication, the central theme underpinning al-Kindis philosophical writings is the compatibility between philosophy and other orthodox Islamic sciences, particularly theology. And many of his works deal with subjects that theology had an immediate interest in and these include the nature of God, the soul and prophetic knowledge. Al-Kindi was born in Kufa to a family of the Kinda tribe, descended from the chieftain al-Ashath ibn Qays.
His father Ishaq was the governor of Kufa, and al-Kindi received his education there. He went to complete his studies in Baghdad, where he was patronized by the Abbasid caliphs al-Mamun and he was well known for his beautiful calligraphy, and at one point was employed as a calligrapher by al-Mutawakkil. When al-Mamun died, his brother, al-Mutasim became Caliph, al-Kindis position would be enhanced under al-Mutasim, who appointed him as a tutor to his son. But on the accession of al-Wathiq, and especially of al-Mutawakkil, henry Corbin, an authority on Islamic studies, says that in 873, al-Kindi died a lonely man, in Baghdad during the reign of al-Mutamid. After his death, al-Kindis philosophical works quickly fell into obscurity and many of them were lost even to Islamic scholars, felix Klein-Franke suggests a number of reasons for this, aside from the militant orthodoxy of al-Mutawakkil, the Mongols destroyed countless libraries during their invasion. Al-Kindi was a master of different areas of thought and was held to be one of the greatest Islamic philosophers of his time.
The Italian Renaissance scholar Geralomo Cardano considered him one of the twelve greatest minds of the Middle Ages, according to Ibn al-Nadim, al-Kindi wrote at least two hundred and sixty books, contributing heavily to geometry and philosophy, and physics. His influence in the fields of physics, medicine and music were far-reaching and his greatest contribution to the development of Islamic philosophy was his efforts to make Greek thought both accessible and acceptable to a Muslim audience. Al-Kindi carried out this mission from the House of Wisdom, an institute of translation and learning patronized by the Abbasid Caliphs, in Baghdad. In his writings, one of al-Kindis central concerns was to demonstrate the compatibility between philosophy and natural theology on the one hand, and revealed or speculative theology on the other. Despite this, he did make clear that he believed revelation was a source of knowledge to reason because it guaranteed matters of faith that reason could not uncover.
This was an important factor in the introduction and popularization of Greek philosophy in the Muslim intellectual world
Ali ibn Ridwan
Abul Hassan Ali ibn Ridwan Al-Misri was an Arab of Egyptian origin who was a physician and astronomer, born in Giza. He was a commentator on ancient Greek medicine, and in particular on Galen, however, he is better known for providing the most detailed description of the supernova now known as SN1006, the brightest stellar event in recorded history, which he observed in the year 1006. This was written in a commentary on Ptolemys work Tetrabiblos and he was cited by European authors as Haly, or Haly Abenrudian. According to Alistair Cameron Crombie he contributed to the theory of induction and he engaged in a celebrated polemic against another physician, Ibn Butlan of Baghdad. Ibn Ridwan argues that air was fundamental to the health of a population and he was so well known for his skill in medicine that he became president physicians in Egypt. He died in Egypt in 1039, history of Islamic Science 2001 Columbia dissertation by Jennifer Ann Seymore The Life of Ibn Ridwan and his commentary of Ptolemys Tetrabiblos, not open link James H.
Holden. Ali ibn Ridwan, On the Prevention of Bodily Ills in Egypt, archived from the original on 7 February 2009
Medicine in the medieval Islamic world
Islamic medicine preserved and developed the medical knowledge of classical antiquity. During the post-classical era, Islamic medicine was the most advanced in the world, integrating concepts of the ancient Greek, many aspects of their writings are still worth reading even today, and their memory is held in high respect by the physicians of today. Medicine was a part of medieval Islamic culture. The works of ancient Greek and Roman physicians Hippocrates, ophthalmology has been described as the most successful branch of medicine researched at the time, with the works of Ibn Al-Haitham remaining an authority in the field until early modern times. Early on, the study and practice of medicine was understood as an act of piety, founded on the principles of Imaan and Tawakkul. Muhammads opinions on issues, and habits with regard to leading a healthy life, were collected early on. Anas writes about two physicians who had treated him by cauterization and mentions that the wanted to avoid this treatment and had asked for alternative treatments.
Later on, there are reports of the caliph ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān fixing his teeth with a made of gold. He mentions that the habit of cleaning ones teeth with a wooden toothpick dates back to pre-islamic times. The Prophetic medicine was mentioned by the classical authors of Islamic medicine. In his Kitab as-Ṣaidana from the 10. /11, century, Al-Biruni refers to collected poems and other works dealing with, and commenting on, the materia medica of the old Arabs. The most famous physician was Al-Ḥariṯ ben-Kalada aṯ-Ṯaqafī, who lived at the time as the prophet. He is supposed to have been in touch with the Academy of Gondishapur and he reportedly had a conversation once with Khosrow I Anushirvan about medical topics. The translation of the capital of the emerging Islamic world to Damascus may have facilitated this contact, the names of two Christian physicians are known, Ibn Aṯāl worked at the court of Muawiyah I, the founder of the Umayyad dynasty. The caliph abused his knowledge in order to get rid of some of his enemies by way of poisoning, Abu l-Ḥakam, who was responsible for the preparation of drugs, was employed by Muawiah.
His son and great-grandson were serving the Umayyad and these sources testify to the fact that the physicians of the emerging islamic society were familiar with the classical medical traditions already at the times of the Umayyads. The medical knowledge likely arrived from Alexandria, and was transferred by Syrian scholars, or translators. Very few sources provide information about how the expanding Islamic society received any medical knowledge, a physician called Abdalmalik ben Abgar al-Kinānī from Kufa in Iraq is supposed to have worked at the medical school of Alexandria before he joined ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīzs court
Qusta ibn Luqa
Qusta ibn Luqa was a Syrian Melkite physician and translator. Travelling to parts of the Byzantine Empire, he brought back Greek texts, Qusta ibn Luqa al-Baalbakki, i. e. from Baalbek or Heliopolis, Lebanon, a Melkite Christian, was born in 820 and flourished in Baghdad. He was a philosopher, physician and astronomer and he died in Armenia in A. D.912. He wrote commentaries on Euclid and a treatise on the Armillary sphere and he was a prominent figure in the Graeco-Arabic translation movement that reached its peak in the 9th century. At the request of wealthy and influential commissioners, Qusta translated Greek works on astronomy, mechanics and he produced works of his own, more than sixty treatises are attributed to him. He wrote mainly on subjects, but on mathematics. Only a small part of his production has so far been edited and his original works, many listed in the Fihrist of Ibn al-Nadim, dealt with contemporary science, medicine and philosophy. This translation was made by Joannes Hispalensis and he wrote a treatise on Nabidh.
His Medical Regime for the Pilgrims to Mecca, The Risālā Fī Tadbīr Safar Al-ḥa is available in translation, of him Ibn al-Nadim says, He is an excellent translator, he knew well Greek and Arabic, he translated texts and corrected many translations. Qusta was with Hunayn Ibn Ishaq the author who best served Greek culture in the Arab civilization. He was involved, with his fellow-Christian Hunayn ibn Ishaq, in an exchange with the Muslim astronomer, Abu Isa Yahya ibn al-Munajjim. Both refused, and provided their reasons for rejecting al-Munajjims Islamic faith, risalah fī Auja Al Niqris by Qusta Ibn Luqa. Edited with translation and commentary by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences, rislah fī al Nabidh (Arabic translation of Qusta ibn Luqa by Rufus. Edited with translation and commentary by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences, Aligarh,2007. Rîsâlah-i Nabîdh of Qustâ bin Lûqâ by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Supplement to Studies in the History of Medicine and Science, Jamia Hamdard, Vol. IX, pp. 185–201.
Kitāb fī al‐ʿamal bi‐ʾl–kura al‐nujūmiyya, which contains 65 chapters and was disseminated through at least two Arabic recensions as well as Latin, Hebrew and Italian translations. The Latin translation is edited by R. Lorch - J. Martínez, Qusta ben Lucae De sphera uolubili, in Suhayl and it is identical to Kitāb fī al‐ʿamal bi‐ʾl-kura al‐nujūmiyya mentioned above. Translation and Commentary by Jan P. Hogendijk in Suhayl, vol.8 He was named by the poet William Butler Yeats as a source for the ideas in the philosophical treatise
Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham, known by the Latinization Alhazen or Alhacen, was an Arab Muslim scientist, mathematician and philosopher. Ibn al-Haytham made significant contributions to the principles of optics, mathematics and he was the first to explain that vision occurs when light bounces on an object and is directed to ones eyes. He spent most of his close to the court of the Fatimid Caliphate in Cairo and earned his living authoring various treatises. In medieval Europe, Ibn al-Haytham was honored as Ptolemaeus Secundus or simply called The Physicist and he is sometimes called al-Baṣrī after his birthplace Basra in Iraq, or al-Miṣrī. Ibn al-Haytham was born c.965 in Basra, which was part of the Buyid emirate. Alhazen arrived in Cairo under the reign of Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim, Alhazen continued to live in Cairo, in the neighborhood of the famous University of al-Azhar, until his death in 1040. Legend has it that after deciding the scheme was impractical and fearing the caliphs anger, during this time, he wrote his influential Book of Optics and continued to write further treatises on astronomy, number theory and natural philosophy.
Among his students were Sorkhab, a Persian from Semnan who was his student for three years, and Abu al-Wafa Mubashir ibn Fatek, an Egyptian prince who learned mathematics from Alhazen. Alhazen made significant contributions to optics, number theory, astronomy, Alhazens work on optics is credited with contributing a new emphasis on experiment. In al-Andalus, it was used by the prince of the Banu Hud dynasty of Zaragossa and author of an important mathematical text. A Latin translation of the Kitab al-Manazir was made probably in the twelfth or early thirteenth century. His research in catoptrics centred on spherical and parabolic mirrors and spherical aberration and he made the observation that the ratio between the angle of incidence and refraction does not remain constant, and investigated the magnifying power of a lens. His work on catoptrics contains the known as Alhazens problem. Alhazen wrote as many as 200 books, although only 55 have survived, some of his treatises on optics survived only through Latin translation.
During the Middle Ages his books on cosmology were translated into Latin, the crater Alhazen on the Moon is named in his honour, as was the asteroid 59239 Alhazen. In honour of Alhazen, the Aga Khan University named its Ophthalmology endowed chair as The Ibn-e-Haitham Associate Professor, Alhazen, by the name Ibn al-Haytham, is featured on the obverse of the Iraqi 10, 000-dinar banknote issued in 2003, and on 10-dinar notes from 1982. The 2015 International Year of Light celebrated the 1000th anniversary of the works on optics by Ibn Al-Haytham, Alhazens most famous work is his seven-volume treatise on optics Kitab al-Manazir, written from 1011 to 1021. Optics was translated into Latin by a scholar at the end of the 12th century or the beginning of the 13th century
Isaac Israeli ben Solomon
Isaac Israeli ben Solomon, known as Isaac Israeli the Elder and Isaac Judaeus, was one of the foremost Arab Jewish physicians and philosophers of his time. He is regarded as the father of medieval Jewish Neoplatonism, little is known of Israelis background and career. Israeli was born in around 832 into a Jewish family in Egypt and he lived the first half of his life in Cairo where he gained a reputation as a skillful oculist. He corresponded with Saadya ben Joseph al-Fayyumi, one of the most influential figures in the medieval Judaism, in about 904 Israeli was nominated court physician to the last Aghlabid prince, Ziyadat Allah III. Between the years 905-907 he travelled to Kairouan where he studied medicine under Ishak ibn Amran al-Baghdadi. Later he served as a doctor to the founder of the Fatimid Dynasty of North Africa, Ubaid Allah al-Mahdi, who reigned from 910-934. The caliph enjoyed the company of his Jewish physician on account of the latters wit, in Kairouan his fame became widely extended, the works which he wrote in Arabic being considered by the Muslim physicians as more valuable than gems.
His lectures attracted a number of pupils, of whom the two most prominent were Abu Jafar ibn al-Jazzar, a Muslim, and Dunash ibn Tamim. Israeli studied natural history, mathematics and other scientific topics, biographers state that he never married or fathered children. He died at Kairouan, Tunisia, in 932 and this date is given by most Arabic authorities who give his date of birth as 832. But Abraham ben Hasdai, quoting the biographer Sanah ibn Said al-Kurtubi, Heinrich Grätz, while stating that Isaac Israeli lived more than one hundred years, gives the dates 845-940, and Steinschneider places his death in 950. In this work he cites Israeli so extensively that a few nineteenth-century scholars misidentified the commentary as Israelis, Israelis medical treatises were studied for several centuries both in the original Arabic and in Latin translation. In the eleventh century, Constantine Africanus, a professor at the prestigious Salerno school of medicine, many medieval Arabic biographical chronicles of physicians list him and his works.
Israelis philosophical works exercised an influence on Christian and Jewish thinkers. In the twelfth century, a group of scholars in Toledo transmitted many Arabic works of science, one of the translators, Gerard of Cremona, rendered Israelis Book of Definitions and Book on the Elements into Latin. Isaac Israelis philosophical influence on Muslim authors is slight at best, although there are passages which correspond directly to Israelis writings, the author does not cite him by name. His influence extended to Moses Ibn Ezra who quotes Isaac Israeli without attribution in his treatise The Book of the Garden, explaining the meaning of Metaphor, the poet and philosopher Joseph Ibn Tzaddiq of Cordoba authored a work The Microcosm containing many ideas indebted to Israeli. As Neoplatonist philosophy waned, in addition to the Galenic medical tradition of which Israeli was a part and he was the first physician to write about tracheotomy in Arabic