Zubair Ali Zai
Hafiz Zubair Alizai was a preacher, Islamic scholar and former merchant marine from Pakistan. Zubair Alizai was from the Pashtun tribe of Alizai, itself a branch of the larger Durrani confederation tracing their descent back to Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the Durrani Empire. Zubair was born in 1957 near Hazro in the Attock District of Punjab. Zubair had three sons and four daughters, he was a polyglot. Zubair completed a bachelor's degree and on two master's degrees, one in Islamic studies in 1983 and another in the Arabic language in 1994 from the University of the Punjab in Lahore. Additionally, Alizai graduated for a fourth time from the Salafi University in Faisalabad. Here is an official link to his education. Zubair was, like his former teacher Rashidi, a bibliophile, having amassed a private library of some renown in Hazro, where he spent most of his time. Much of Zubair's work consists of editing and referencing ancient texts of prophetic tradition and evaluating them according to the Categories of Hadith.
Working with Dar us Salam, Ali zai has reviewed the Al-Kutub al-Sittah, considered canonical in Sunni Islam. Besides, he has authored many of his own books both in Urdu and Arabic, he has a book named as "Noor ul Enain fe Masalate Rafaul Yadain" which has list of all his works: check page 40 to page 47. Here is an official website link to see list of all his books both in Urdu and Arabic. List of his books: Anwaar ul Saheefah Fi Ahadees Zaheefa Min Sunnan e Arbaha Tohfatul Aqwiya Fi Tahqeeq Kitabul Zuhafa Tahqeeq Tafseer Ibne Kaseer Tahqeeq Masahil Muhammad Bin Usman Bin Abi Shaibah Tahqeeq wa Takhreej Juzz Ali Bin Muhammad Al-Humairi Tahqeeq wa Takhreej Kitabul Arbaheen Le ibne Taimiah Al-Etihaaf Al-Basim Fi Tahqeeq wa Takhreej Moata Imam Malik Riwayatu Ibnul Qasim Tahqeeq wa Takhreej Hisnul Muslim Alfathul Mubeen Fi Tahqeeq Tabqaat Al-Mudaliseen Musafaha wa Mohaniqa Ky Ahkaam wa Masahil Nabi Kareem SA Lail wa Nahaar Taufeeq Al-Bari Fi Tatbeeq Al-Quran wa Saheeh Al-Bukhari Masla Fatiha Khalful Imam Juzz Rafahul Yadain Fazael Sahaba Noorul Enain Fi Masalate Asbaate Rafahul Yadain Sahih Muslim of Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj.
Riyadh: Dar us Salam Publications, 2007. 1st Ed. 7 volumes. Jami' at-Tirmidhi of Muhammad ibn'Isa at-Tirmidhi. Riyadh: Dar us Salam Publications, 2007. 6 volumes. Al-Sunan al-Sughra of Al-Nasa'i. Riyadh: Dar us Salam Publications, 2008. 6 volumes. Sunan Abu Dawood of Abu Dawood. Riyadh: Dar us Salam Publications, 2008. 1st Ed. 5 volumes. Translated by Yasir Qadhi. ISBN 978-9960-500-11-9 Sunan ibn Majah of Ibn Majah. Riyadh: Dar us Salam Publications, 2007. 1st Ed. 5 volumes. ISBN 9960-9881-3-9
Persian literature comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures. It spans over two-and-a-half millennia, its sources have been within Greater Iran including present-day Iran, Afghanistan, the Caucasus, Turkey, regions of Central Asia and South Asia where the Persian language has been either the native or official language. For instance, one of best-loved Persian poets born in Balkh or Vakhsh, wrote in Persian and lived in Konya the capital of the Seljuks in Anatolia; the Ghaznavids conquered large territories in Central and South Asia and adopted Persian as their court language. There is thus Persian literature from Iran, Azerbaijan, the wider Caucasus, western parts of Pakistan, India and other parts of Central Asia. Not all Persian literature is written in Persian, as some consider works written by ethnic Persians in other languages, such as Greek and Arabic, to be included. At the same time, not all literature written in Persian is written by ethnic Persians or Iranians, as Turkic and Indic poets and writers have used the Persian language in the environment of Persianate cultures.
Described as one of the great literatures of humanity, including Goethe's assessment of it as one of the four main bodies of world literature, Persian literature has its roots in surviving works of Middle Persian and Old Persian, the latter of which date back as far as 522 BCE, the date of the earliest surviving Achaemenid inscription, the Behistun Inscription. The bulk of surviving Persian literature, comes from the times following the Arab conquest of Persia c. 650 CE. After the Abbasids came to power, the Iranians became the scribes and bureaucrats of the Arab empire and also its writers and poets; the New Persian language literature arose and flourished in Khorasan and Transoxiana because of political reasons, early Iranian dynasties such as the Tahirids and Samanids being based in Khorasan. Persian poets such as Ferdowsi, Sa'di, Attar, Nezami and Omar Khayyam are known in the West and have influenced the literature of many countries. Few literary works of Achaemenid Iran have survived, due to the destruction of the library at Persepolis.
Most of what remains consists of the royal inscriptions of Achaemenid kings Darius I and his son Xerxes. Many Zoroastrian writings were destroyed in the Islamic conquest of Iran in the 7th century; the Parsis who fled to India, took with them some of the books of the Zoroastrian canon, including some of the Avesta and ancient commentaries thereof. Some works of Sassanid geography and travel survived, albeit in Arabic translations. No single text devoted to literary criticism has survived from Pre-Islamic Iran. However, some essays in Pahlavi, such as "Ayin-e name nebeshtan" and "Bab-e edteda’I-ye", have been considered as literary criticism; some researchers have quoted the Sho'ubiyye as asserting that the Pre-Islamic Iranians had books on eloquence, such as'Karvand'. No trace remains of such books. There are some indications that some among the Persian elite were familiar with Greek rhetoric and literary criticism. While overshadowed by Arabic during the Umayyad and early Abbasid caliphates, New Persian soon became a literary language again of the Central Asian and West Asian lands.
The rebirth of the language in its new form is accredited to Ferdowsi, Daqiqi and their generation, as they used Pre-Islamic nationalism as a conduit to revive the language and customs of ancient Iran. So strong is the Persian inclination to versifying everyday expressions that one can encounter poetry in every classical work, whether from Persian literature, science, or metaphysics. In short, the ability to write in verse form was a pre-requisite for any scholar. For example half of Avicenna's medical writings are in verse. Works of the early era of Persian poetry are characterized by strong court patronage, an extravagance of panegyrics, what is known as سبک فاخر "exalted in style"; the tradition of royal patronage began under the Sassanid era and carried over through the Abbasid and Samanid courts into every major Iranian dynasty. The Qasida was the most famous form of panegyric used, though quatrains such as those in Omar Khayyam's Ruba'iyyat are widely popular. Khorasani style, whose followers were associated with Greater Khorasan, is characterized by its supercilious diction, dignified tone, literate language.
The chief representatives of this lyricism are Asjadi, Farrukhi Sistani and Manuchehri. Panegyric masters such as Rudaki were known for their love of nature, their verse abounding with evocative descriptions. Through these courts and system of patronage emerged the epic style of poetry, with Ferdowsi's Shahnama at the apex. By glorifying the Iranian historical past in heroic and elevated verses, he and other notables such as Daqiqi and Asadi Tusi presented the "Ajam" with a source of pride and inspiration that has helped preserve a sense of identity for the Iranian People over the ages. Ferdowsi set a model to be followed by a host of other poets on; the 13th century marks the ascendancy of lyric poetry with the consequent development of the ghazal into a major verse form, as well as the rise of mystical and Sufi poetry. This style is called Araqi style, (western provinces of Iran were known as The Persian Iraq and is known by its emotional lyric q
Damascus is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic. It is colloquially known in Syria as aš-Šām and titled the "City of Jasmine". In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major cultural center of the Levant and the Arab world; the city has an estimated population of 1,711,000 as of 2009. Located in south-western Syria, Damascus is the center of a large metropolitan area of 2.7 million people. Geographically embedded on the eastern foothills of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range 80 kilometres inland from the eastern shore of the Mediterranean on a plateau 680 metres above sea level, Damascus experiences a semi-arid climate because of the rain shadow effect; the Barada River flows through Damascus. First settled in the second millennium BC, it was chosen as the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750. After the victory of the Abbasid dynasty, the seat of Islamic power was moved to Baghdad. Damascus saw a political decline throughout the Abbasid era, only to regain significant importance in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods.
Today, it is all of the government ministries. As of 2018, Damascus has witnessed repeated conflicts and has been considered by Mercer as one of the most unfavorable places to live; the name of Damascus first appeared in the geographical list of Thutmose III as / T-m-ś-q in the 15th century BC. The etymology of the ancient name "T-m-ś-q" is uncertain, it is attested as Imerišú in Akkadian, T-m-ś-q in Egyptian, Dammaśq in Old Aramaic and Dammeśeq in Biblical Hebrew. A number of Akkadian spellings are found in the Amarna letters, from the 14th century BC: Dimasqa, Dimàsqì, Dimàsqa. Aramaic spellings of the name include an intrusive resh influenced by the root dr, meaning "dwelling". Thus, the English and Latin name of the city is "Damascus", imported from originated from "the Qumranic Darmeśeq, Darmsûq in Syriac", meaning "a well-watered land". In Arabic, the city is called Dimašqu š-Šāmi, although this is shortened to either Dimašq or aš-Šām by the citizens of Damascus, of Syria and other Arab neighbors and Turkey.
Aš-Šām is an Arabic term for "Levant" and for "Syria". Baalshamin or Ba'al Šamem, was a Semitic sky-god in Canaan/Phoenicia and ancient Palmyra. Hence, Sham refers to. Damascus was built in a strategic site on a plateau 680 m above sea level and about 80 km inland from the Mediterranean, sheltered by the Anti-Lebanon mountains, supplied with water by the Barada River, at a crossroads between trade routes: the north-south route connecting Egypt with Asia Minor, the east-west cross-desert route connecting Lebanon with the Euphrates river valley; the Anti-Lebanon mountains mark the border between Lebanon. The range has peaks of over 10,000 ft. and blocks precipitation from the Mediterranean sea, so that the region of Damascus is sometimes subject to droughts. However, in ancient times this was mitigated by the Barada River, which originates from mountain streams fed by melting snow. Damascus is surrounded by the Ghouta, irrigated farmland where many vegetables and fruits have been farmed since ancient times.
Maps of Roman Syria indicate that the Barada river emptied into a lake of some size east of Damascus. Today it is called Bahira Atayba, the hesitant lake, because in years of severe drought it does not exist; the modern city has an area of 105 km2, out of which 77 km2 is urban, while Jabal Qasioun occupies the rest. The old city of Damascus, enclosed by the city walls, lies on the south bank of the river Barada, dry. To the south-east and north-east it is surrounded by suburban areas whose history stretches back to the Middle Ages: Midan in the south-west and Imara in the north and north-west; these neighborhoods arose on roads leading out of the city, near the tombs of religious figures. In the 19th century outlying villages developed on the slopes of Jabal Qasioun, overlooking the city the site of the al-Salihiyah neighborhood centered on the important shrine of medieval Andalusian Sheikh and philosopher Ibn Arabi; these new neighborhoods were settled by Kurdish soldiery and Muslim refugees from the European regions of the Ottoman Empire which had fallen under Christian rule.
Thus they were known as al-Muhajirin. They lay 2–3 km north of the old city. From the late 19th century on, a modern administrative and commercial center began to spring up to the west of the old city, around the Barada, centered on the area known as al-Marjeh or the meadow. Al-Marjeh soon became the name of what was the central square of modern Damascus, with the city hall in it; the courts of justice, post office and railway station stood on higher ground to the south. A Europeanized residential quarter soon began to be built on the road leading between al-Marjeh and al-Salihiyah; the commercial and administrative center of the new city shifted northwards towards this area. In the 20th century, newer suburbs developed north of the Barada, to some extent to the south, invading the Ghouta oasis. In 1956–1957 the new neighborhood of Yarmouk bec
Shiraz is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province. At the 2016 census, the population of the city was 1,869,001 and its built-up area with "Shahr-e Jadid-e Sadra" was home to 1,565,572 inhabitants. Shiraz is located in the southwest of Iran on the "Rudkhaneye Khoshk" seasonal river, it has been a regional trade center for over a thousand years. Shiraz is one of the oldest cities of ancient Persia; the earliest reference to the city, as Tiraziš, is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BC. In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters, due to the encouragement of its ruler and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists, it was the capital of Persia during the Zand dynasty from 1750 until 1800. Two famous poets of Iran and Saadi, are from Shiraz, whose tombs are on the north side of the current city boundaries. Shiraz is known as the city of poets, literature and flowers, it is considered by many Iranians to be the city of gardens, due to the many gardens and fruit trees that can be seen in the city, for example Eram Garden.
Shiraz has had major Christian communities. The crafts of Shiraz consist of inlaid mosaic work of triangular design. In Shiraz industries such as cement production, fertilizers, textile products, wood products and rugs dominate. Shirāz has a major oil refinery and is a major center for Iran's electronic industries: 53% of Iran's electronic investment has been centered in Shiraz. Shiraz is home to Iran's first solar power plant; the city's first wind turbine has been installed above Babakuhi mountain near the city. The earliest reference to the city is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BCE, found in June 1970, while digging to make a kiln for a brick factory in the south western corner of the city; the tablets written in ancient Elamite name a city called Tiraziš. Phonetically, this is interpreted as /tiračis/ or /ćiračis/; this name became Old Persian /širājiš/. The name Shiraz appears on clay sealings found at a 2nd-century CE Sassanid ruin, east of the city. By some of the native writers, the name Shiraz has derived from a son of Tahmuras, the third Shāh of the world according to Ferdowsi's Shāhnāma.
Shiraz is most more than 6,000 years old. The name Shiraz is mentioned in cuneiform inscriptions from around 2000 BC found in southwestern corner of the city. According to some Iranian mythological traditions, it was erected by Tahmuras Diveband, afterward fell to ruin. In the Achaemenian era, Shiraz was on the way from Susa to Pasargadae. In Ferdowsi's Shāhnāma it has been said that Artabanus V, the Parthian Emperor of Iran, expanded his control over Shiraz. Ghasre Abu-Nasr, from Parthian era is situated in this area. During the Sassanid era, Shiraz was in between the way, connecting Bishapur and Gur to Istakhr. Shiraz was an important regional center under the Sassanians; the city became a provincial capital in 693, after Arab invaders conquered Istakhr, the nearby Sassanian capital. As Istakhr fell into decline, Shiraz grew in importance under several local dynasties; the Buwayhid empire made it their capital, building mosques, palaces, a library and an extended city wall. It was ruled by the Seljuks and the Khwarezmians before the Mongol conquest.
The city was spared destruction by the invading Mongols, when its local ruler offered tributes and submission to Genghis Khan. Shiraz was again spared by Tamerlane, when in 1382 the local monarch, Shah Shoja agreed to submit to the invader. In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters, thanks to the encouragement of its ruler and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists. For this reason the city was named by classical geographers Dar al - ` the House of Knowledge. Among the Iranian poets and philosophers born in Shiraz were the poets Sa'di and Hafiz, the mystic Ruzbehan, the philosopher Mulla Sadra, thus Shiraz has been nicknamed "The Athens of Iran". As early as the 11th century, several hundred thousand people inhabited Shiraz. In the 14th century Shiraz had sixty thousand inhabitants. During the 16th century it had a population of 200,000 people, which by the mid-18th century had decreased to only 55,000. In 1504, Shiraz was captured by the forces of the founder of the Safavid dynasty.
Throughout the Safavid empire Shiraz remained a provincial capital and Emam Qoli Khan, the governor of Fars under Shah Abbas I, constructed many palaces and ornate buildings in the same style as those built during the same period in Isfahan, the capital of the Empire. After the fall of the Safavids, Shiraz suffered a period of decline, worsened by the raids of the Afghans and the rebellion of its governor against Nader Shah; the city was besieged for many months and sacked. At the time of Nader Shah's murder in 1747, most of the historical buildings of the city were damaged or ruined, its population fell to 50,000, one-quarter of that during the 16th century. Shiraz soon returned to prosperity under the rule of Karim Khan Zand, who made it his capital in 1762. Employing more than 12,000 workers, he constructed a royal district with a fortress, many administrative buildings, a mosque and one of the finest covered bazaars in Iran, he had a moat built around the city
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, followed by nearly 90% of the world's Muslims. Its name comes from the word sunnah; the differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims arose from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions. According to Sunni traditions, Muhammad did not designate a successor and the Muslim community acted according to his sunnah in electing his father-in-law Abu Bakr as the first caliph; this contrasts with the Shia view, which holds that Muhammad announced at the event of Ghadir Khumm his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. Political tensions between Sunnis and Shias continued with varying intensity throughout Islamic history and they have been exacerbated in recent times by ethnic conflicts and the rise of Wahhabism; as of 2009, Sunni Muslims constituted 87–90% of the world's Muslim population. Sunni Islam is the world's largest religious denomination, followed by Catholicism.
Its adherents are referred to in Arabic as ahl as-sunnah wa ahl as-sunnah for short. In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called Sunnism, while adherents are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis and Ahlus Sunnah. Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam". However, other scholars of Islam, such as John Burton believe that there is no such thing as "orthodox Islam"; the Quran, together with hadith and binding juristic consensus form the basis of all traditional jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. Sharia rulings are derived from these basic sources, in conjunction with analogical reasoning, consideration of public welfare and juristic discretion, using the principles of jurisprudence developed by the traditional legal schools. In matters of creed, the Sunni tradition upholds the six pillars of iman and comprises the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools of rationalistic theology as well as the textualist school known as traditionalist theology. Sunnī commonly referred to as Sunnīism, is a term derived from sunnah meaning "habit", "usual practice", "custom", "tradition".
The Muslim use of this term refers to living habits of the prophet Muhammad. In Arabic, this branch of Islam is referred to as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah, "the people of the sunnah and the community", shortened to ahl as-sunnah. One common mistake is to assume that Sunni Islam represents a normative Islam that emerged during the period after Muhammad's death, that Sufism and Shi'ism developed out of Sunni Islam; this perception is due to the reliance on ideological sources that have been accepted as reliable historical works, because the vast majority of the population is Sunni. Both Sunnism and Shiaism are the end products of several centuries of competition between ideologies. Both sects used each other to further cement their own doctrines; the first four caliphs are known among Sunnis as the Rashidun or "Rightly-Guided Ones". Sunni recognition includes the aforementioned Abu Bakr as the first, Umar as the second, Uthman as the third, Ali as the fourth. Sunnis recognised different rulers as the caliph, though they did not include anyone in the list of the rightly guided ones or Rashidun after the murder of Ali, until the caliphate was constitutionally abolished in Turkey on 3 March 1924.
The seeds of metamorphosis of caliphate into kingship were sown, as the second caliph Umar had feared, as early as the regime of the third caliph Uthman, who appointed many of his kinsmen from his clan Banu Umayya, including Marwan and Walid bin Uqba on important government positions, becoming the main cause of turmoil resulting in his murder and the ensuing infighting during Ali's time and rebellion by Muawiya, another of Uthman's kinsman. This resulted in the establishment of firm dynastic rule of Banu Umayya after Husain, the younger son of Ali from Fatima, was killed at the Battle of Karbala; the rise to power of Banu Umayya, the Meccan tribe of elites who had vehemently opposed Muhammad under the leadership of Abu Sufyan, Muawiya's father, right up to the conquest of Mecca by Muhammad, as his successors with the accession of Uthman to caliphate, replaced the egalitarian society formed as a result of Muhammad's revolution to a society stratified between haves and have-nots as a result of nepotism, in the words of El-Hibri through "the use of religious charity revenues to subsidise family interests, which Uthman justified as "al-sila"."
Ali, during his rather brief regime after Uthman maintained austere life style and tried hard to bring back the egalitarian system and supremacy of law over the ruler idealised in Muhammad's message, but faced continued opposition, wars one after another by Aisha-Talhah-Zubair, by Muawiya and by the Kharjites. After he was murdered his followers elected Hasan ibn Ali his elder son from Fatima to succeed him. Hasan, shortly afterwards signed a treaty with Muawiaya relinquishing power in favour of the latter, with a condition inter alia, that one of the two who will outlive the other will be the caliph, that this caliph will not appoint a successor but will leave the matter of selection of the caliph to the public. Subsequently, Hasan was poisoned to death and Muawiya enjoyed unchallenged power. Not honouring his treaty with Hasan he however nominated his son Yazid to succeed him. Upon Muawiya's death, Yazid asked Husain the younger brother of Hasan, Ali's son and Muh
Ignác Goldziher credited as Ignaz Goldziher, was a Hungarian scholar of Islam. Along with the German Theodor Nöldeke and the Dutch Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje, he is considered the founder of modern Islamic studies in Europe. Born in Székesfehérvár of Jewish heritage, he was educated at the universities of Budapest, Berlin and Leiden with the support of József Eötvös, Hungarian minister of culture, he became privatdozent at Budapest in 1872. In the next year, under the auspices of the Hungarian government, he began a journey through Syria and Egypt, took the opportunity of attending lectures of Muslim sheiks in the mosque of al-Azhar in Cairo. Goldziher kept a personal record of travel records and daily records; this journal was published in German as Tagebuch. The following quotation from Goldziher's published journal provides insight into his feelings about Islam. Ich lebte mich denn auch während dieser Wochen so sehr in den mohammedanischen Geist ein, dass ich zuletzt innerlich überzeugt wurde, ich sei selbst Mohammedaner und klug herausfand, dass dies die einzige Religion sei, welche selbst in ihrer doktrinär-offiziellen Gestaltung und Formulirung philosophische Köpfe befriedigen könne.
Mein Ideal war es, das Judenthum zu ähnlicher rationeller Stufe zu erheben. Der Islam, so lehrte mich meine Erfahrung, sei die einzige Religion, in welcher Aberglaube und heidnische Rudimente nicht durch den Rationalismus, sondern durch die orthodoxe Lehre verpönt werden. I.e. "In those weeks, I entered into the spirit of Islam to such an extent that I became inwardly convinced that I myself was a Muslim, judiciously discovered that this was the only religion which in its doctrinal and official formulation, can satisfy philosophic minds. My ideal was to elevate Judaism to a similar rational level. Islam, as my experience taught me, is the only religion, in which superstitious and heathen ingredients are not frowned upon by rationalism, but by orthodox doctrine."Sander Gilman, in commenting on this passage, writes that,'the Islam he discovered becomes the model for a new spirit of Judaism at the close of the nineteenth century.’ In Cairo, Goldziher prayed as a Muslim: "In the midst of the thousands of the pious, I rubbed my forehead against the floor of the mosque.
Never in my life was I more devout, more devout, than on that exalted Friday."Despite his love for Islam, Goldziher remained a devout Jew all his life. This bond to the Mosaic faith was unusual for a man seeking an academic career in Europe in the late 19th century; this fact is significant in understanding his work. He saw Islam through the eyes of someone who refused to assimilate into contemporary European culture. In fact, despite his fondness for Islam, he had little affection, if not outright scorn, for European Christianity; as a convert to Christianity he would have received a university appointment as full professor but he refused. Goldziher died in Budapest. In 1890 he published Muhammedanische Studien in which he showed how Hadith reflected the legal and doctrinal controversies of the two centuries after the death of Muhammad rather than the words of Mohamed himself, he was a strong believer in the view that Islamic law owes its origins to Roman law but in the opinion of Patricia Crone his arguments here are "uncharacteristically weak".
Goldziher was denied a teaching post at Budapest University until he was 44. He represented the Hungarian government and the Academy of Sciences at numerous international congresses, he received the large gold medal at the Stockholm Oriental Congress in 1889. He became a member of several Hungarian and other learned societies, was appointed secretary of the Jewish community in Budapest, he was made Litt. D. of Cambridge and LL. D. of Aberdeen. Ignác Goldziher, Abū Ḥātim Sahl ibn Muḥammad Sijistānī. Kitāb al-muʻammirīn. Volumes 1-2 of Abhandlungen zur arabischen Philologie. Buchhandlung und Druckerei vormals E. J. Brill. Retrieved 2011-07-06. Tagebuch, ed. Alexander Scheiber. Leiden: Brill, 1978. ISBN 90-04-05449-9 Zur Literaturgeschichte der Shi'a Beiträge zur Geschichte der Sprachgelehrsamkeit bei den Arabern. Vienna, 1871–1873. Der Mythos bei den Hebräern und seine geschichtliche Entwickelung. Leipzig, 1876. R Martineau, London, 1877. Muhammedanische Studien. Halle, 1889–1890, 2 vols. ISBN 0-202-30778-6 English translation: Muslim Studies, 2 vols.
Albany, 1977. Abhandlungen zur arabischen Philologie, 2 vols. Leiden, 1896–1899. Buch vom Wesen der Seele. Berlin 1907. Vorlesungen über den Islam. 1910. English translation: Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law, trans. Andras and Ruth Hamori. Princeton University Press, 1981. Goldziher's eminence in the sphere of scholarship was due to his careful investigation of pre-Islamic and Islamic law, tradition and poetry, in connection with which he published a large number of treatises, review articles and essays contributed to the collections of the Hungarian Academy. Most of his scholarly works are still considered relevant, his works have taken on a renewed importance in recent times owing to Edward Said's critical attacks in his book Orientalism. Said himself was to reprove his work's defect for failing to pay sufficient attention to scholars like Goldziher. Of five major German orientalists, he remarked that four of them, despite their profound erudition, were hostile to Islam. Goldziher's work was an exception in that he appreciated'Islam's tolerance towards other religions', though this was undermined by his dislike of anthropomorphism in Mohammad's thought, what Said calls'Islam's too exterior theology and jurisprudence'.
In his numerous books and articles, he sought to find the o
Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʿīd ibn Ḥazm (Arabic: أبو محمد علي بن احمد بن سعيد بن حزم. He was a leading proponent and codifier of the Zahiri school of Islamic thought, produced a reported 400 works of which only 40 still survive; the Encyclopaedia of Islam refers to him as having been one of the leading thinkers of the Muslim world, he is acknowledged as the father of comparative religious studies. Ibn Hazm's grandfather Sa'id and his father Ahmad both held high advisory positions in the court of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham II. Scholars believe. Having been raised in a politically and economically important family, Ibn Hazm mingled with people of power and influence all his life, he had access to levels of government by his adolescence that most people at the time would never know throughout their whole lives. These experiences with government and politicians caused Ibn Hazm to develop a reluctant and sad skepticism about human nature and the capacity of human beings to deceive and oppress.
His reaction was to believe that there was no refuge or truth except with an infallible God, that with men resided only corruption. Ibn Hazm was thus known for his cynicism regarding humanity and a strong respect for the principles of language and sincerity in communication. Ibn Hazm lived among the circle of the ruling hierarchy of the Umayyad government, his experiences produced an eager and observant attitude, he gained an excellent education at Córdoba. His talent gained him fame and allowed him to enter service under the Caliphs of Córdoba and Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, Grand Vizier to the last of the Umayyad caliphs, Hisham III, he was a colleague of Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo. After the death of the grand vizier al-Muzaffar in 1008, the Umayyad Caliphate of Iberia became embroiled in a civil war that lasted until 1031 resulting in its collapse of the central authority of Córdoba and the emergence of many smaller incompetent states called Taifas. Ibn Hazm's father died in 1012. Ibn Hazm was imprisoned as a suspected supporter of the Umayyads.
By 1031, Ibn Hazm retreated to his family estate at Manta Lisham and had begun to express his activist convictions in the literary form. He was a leading proponent and codifier of the Zahiri school of Islamic thought, produced a reported 400 works of which only 40 still survive. Due to his political and religious opponents gaining power after the collapse of the caliphate, he accepted an offer of asylum from the governor of the island of Majorca in the 1040s, he continued to propagate the Zahiri school there before returning to Andalusia. Contemporaries coined the saying, "the tongue of Ibn Hazm was a twin brother to the sword of al-Hajjaj", he became so quoted that the phrase "Ibn Hazm said" became proverbial; as an Athari, he opposed the allegorical interpretation of religious texts, preferring instead a grammatical and syntactical interpretation of the Qur'an. He granted cognitive legitimacy only to revelation and sensation and considered deductive reasoning insufficient in legal and religious matters.
He rejected practices common among more orthodox schools such as juristic discretion. While a follower of the Maliki school of law within Sunni Islam, he switched to the Shafi'i school and, around the age of thirty settled with the Zahiri school, he is the most well-known adherent to the school, the main source of extant works on Zahirite law. He studied the school's precepts and methods under Abu al-Khiyar al-Dawudi al-Zahiri of Santarém Municipality, was promoted to the level of a teacher of the school himself. In 1029, the two of them were expelled from the main mosque of Cordoba for their activities. Ibn Hazm has been described as a prolific author in Muslim history, surpassed by the likes of Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari and as-Suyuti in terms of works authored. While much of Ibn Hazm's work was burned in Seville by an alliance of his sectarian and political opponents, a number of his books have survived, his writing style has been described as repetitive, Ibn Hazm's way of emphasizing a point he felt was important to a given discussion.
His method of dialogue was harsh, he appeared to have little fear or respect for those who disagreed with him, be they fellow academics or government officials. In addition to works on law and theology, Ibn Hazm wrote more than ten books on medicine, he addressed the issue of integrating the sciences into a standard curriculum for education. The entire curriculum he suggests spans five years, starting with language and exegesis of the Qur'an, includes the life and physical sciences and culminates with a sort of rational theology. In his Fisal, a treatise on Islamic science and theology, Ibn Hazm stressed the importance of sense perception as he realized that human reason can be flawed. While he recognized the importance of reason, since the Qur'an itself invites reflection, he argued that this reflection refers to revelation and sense data, since the principles of reason are themselves derived from sense experience, he concludes that reason is not a faculty for independent research or discovery, but that sense perception should be used in its place, an idea that forms the basis of empiricism.
Ibn Hazm's most influential work in the Arabic in modern times (selections have been