Ibn Jubayr, written Ibn Jubair, Ibn Jobair, and Ibn Djubayr, was a geographer and poet from al-Andalus. His travel chronicle describes the pilgrimage he made to Mecca from 1183 to 1185 and his chronicle describes Saladins domains in Egypt and the Levant which he passed through on his way to Mecca. Ibn Jubayr was born in 1145 A. D. in Valencia and he was a descendant of Abdal-Salam ibn Jabayr who in 740 A. D. had accompanied an army sent by the Caliph of Damascus to put down a Berber uprising in his Spanish provinces. Ibn Jubayr studied in the town of Játiva where his father worked as a civil servant and he became secretary to the Almohad governor of Granada. In the introduction to his Rihla Ibn Jubayr explains the reason for his travels, as secretary for the ruler of Granada in 1182, he was forced, under threat, to drink seven cups of wine. Seized by remorse, the ruler filled seven cups of gold dinars which he gave him, to expiate his godless act, although forced upon him, Ibn Jubayr decided to perform the duty of Hajj to Mecca.
He left Granada on 3 February 1183 accompanied by a physician from the city, Ibn Jubayr left Granada and crossed over the Strait of Gibraltar to Ceuta, under Muslim rule. He boarded a Genoese ship on February 24,1183 and set sail for Alexandria and his sea journey took him past the Balearic Islands and across to the west coast of Sardinia. Whilst offshore he heard of the fate of 80 Muslim men and children who had abducted from North Africa and were being sold into slavery. Between Sardinia and Sicily the ship ran into a severe storm and he said of the Italians and Muslims on board who had experience of the sea that all agreed that they had never in their lives seen such a tempest. After the storm the ship went on past Sicily and turned south and he arrived in Alexandria on March 26. Everywhere that Ibn Jubayr travelled in Egypt he was full of praise for the new Sunni ruler and he points out that when the Nile does not flood enough, Saladin remits the land tax from the farmers. Ibn Jubayr is, on the hand, very disparaging of the previous Shia dynasty of the Fatimids.
Of Cairo, Ibn Jubayr notes, are the colleges and hostels erected for students, in those colleges students find lodging and tutors to teach them the sciences they desire, and allowances to cover their needs. The care of the sultan grants them baths and the appointment of doctors who can come to visit them at their place of stay. One of the Sultan Saladins other generous acts was that day two thousand loaves of bread were distributed to the poor. Also impressing Ibn Jubayr in that city was the number of mosques, upon arrival at Alexandria Ibn Jubayr was angered by the customs officials who insisted on taking zakat from the pilgrims, regardless of whether they were obliged to pay it or not. In the city he visited the Lighthouse of Alexandria, which at time was still standing
The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty descended from Muhammads youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib and they ruled as caliphs, for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE. The Abbasid caliphate first centered its government in Kufa, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, the political power of the caliphs largely ended with the rise of the Buyids and the Seljuq Turks. Although Abbasid leadership over the vast Islamic empire was reduced to a ceremonial religious function. The capital city of Baghdad became a center of science, culture and this period of cultural fruition ended in 1258 with the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols under Hulagu Khan. The Abbasid line of rulers, and Muslim culture in general, though lacking in political power, the dynasty continued to claim authority in religious matters until after the Ottoman conquest of Egypt.
The Abbasid caliphs were Arabs descended from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, one of the youngest uncles of Muhammad, the Abbasids claimed to be the true successors of Prophet Muhammad in replacing the Umayyad descendants of Banu Umayya by virtue of their closer bloodline to Muhammad. The Abbasids distinguished themselves from the Umayyads by attacking their moral character, according to Ira Lapidus, The Abbasid revolt was supported largely by Arabs, mainly the aggrieved settlers of Marw with the addition of the Yemeni faction and their Mawali. The Abbasids appealed to non-Arab Muslims, known as mawali, Muhammad ibn Ali, a great-grandson of Abbas, began to campaign for the return of power to the family of Prophet Muhammad, the Hashimites, in Persia during the reign of Umar II. During the reign of Marwan II, this culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam. On 9 June 747, Abu Muslim successfully initiated a revolt against Umayyad rule. Close to 10,000 soldiers were under Abu Muslims command when the hostilities began in Merv.
General Qahtaba followed the fleeing governor Nasr ibn Sayyar west defeating the Umayyads at the Battle of Nishapur, the Battle of Gorgan, after this loss, Marwan fled to Egypt, where he was subsequently assassinated. The remainder of his family, barring one male, were eliminated, immediately after their victory, As-Saffah sent his forces to Central Asia, where his forces fought against Tang expansion during the Battle of Talas. Barmakids, who were instrumental in building Baghdad, introduced the worlds first recorded paper mill in Baghdad, As-Saffah focused on putting down numerous rebellions in Syria and Mesopotamia. The Byzantines conducted raids during these early distractions, the first change the Abbasids, under Al-Mansur, made was to move the empires capital from Damascus, in Syria, to Baghdad in Iraq. Baghdad was established on the Tigris River in 762, a new position, that of the vizier, was established to delegate central authority, and even greater authority was delegated to local emirs.
During Al-Mansurs time control of Al-Andalus was lost, and the Shiites revolted and were defeated a year at the Battle of Bakhamra, the Abbasids had depended heavily on the support of Persians in their overthrow of the Umayyads
Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres, about 30% of Earths total land area and 8. 7% of the Earths total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its large size and population. In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, the western boundary with Europe is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The most commonly accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal, the Ural River, and the Ural Mountains, and south of the Caucasus Mountains and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 A. D. The accidental discovery of America by Columbus in search for India demonstrates this deep fascination, the Silk Road became the main East-West trading route in the Asian hitherland while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route.
Asia has exhibited economic dynamism as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity—may actually have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies greatly across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, environments, historical ties, the boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, and the Suez Canal. This makes Egypt a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia, the border between Asia and Europe was historically defined by European academics. In Sweden, five years after Peters death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia, the Russians were enthusiastic about the concept, which allowed them to keep their European identity in geography. Tatishchev announced that he had proposed the idea to von Strahlenberg, the latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary.
Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century, the border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects. The border between the Black Sea and the Caspian is usually placed along the crest of the Caucasus Mountains, the border between Asia and the loosely defined region of Oceania is usually placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several different geographic meanings since their inception. The chief factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the possessions of the various empires there. Lewis and Wigen assert, The narrowing of Southeast Asia to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process, Asia is larger and more culturally diverse than Europe. It does not exactly correspond to the borders of its various types of constituents. From the time of Herodotus a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system on the grounds there is no or is no substantial physical separation between them
Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī, better known by his pen-name Saadi, known as Saadi of Shiraz, was one of the major Persian poets and literary men of the medieval period. He is not only famous in Persian-speaking countries, but has been quoted in western sources as well and he is recognized for the quality of his writings and for the depth of his social and moral thoughts. Saadi is widely recognized as one of the greatest poets of the literary tradition. 1210, his father died when he was a child and he narrates memories of going out with his father as a child during festivities. In his youth, Saadi experienced poverty and hardship and left his native town for Baghdad to pursue a better education. As a young man he enrolled at the Nizamiyya University, where he studied in Islamic sciences, governance, Arabic literature, and Islamic theology. The unsettled conditions following the Mongol invasion of Khwarezm and Iran led him to wander for thirty years abroad through Anatolia, Egypt, in his writings he mentions the qadis, muftis of Al-Azhar, the grand bazaar and art.
At Halab, Saadi joins a group of Sufis who had fought arduous battles against the Crusaders, Saadi was captured by Crusaders at Acre where he spent seven years as a slave digging trenches outside its fortress. He was released after the Mamluks paid ransom for Muslim prisoners being held in Crusader dungeons, Saadi visited Jerusalem and set out on a pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina. It is believed that he may have visited Oman and other lands in the south of the Arabian Peninsula, because of the Mongol invasions he was forced to live in desolate areas and met caravans fearing for their lives on once-lively silk trade routes. Saadi lived in isolated refugee camps where he met bandits, men who owned great wealth or commanded armies, intellectuals. While Mongol and European sources gravitated to the potentates and courtly life of Ilkhanate rule and he sat in remote tea houses late into the night and exchanged views with merchants, preachers, wayfarers and Sufi mendicants. For twenty years or more, he continued the same schedule of preaching, Saadis works reflect upon the lives of ordinary Iranians suffering displacement and conflict during the turbulent times of the Mongol invasion.
Saadi mentions honey-gatherers in Azarbaijan, fearful of Mongol plunder and he finally returns to Persia where he meets his childhood companions in Isfahan and other cities. At Khorasan Saadi befriends a Turkic Emir named Tughral, Saadi joins him and his men on their journey to Sindh where he meets Pir Puttur, a follower of the Persian Sufi grand master Shaikh Usman Marvandvi. He refers in his writings about his travels with a Turkic Amir named Tughral in Sindh, Tughral enters service of the wealthy Delhi Sultanate, and Saadi is invited to Delhi and visits the Vizier of Gujarat. During his stay in Gujarat, Saadi learns more about the Hindus and visits the temple of Somnath. Saadi came back to Shiraz before 1257 CE /655 AH, Saadi has mourned in his poetry the fall of Abbasid Caliphate and Baghdads destruction by Mongol invaders led by Hulagu in February 1258
The Journal asiatique is a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1822 by the Société Asiatique covering Asian studies. It publishes articles in French and several other European languages, cited texts are presented in their original languages. Each issue includes news of the Société Asiatique and its members, obituaries of notable Orientalists, critical reviews, the journal is published by Peeters Publishers on behalf of the Société Asiatique and the editor-in-chief is Jean-Marie Durand. It is one of the oldest continuous French publication, the journal is abstracted and indexed in, Bibliographie linguistique/Linguistic Bibliography, ATLA Religion Database, Index to the Study of Religions Online, Index Islamicus, and Scopus. The following people have been editor-in-chief, Official website Journal asiatique issues from 1822 to 1940 in Gallica Journal asiatique on French Wikisource
Al-Mas‘udi was an Arab historian and geographer. He is sometimes referred to as the Herodotus of the Arabs, Al-Mas‘udi was one of the first to combine history and scientific geography in a large-scale work, The Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems, a world history. Al-Mas‘udi states that he was born in Baghdad and that he was a descendant of Abdullah Ibn Masud, little else is known about his early years. He mentions his association with many scholars in the lands through which he travelled, most of what is known of him comes from his own works. Although Ahamd Shboul questions the full extent of al-Mas‘udis travels, even his more conservative estimation is impressive, Other writers include Sri Lanka and China among his travels. Lunde and Stone in the introduction to their English translation state that received much information on China from Abu Zaid al-Sirafi whom he met on the coast of the Persian Gulf. In Syria al-Mas‘udi met Leo of Tripoli, Leo was a Byzantine admiral who converted to Islam.
From him the historian received much of his information about Byzantium and he spent his last years in Syria and Egypt. In Egypt he found a copy of a Frankish king list from Clovis to Louis IV that had written by an Andalusian bishop. There is not much known about how he supported himself during such extensive travels within and Stone speculate that like many travelers he may have been involved in trade. Near the ending of the The Meadows of Gold, al-Mas‘udi wrote, the extant version is only an earlier draft from 947, not the revised 956 edition. Lunde and Stone note that al-Mas‘udi in his Tanbih states that the edition of Muruj adh-dhahab contained 365 chapters. They note the stark contrast between contemporary European conditions confronting say the author of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and this highly literate Islamic world. Ahmad Shboul mentions the rich blend of Greek philosophy, Persian literature, Indian mathematics and this enabled the society of the day to manifest a knowledge seeking and analytical attitude.
There was an association of scholarly minded people in this highly civilized atmosphere. Al-Mas‘udi was a pupil or junior colleague of a number of prominent intellectuals, including the philologists al-Zajjaj, ibn Duraid, Niftawayh and he was acquainted with famous poets, including Kashajim, whom he probably met in Aleppo. He was well read in philosophy, knowing the works of al-Kindi and al-Razi, the Aristotelian thought of al-Farabi, al-Mas‘udis extant writings do not confirm his meeting with his contemporaries al-Razi and al-Farabi, however such meetings were highly likely. He does record his meeting with al-Farabis pupil Yahya ibn Adi, in addition he was familiar with the medical work of Galen, with Ptolemaic astronomy, with the geographical work of Marinus and with the studies of Islamic geographers and astronomers
Japan is a sovereign island nation in Eastern Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asia Mainland and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea, the kanji that make up Japans name mean sun origin. 日 can be read as ni and means sun while 本 can be read as hon, or pon, Japan is often referred to by the famous epithet Land of the Rising Sun in reference to its Japanese name. Japan is an archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, the country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions. Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one, the population of 127 million is the worlds tenth largest. Japanese people make up 98. 5% of Japans total population, approximately 9.1 million people live in the city of Tokyo, the capital of Japan. Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period, the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, from the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a period of isolation in the early 17th century. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan is a member of the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the country has the worlds third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the worlds fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is the worlds fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer, although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the worlds eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a country with a very high standard of living. Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, in ancient China, Japan was called Wo 倭.
It was mentioned in the third century Chinese historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms in the section for the Wei kingdom, Wa became disliked because it has the connotation of the character 矮, meaning dwarf. The 倭 kanji has been replaced with the homophone Wa, meaning harmony, the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, which is pronounced Nippon or Nihon and literally means the origin of the sun. The earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, at the start of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan introduced their country as Nihon
The Andaman Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east. Most are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India, while a number in the north of the archipelago, including the Coco Islands. The Andaman Islands are home to the Sentinelese, who have had no contact with any other people, the name of the Andaman Islands is ancient. A theory that became prevalent in the late 19th century is that it derives from Andoman, a form of Hanuman, another Italian traveller, Niccolò de Conti, mentioned the islands and said that the name means Island of Gold. The Andaman islands have been inhabited for several years, at the very least. The indigenous Andamanese people appear to have lived on the islands in substantial isolation from that time until the 18th century CE, from 800 to 1200 CE, the Tamil Chola dynasty created an empire that eventually extended from southeastern peninsular India to parts of Malaysia. Rajendra Chola I took over the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and maintained them as a naval base to launch a naval expedition against the Srivijaya empire.
In 1789, Bengal Presidency established a base and penal colony on Chatham Island in the southeast bay of Great Andaman. The settlement is now known as Port Blair, after two years, the colony was moved to the northeast part of Great Andaman and was named Port Cornwallis after Admiral William Cornwallis. However, there was disease and death in the penal colony. In 1824, Port Cornwallis was the rendezvous of the carrying the army to the First Burmese War. In the 1830s and 1840s, shipwrecked crews who landed on the Andamans were often attacked and killed by the natives, in 1855, the government proposed another settlement on the islands, including a convict establishment, but the Indian Rebellion of 1857 forced a delay in its construction. However, because the rebellion gave the British so many prisoners, it made the new Andaman settlement and prison urgently necessary. Construction began in November 1857 at Port Blair using inmates labour,17 May 1859 was another major day for Andaman. The Battle of Aberdeen was fought between the Great Andamanese Tribe and the British, today, a memorial stands in Andaman Water sports complex as a tribute to the people who lost their life.
Fearing foreign invasion and with help from a convict from Cellular Jail, the great Andamanese tribe stormed the British post. Later, it was identified that a convict named Doodnath had changed sides. Today, the tribe has been reduced to some 50 people, the government of Andaman Islands is making efforts to increase the headcount of this tribe
The Tang dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It is generally regarded as a point in Chinese civilization. Its territory, acquired through the campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty. The dynasty was founded by the Lǐ family, who seized power during the decline, the dynasty was briefly interrupted when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne, proclaiming the Second Zhou dynasty and becoming the only Chinese empress regnant. In two censuses of the 7th and 8th centuries, the Tang records estimated the population by number of registered households at about 50 million people. Various kingdoms and states paid tribute to the Tang court, while the Tang conquered or subdued several regions which it controlled through a protectorate system. Besides political hegemony, the Tang exerted a powerful influence over neighboring states such as those in Korea, Japan. Like the previous Sui dynasty, the Tang dynasty maintained a service system by recruiting scholar-officials through standardized examinations and recommendations to office.
This civil order was undermined by the rise of military governors known as jiedushi during the 9th century. Chinese culture flourished and further matured during the Tang era, it is considered the greatest age for Chinese poetry. Two of Chinas most famous poets, Li Bai and Du Fu, belonged to this age, as did many famous painters such as Han Gan, Zhang Xuan, there was a rich variety of historical literature compiled by scholars, as well as encyclopedias and geographical works. The adoption of the title Tängri Qaghan by the Tang Emperor Taizong in addition to his title as emperor was eastern Asias first simultaneous kingship, there were many notable innovations during the Tang, including the development of woodblock printing. Buddhism became an influence in Chinese culture, with native Chinese sects gaining prominence. However, Buddhism would be persecuted by the state, subsequently declining in influence, although the dynasty and central government were in decline by the 9th century and culture continued to flourish.
This family was known as the Longxi Li lineage, which includes the Tang poet Li Bai, the Tang Emperors had Xianbei maternal ancestry, from Emperor Gaozu of Tangs Xianbei mother Duchess Dugu. He had prestige and military experience, and was a first cousin of Emperor Yang of Sui, Li Yuan rose in rebellion in 617, along with his son and his equally militant daughter Princess Pingyang, who raised and commanded her own troops. In winter 617, Li Yuan occupied Changan, relegated Emperor Yang to the position of Taishang Huang or retired emperor, and acted as regent to the puppet child-emperor, Emperor Gong of Sui. On the news of Emperor Yangs murder by General Yuwen Huaji on June 18,618, Li Yuan declared himself the emperor of a new dynasty, the Tang
Ibn Sa'id al-Maghribi
Ibn Said was born at Alcalá la Real near Granada to a prominent family many of whose members were literary figures, and grew up in Marrakesh. He subsequently studied in Seville and stayed in Tunis, Cairo, Jerusalem, at the age of 30, he undertook a pilgrimage to Mecca. He was a friend of the Muladi poet Ibn Mokond Al-Lishboni. His last years were spent in Tunis, and he died there in 1286, Ibn Said al-Maghribi wrote or compiled at least forty works on various branches of knowledge. Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥijārī completed 6 volumes, ‘Abd al-Malik added to them, two of ‘Abd al-Maliks sons added more, Ibn Saids father worked on it further, and Ibn Said completed it. Part of the Mughrib circulated separately as Rāyāt al-mubarrizīn wa-ghāyāt al-mumayyazīn and it is, in the words of Louis Cromption, perhaps the most important of the various medieval Andalucian poetry anthologies. His aim in compiling the collection seems to have been to show that produced in the West was as good as anything the East had to offer.
As an indefatigable traveller, Ibn Said was profoundly interested in geography, in 1250 he wrote his Kitab bast al- ard fi t -t ul wa-l-ard. His Kitab al-Jughrafiya embodies the experience of his travels through the Muslim world. He gives an account of parts of northern Europe including Ireland and Iceland and he visited Armenia and was at the Court of Hulagu Khan from 1256 to 1265. He wrote a history of the Maghreb, which at that time include Islamic Iberia and this book is midway between an anthology of poetry and a geography, collecting information on the poets of Maghreb organized by geographical origin. When you look at him you see dark night opening, giving way to dawn, sons of Shem and Ham live harmoniously in him, and take no care for the words of would-be troublemakers. Mens eyes light up when they see reflected in his beauty the clear strong black,1, pp. 68–96 His history of the world and Islamic literature, ms. Edition by Ibrahim al-Ibyari, Cairo 1968 Arberry, A. J, moorish poetry, a translation of the pennants, an anthology compiled in 1243 by the andalusian ibn said.
The Banners of the Champions of Ibn Said al-Maghribi, translated by James Bellamy and Patricia Steiner