Tunis is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia. The greater metropolitan area of Tunis referred to as Grand Tunis, has some 2,700,000 inhabitants. Situated on a large Mediterranean Sea gulf, behind the Lake of Tunis and the port of La Goulette, the city extends along the coastal plain and the hills that surround it. At its core lies its ancient medina, a World Heritage Site. East of the medina through the Sea Gate begins the modern city, or Ville Nouvelle, traversed by the grand Avenue Habib Bourguiba, where the colonial-era buildings provide a clear contrast to smaller, older structures. Further east by the sea lie the suburbs of Carthage, La Marsa, Sidi Bou Said; as the capital city of the country, Tunis is the focus of Tunisian political and administrative life. It has two cultural centres, as well as a municipal theatre, used by international theatre groups and a summer festival, the International Festival of Carthage, held in July. Tunis is the transcription of the Arabic name تونس which can be pronounced as "Tūnus", "Tūna or delata", or "Tūnis".
All three variations were mentioned by the Greek-Syrian geographer al-Rumi Yaqout in his Mu'jam al-Bûldan. Different explanations exist for the origin of the name Tunis; some scholars relate it to the Phoenician goddess Tanith, as many ancient cities were named after patron deities. Some scholars claim that it originated from Tynes, mentioned by Diodorus Siculus and Polybius in the course of descriptions of a location resembling present-day Al-Kasbah. Another possibility is that it was derived from the Berber verbal root ens which means "to lie down" or "to pass the night". Given the variations of the precise meaning over time and space, the term Tunis can mean "camp at night", "camp", or "stop". There are some mentions in ancient Roman sources of such names of nearby towns as Tuniza, Thunusuda and Thunisa; as all of these Berber villages were situated on Roman roads, they undoubtedly served as rest-stations or stops. The historical study of Carthage is problematic; because its culture and records were destroyed by the Romans at the end of the Third Punic War few Carthaginian primary historical sources survive.
While there are a few ancient translations of Punic texts into Greek and Latin, as well as inscriptions on monuments and buildings discovered in Northwest Africa, the main sources are Greek and Roman historians, including Livy, Appian, Cornelius Nepos, Silius Italicus, Dio Cassius, Herodotus. These writers belonged to peoples in competition, in conflict, with Carthage. Greek cities contended with Carthage over Sicily, the Romans fought three wars against Carthage. Not their accounts of Carthage are hostile. Tunis was a Berber settlement; the existence of the town is attested by sources dating from the 4th century BC. Situated on a hill, Tunis served as an excellent point from which the comings and goings of naval and caravan traffic to and from Carthage could be observed. Tunis was one of the first towns in the region to fall under Carthaginian control, in the centuries that followed Tunis was mentioned in the military histories associated with Carthage. Thus, during Agathocles' expedition, which landed at Cape Bon in 310 BC, Tunis changed hands on various occasions.
During the Mercenary War, it is possible that Tunis served as a center for the native population of the area, that its population was composed of peasants and craftsmen. Compared to the ancient ruins of Carthage, the ruins of ancient Tunis are not as large. According to Strabo, it was destroyed by the Romans in 146 BC during the Third Punic War. Both Tunis and Carthage were destroyed; the city is mentioned in the Tabula Peutingeriana as Thuni. In the system of Roman roads for the Roman province of Africa, Tunis had the title of mutatio. Tunis Romanized, was eventually Christianized and became the seat of a bishop. However, Tunis remained modestly sized compared to Carthage during this time; the modern city of Tunis was settled by Arab Muslim troops, around the 7th century AD. The medina of Tunis, the oldest section of the city, dates from this period, during which the region was conquered by the Umayyad emir Hasan ibn al-Nu'man al-Ghasani; the city had the natural advantage of coastal access, via the Mediterranean, to the major ports of southern Europe.
Early on, Tunis played a military role. From the beginning of the 8th century Tunis was the chef-lieu of the area: it became the Arabs' naval base in the western Mediterranean Sea, took on considerable military importance. Under the Aghlabids, the people of Tunis revolted numerous times, but the city benefited from economic improvements and became the second most important in the kingdom, it was the national capital, from the end of the reign of Ibrahim II in 902, until 909 when control over Ifriqiya was lost to the newly founded Fatimid Caliphate. Local opposition to the authorities began to intensify in September 94
Mohammed Awzal is the most important author in the literary tradition of the Berber Shilha language. He was born around 1680 in the village of al-Qaṣaba in tribal territory of the Indouzal, in the region of Sus in Morocco and died in 1749, his full name in Arabic is Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Ibrāhīm al-Akbīlī al-Hawzālī al-Sūsī.. He is the author of several works in Arabic which are preserved in manuscripts. There are few hard facts about Awzal's life, he may have killed somebody from his tribe when he was young and this may have been the reason for him to seek refuge in Tamegroute, a village known for an ancient sanctuary, where he started his religious studies. It was towards the end of his studies that he wrote in Arabic, as an essay, his first work, Mahamiz al-Ghaflan. After some time he came back to his place of origin, putting himself at the disposal of the family of the murder victim, they could have taken revenge on him but instead, convinced of the sincerity of his conversion and of his new choice of life, they forgave him.
Life, was not always easy in his village as his preachings were not popular. It seems that in reaction to such resistance he composed his second work, in the Tanbih; when he returned to Tamegroute his master, Sheikh Ahmad, recognising his talent as a poet, supported the writing of his first work in Shilha, entitled Al-Ḥawḍ "The Reservoir". This work, divided in two parts like other works on Islamic law, is a complete legal manual according to the Maliki school, its main sources are two classical texts, the ʿAqīdat ahl al-tawḥīd by Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf al-Sanūsī, the Mukhtaṣar by Khalīl ibn Isḥāq al-Jundī. His following work, Baḥr al-Dumūʿ "The Ocean of Tears", an exhortation in verse and treatise on eschatology; this is the best known text by Al Awzal and a masterpiece of Berber literature. It can be found as a manuscript in private collections; the text has been translated into French by B. H. Stricker and Arsène into English by N. van den Boogert. At the time of writing "The Ocean of Tears", 1714), the poet had returned for a last time to his village of birth, where he worked as a teacher and a mufti until his death.
He left a son, Bṛahim. The dating of his last and shorter work in Berber is uncertain, al-Naṣīḥah "The Advice", is an ode in praise of Sidi Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Nāṣir, Awzal's spiritual guide and grand master of the Nāṣirīyah Sufi order inspired as a funeral eulogy by his death, around 1708. A third of all known Shilha manuscripts contain parts of his works, the largest Berber text in existence is a commentary by al-Hasan al-Tamuddizti on Awzal's al-Hawd. Awzal, in his honor, is the name of rhymed couplets and long poems that Ishilhin women chant daily or weekly, between the afternoon and sunset Islamic obligatory prayer times, in the tomb complexes of local holy figures. Hemmou Talb Awzal interprété par Ali Chouhad One of these poems translated into French Boogert, Nico van den. Berber Literary Tradition of the Sous — with an edition and translation of'The Ocean of Tears' by Muḥammad Awzal. Leiden: NINO. ISBN 90-6258-971-5 Jean-Dominique Luciani, El H'aoudh: Texte berbère par Meh'ammed ben Ali ben Brahim, publié avec une traduction française et des notes, Algers 1897 Bruno H. Stricker, L'océan des pleurs: Poème berbère de Muhammad al-Awzali, Leiden 1960 Stroomer, Two projects concerning Shilha Berber in Leiden Leiden contains one of the world's best Shilha and Awzal collections KANSAS AFRICAN STUDIES NEWSLETTER Kansas African Studies Center, University of Kansas, Vol. XI, No.
2, Fall 2004 Contains “Islam and Politics in Southwestern Morocco: Ishilhin Women's Religious Ritual Chants,” article by Margaret Rausch, citing'awzal' chants
Driss Chraïbi was a Moroccan author whose novels deal with colonialism, culture clashes, generational conflict and the treatment of women and are semi-autobiographical. Born in El Jadida and educated in Casablanca, Chraïbi went to Paris in 1946 to study chemistry before turning to literature and journalism, his first novel, The Simple Past, was published in 1954. Other works by Driss Chraïbi: Butts From All Horizons The Crowd Heirs to the Past The Ass A Friend Is Coming To See You Mother Comes of Age The Flutes of Death The Mother of Springtime Birth at Dawn Inspector Ali Chraïbi wrote two children's books. Media related to Driss Chraïbi at Wikimedia Commons Driss Chraibi @ bibliomonde.com Moroccan-French novelist Driss Chraibi dies, April 2, 2007, CBC Arts Audio Book: Incipit of'Les Boucs' Interview with Driss Chraïbi Driss Chraibi biography @ britannica.com
Tahar Ben Jelloun
Tahar Ben Jelloun is a Moroccan writer. The entirety of his work is written in French, he became known for his 1985 novel L’Enfant de Sable. Today he continues to write, he has been short-listed for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Tahar Ben Jelloun was born in Morocco in December 1944; as a child, he attended an Arabic-French bilingual elementary school. He studied in the Lycée Regnault in Tangier, until he was 18 years old, he studied philosophy at Mohammed V University in Rabat. After having been a philosophy professor in Morocco, he joined the group who ran the literary magazine Souffles in the mid-1960s, he wrote many pieces for the cultural magazine. He participated in the student rebellion against “the repressive and violent acts” of the Moroccan police. In 1966, he was forced into military camp as his punishment. Five years his first collection of poems were published in Hommes sous linceul de silence. Shortly thereafter he moved to Paris, in 1972 began writing for Le Monde, he received his doctorate in social psychiatry in 1975.
Ben Jelloun's 1985 novel L’Enfant de Sable brought widespread attention. In 1987 he received the Prix Goncourt for his novel La Nuit Sacrée, making him the first Maghreb author to receive the award, his 1996 novel Les raisins de la galère is a reflection on racism and traditional Muslim ideas about women's place. The protagonist, fights racism and exclusion to find her place in French society. In 1993 he received the journalistic award Golden Doves fors Peace issued by the Italian Research Center Archivio Disarmo. Ben Jelloun was awarded the International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award for Cette aveuglante absence de lumière in 2004. In 2005 he received the Prix Ulysse for his entire body of his work. In September 2006, Ben Jelloun was awarded a special prize for "peace and friendship between people" at the Lazio between Europe and the Mediterranean Festival. On 1 February 2008, Nicolas Sarkozy awarded him the Cross of Grand Officer of the Légion d'honneur. In Africa, his novel Le mariage de plaisir was shortlisted for the GPLA 2016.
Rawafed: documentary interview Tahar Ben Jelloun "part one". Alarabiya.net Rawafed: documentary interview Tahar Ben Jelloun "part two". Alarabiya.net Homepage of Tahar Ben Jelloun Shusha Guppy. "Tahar ben Jelloun, The Art of Fiction No. 159". The Paris Review. - "Dialogue interculturel et complaisance esthétique dans l'oeuvre de Tahar Ben Jelloun", Par Salah NATIJ, in website Ma'duba / Invitation à l'adab, Le Premier Amour est Toujours le Dernier moha le fou, moha le sage. "Tahar Ben Jelloun's The Rising of City Lights. "Tahar Ben Jelloun Art Review: The Roots of Times", Morocco Newsline, 15 December 2009. Tahar Ben Jelloun: The Arab Spring - The Comfortable Way to Take Part in a Revolution Ruth Schneider, "'“Democracy is not like an aspirin you dissolve in water'", Exberliner Magazine, 17 October 2011 "Tahar Ben Jelloun", Internationales Literaturfestival Berlin. Nicoletta Pireddu, "A Moroccan Tale of an Outlandish Europe: Ben Jelloun's Departure for a Double Exile" Research in African Literatures, 40, Fall 2009: 16-36
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
The Marinid dynasty or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century. In 1244, the Marinid rulers overthrew the Almohad Caliphate; the Marinid dynasty held sway over all the Maghreb in the mid-14th century. It supported the Kingdom of Granada in Al-Andalus in 14th centuries; the Marinids were overthrown after the 1465 revolt. The Wattasid dynasty, a related ruling house, came to power in 1472; the Marinids were a branch of the Wassin, a nomadic Zenata Berber tribe that lived in the Zibans before being driven towards Tlemcen by the Arab invasion in the 11th century. The tribe had first frequented the area between Figuig, Morocco. Following the arrival of Arab tribes in the area in the 11th-12th centuries, Marinids moved to the north-west of present-day Algeria, before settling into northern Morocco by the beginning of the 13th century; the Marinids took their name from Marin ibn Wartajan al-Zenati. After arriving in Morocco, they submitted to the Almohad dynasty, at the time the ruling house.
After contributing to the Battle of Alarcos, in central Spain, the tribe started to assert itself as a political power. Starting in 1213, they began to tax farming communities of north-eastern Morocco; the relationship between them and the Almohads became strained and starting in 1215, there were regular outbreaks of fighting between the two parties. In 1217 they tried to occupy eastern Morocco, but they were expelled, pulling back and settling in the eastern Rif mountains. Here they remained for nearly 30 years. During their stay in the Rif, the Almohad state suffered huge blows, losing large territories to the Christians in Spain, while the Hafsids of Ifriqia broke away in 1229, followed by the Zayyanid dynasty of Tlemcen in 1235. Between 1244 and 1248 the Marinids were able to take Taza, Salé, Meknes and Fes from the weakened Almohads; the Marinid leadership installed in Fes declared war on the Almohads, fighting with the aid of Christian mercenaries. Abu Yusuf Yaqub captured Marrakech in 1269.
After the Nasrids ceded Algeciras to the Marinids, Abu Yusuf went to Al-Andalus to support the ongoing struggle against the Kingdom of Castile. The Marinid dynasty tried to extend its control to include the commercial traffic of the Strait of Gibraltar, it was in this period that the Spanish Christians were first able to take the fighting to Morocco: in 1260 and 1267 they attempted an invasion of Morocco, but both attempts were defeated. After gaining a foothold in Spain, the Marinids became active in the conflict between Muslims and Christians in Iberia. To gain absolute control of the trade in the Strait of Gibraltar, from their base at Algeciras they started the conquest of several Spanish towns: by the year 1294 they had occupied Rota and Gibraltar. In 1276 they founded Fes Jdid, which they made their military centre. While Fes had been a prosperous city throughout the Almohad period becoming the largest city in the world during that time, it was in the Marinid period that Fes reached its golden age, a period which marked the beginning of an official, historical narrative for the city.
It is from the Marinid period that Fes' reputation as an important intellectual centre dates, they established the first madrassas in the city and country. The principal monuments in the medina, the residences and public buildings, date from the Marinid period. Despite internal infighting, Abu Said Uthman II initiated huge construction projects across the land. Several madrassas were built; the building of these madrassas were necessary to create a dependent bureaucratic class, in order to undermine the marabouts and Sharifian elements. The Marinids strongly influenced the policy of the Emirate of Granada, from which they enlarged their army in 1275. In the 13th century, the Kingdom of Castile made several incursions into their territory. In 1260, Castilian forces raided Salé and, in 1267, initiated a full-scale invasion, but the Marinids repelled them. At the height of their power, during the rule of Abu al-Hasan'Ali, the Marinid army was large and disciplined, it consisted of 40,000 Zenata cavalry, while Arab nomads contributed to the cavalry and Andalusians were included as archers.
The personal bodyguard of the sultan consisted of 7,000 men, included Christian and Black African elements. Under Abu al-Hasan another attempt was made to reunite the Maghreb. In 1337 the Abdalwadid kingdom of Tlemcen was conquered, followed in 1347 by the defeat of the Hafsid empire in Ifriqiya, which made him master of a huge territory, which spanned from southern Morocco to Tripoli. However, within the next year, a revolt of Arab tribes in southern Tunisia made them lose their eastern territories; the Marinids had suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of a Portuguese-Castilian coalition in the Battle of Río Salado in 1340, had to withdraw from Andalusia, only holding on to Algeciras until 1344. In 1348 Abu al-Hasan was deposed by his son Abu Inan Faris, who tried to reconquer Algeria and Tunisia. Despite several successes, he was strangled by his own vizir in 1358, after which the dynasty began to decline. After the death of Abu Inan Faris in 1358, the real power lay with the viziers, while the Marinid sultans were paraded and forced to succeed eac
Taza is a city in northern Morocco, which occupies the corridor between the Rif mountains and Middle Atlas mountains, about 120 km east of Fez and 210 km west of Oujda. It is the capital of Taza Province. Taza was known first as' Ribāt Taza رباط تازة', a military camp belongs to the Fatimid state, was founded by the local governor Mussa ibn aby Alaâfiya موسى بن أبي العافية, the leader of Miknassa tribe too. Up to at least the early 20th century, Taza was considerable trading centre on the route between Fez and the Algerian frontier. Taza is located in north-central Morocco, in the south of the Rif region right outside the mountain range on a narrow plain; the city is composed of two separate towns built on separate terraces overlooking a mountain valley. The old-Taza town is at an elevation of 1,919 feet above sea level and is surrounded by fortifications. Fossil remains indicate. One of the most important caves in Morocco, Rhar Chara, is close to Taza; this cave is over 7.6 kilometres long. The city is located in a mountain pass known as the "Taza Gap", where the Rif mountains and the Middle-Atlas range come together.
Through this pass successive waves of invaders moved westward onto the Atlantic coastal plains of northwestern Africa. Taza was first settled by Miknasa tribesmen, who gave it its name: Miknasa Taza, similar to Miknasa al-Zeitoun; the Almoravid empire took over Taza in 1074. They were replaced by the Almohad empire in 1132. In 1248 the city was captured by the Marinids. Although Taza barred the route of Turks from Algiers seeking conquest in what is now Morocco, it fell to the French in 1914; the old town has barbican monuments, a 14th-century mderasa. Population in 1982 stood at 77,216. Population now estimated about 300,000. Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot-summer Mediterranean. Located along the Atlas Mountains, Taza has a seasonal climate, shifting from cool in winter to hot days in the summer months. Rainfall can reach up to 900 mm per year; the old town's main thoroughfare is enlivened by the Grain Market and the Souks where wickerwork, jewelry... The road terminates at a square doubling as a parade ground.
The Mosque's minaret, constructed in the 14th century, is wider at the top than at its base. Bab el-Qebbour Street crosses the Kissaria leads on to the Market Mosque where it meets up with Bab Jamaa gate, the main point of entry of Taza. Somewhat further south, across from Bab el-Rih, the Wind Gate, a bastion dating from the 16th century closes the ring around the kasbah. Taza's city walls, raised in the 12th century and enlarged on occasions were equipped with a Borj or fortified tower 26 metres wide at the base by the Saadi Ahmed el-Mansour in the 16th century; the gate with iron grate and the casemates with terraced roofs are influenced by European military architecture of the time. The topology of the area has imposed a pattern of urban spread. Viewed from above, the city takes the form of a "T", it has its root in Taza high and stretches north to reach the bed of the Oued Larbaâ. Since the urban stretches east and west along the N6 between Fez and Oujda. At the dawn of independence, the city consisted of the Medina High Taza, the European district occupying hill called "No Adrar Illouz.
People pronounce Draâ louz. This area became the center of town, the station area a few kilometers below. During the following years districts have emerged, midway between the train station. During the 80s, other districts make their appearance north of the city and developed areas today; the goal of this extension was the slum clearance. It was a success, since 1986; the craze is such. The 90s marked the beginning of the urbanization of the axis center - Taza above; these are buildings with 6 or 7 floors occupying a strategic content between public facilities and on the other hand, it is down the high rock a hundred yards. This area is adjacent to the uptown-Qessou meddah and Hay Shuhada. More this area continues to morph and promises a beautiful view from the heights of the city; the planning now spread on the road to Fez for several kilometers to reach the intermittently R508. The development plan provides a direct link between Taza Taza high. Great Mosque of Taza Bou Hamara - early 20th century pretender to the throne of Morocco, based in Taza Taza online in French Parc national de Tazekka in French