History of the Arabic alphabet
The history of the Arabic alphabet concerns the origins and the evolution of the Arabic script. The Arabic alphabet evolved either from the Nabataean, or directly from the Syriac and this table shows changes undergone by the shapes of the letters from the Aramaic original to the Nabataean and Syriac forms. Arabic is placed in the middle for clarity and not to mark a time order of evolution. It should be noted that the Arabic script represented in the table below is that of post-Classical and Modern Arabic, not 6th century Arabic script, which is of a notably different form. It seems that the Nabataean alphabet became the Arabic alphabet thus, In the 6th and 5th centuries BCE, northern Semitic tribes emigrated and founded a kingdom centred around Petra and these people spoke the Nabataean language, a Northwest Semitic language. This cursive form influenced the form more and more and gradually changed into the Arabic alphabet. The first recorded text in the Arabic alphabet was written in 512 and it is a trilingual dedication in Greek and Arabic found at Zabad in Syria.
Cursive Nabataean writing changed into Arabic writing, likeliest between the dates of the inscription and the Jabal Ramm inscription. Most writing would have been on perishable materials, such as papyrus, as it was cursive, it was liable to change. The epigraphic record is sparse, with only five certainly pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions surviving. In the cases marked %, the choice was influenced by etymology, as Common Semitic kh and gh became Hebrew ħ, as cursive Nabataean writing evolved into Arabic writing, the writing became largely joined-up. The letters which are the shape have coloured backgrounds. The second value of the letters represent more than one phoneme is after a comma. In these tables, ğ is j as in English June, in the Arabic language, the g sound seems to have changed into j in fairly late pre-Islamic times, and seems not to have happened in those tribes who invaded Egypt and settled there. After all this, there were only 17 letters which are different in shape, one letter-shape represented 5 phonemes, one represented 3 phonemes, and 5 each represented 2 phonemes.
Compare the Hebrew alphabet, as in the table at Image, the Arabic alphabet is first attested in its classical form in the 7th century. See PERF558 for the first surviving Islamic Arabic writing, writings in the Nabataean and Syriac alphabets already had sporadic examples of dots being used to distinguish letters which had become identical, for example as in the table on the right. By analogy with this, a system of dots was added to the Arabic alphabet to make enough different letters for Classical Arabics 28 phonemes, sometimes the resulting new letters were put in alphabetical order after their un-dotted originals, and sometimes at the end
The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty descended from Muhammads youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib and they ruled as caliphs, for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE. The Abbasid caliphate first centered its government in Kufa, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, the political power of the caliphs largely ended with the rise of the Buyids and the Seljuq Turks. Although Abbasid leadership over the vast Islamic empire was reduced to a ceremonial religious function. The capital city of Baghdad became a center of science, culture and this period of cultural fruition ended in 1258 with the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols under Hulagu Khan. The Abbasid line of rulers, and Muslim culture in general, though lacking in political power, the dynasty continued to claim authority in religious matters until after the Ottoman conquest of Egypt.
The Abbasid caliphs were Arabs descended from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, one of the youngest uncles of Muhammad, the Abbasids claimed to be the true successors of Prophet Muhammad in replacing the Umayyad descendants of Banu Umayya by virtue of their closer bloodline to Muhammad. The Abbasids distinguished themselves from the Umayyads by attacking their moral character, according to Ira Lapidus, The Abbasid revolt was supported largely by Arabs, mainly the aggrieved settlers of Marw with the addition of the Yemeni faction and their Mawali. The Abbasids appealed to non-Arab Muslims, known as mawali, Muhammad ibn Ali, a great-grandson of Abbas, began to campaign for the return of power to the family of Prophet Muhammad, the Hashimites, in Persia during the reign of Umar II. During the reign of Marwan II, this culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam. On 9 June 747, Abu Muslim successfully initiated a revolt against Umayyad rule. Close to 10,000 soldiers were under Abu Muslims command when the hostilities began in Merv.
General Qahtaba followed the fleeing governor Nasr ibn Sayyar west defeating the Umayyads at the Battle of Nishapur, the Battle of Gorgan, after this loss, Marwan fled to Egypt, where he was subsequently assassinated. The remainder of his family, barring one male, were eliminated, immediately after their victory, As-Saffah sent his forces to Central Asia, where his forces fought against Tang expansion during the Battle of Talas. Barmakids, who were instrumental in building Baghdad, introduced the worlds first recorded paper mill in Baghdad, As-Saffah focused on putting down numerous rebellions in Syria and Mesopotamia. The Byzantines conducted raids during these early distractions, the first change the Abbasids, under Al-Mansur, made was to move the empires capital from Damascus, in Syria, to Baghdad in Iraq. Baghdad was established on the Tigris River in 762, a new position, that of the vizier, was established to delegate central authority, and even greater authority was delegated to local emirs.
During Al-Mansurs time control of Al-Andalus was lost, and the Shiites revolted and were defeated a year at the Battle of Bakhamra, the Abbasids had depended heavily on the support of Persians in their overthrow of the Umayyads
Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1. 5–1.6 million people. Valencia is Spains third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million, the Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea. The city is ranked at Gamma in the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, and called Valentia Edetanorum. In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon reconquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it and he created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812.
It served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic, the city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea. Valencia is integrated into an area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencias main festival is the Falles, the traditional Spanish dish, originated in Valencia. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning strength, or valour, the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. It is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city, by gradual sound changes, Valentia /waˈlentia/ has become Valencia or in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent <è> /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent <é> /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule and it is spelled according to Catalan etymology, though its pronunciation is closer to Vulgar Latin.
Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula, at its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in the Turia,6.4 km from the sea. The Albufera, a lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain. The City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, in 1986, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a Mediterranean climate with short, very mild winters and long and its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C.23.0 °C during the day and 13.8 °C at night. In the coldest month – January, the temperature typically during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C. In the warmest month – August, the temperature during the day typically ranges from 28–34 °C. Generally, similar temperatures to those experienced in the part of Europe in summer last about 8 months
Tunisia, officially the Republic of Tunisia is the northernmost country in Africa, covering 165,000 square kilometres. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent and it is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisias population was estimated to be just under 11 million in 2014, Tunisias name is derived from its capital city, which is located on Tunisias northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the end of the Atlas Mountains. Much of the rest of the land is fertile soil. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic and it is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a human development index. In addition, Tunisia is a state of the United Nations. Close relations with Europe – in particular with France and with Italy – have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation, in ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers.
Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC, these immigrants founded Carthage, a major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the eight hundred years, introduced Christianity. After several attempts starting in 647, the Arabs conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, the Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881, Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, the country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014. The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis, an urban hub. The present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, the French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country.
Other languages remained untouched, such as the Russian Туни́с and Spanish Túnez, in this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic تونس, and only by context can one tell the difference. The name Tunis can be attributed to different origins and it is generally associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed tns, which means to lay down or encampment
Antarah ibn Shaddad
Antarah ibn Shaddad, known as ʿAntar, was a pre-Islamic Arab knight and poet, famous for both his poetry and his adventurous life. His chief poem forms part of the Muallaqat, the collection of seven hanging odes legendarily said to have been suspended in the Kaaba, the account of his life forms the basis of a long and extravagant romance. ʿAntarah was born in Najd in Arabia and his father was Shaddād al-ʿAbsī, a respected warrior of the Banu Abs under their chief Zuhayr. His mother was an Ethiopian woman named Zabūba and she was a princess taken as captive by his father as a slave during one of the tribes raids against Axum. Described as an Arab crow owing to his complexion, ʿAntarah grew up a slave as well. He fell in love with his cousin ʿAblah, but could not hope to marry her owing to his position and he gained the enmity of his fathers wife Shammeah. He gained attention and respect for himself by his personal qualities and courage in battle, excelling as an accomplished poet. He earned his freedom after another tribe invaded the lands of the Banu ʿAbs.
When his father said to him, ʿAntarah, fight with the warriors, he replied that the slave doesnt know how to invade or how to defend and his father answered him, Defend your tribe, O ʿAntar, and you are free. After defeating the invaders, he sought to gain permission to marry his cousin, to secure allowance to marry, Antarah had to face challenges including getting a special kind of camel from the northern Arab kingdom of the Lakhmids, under Al-Numan III ibn al-Mundhir. ʿAntarah took part in the war between the related tribes of ʿAbs and Dhubyān, which began over a contest of horses. ʿAntarahs poetry is well preserved and often talks of chivalrous values, courage and it was immortalized when one of his poems was included in the Muallaqat, the collection of poems legendarily said to have been suspended in the Kaaba. His poetrys historical and cultural importance stems from its detailed descriptions of battles, weapons, desert, the story of ʿAntar and ʿAbla was embroidered into a poetic saga traditionally credited to al-Asmaʿi, a poet in the court of Hārūn al-Rashīd.
It is still recited by traditional story-tellers in Arab coffee houses and its importance has been compared with English literatures Arthurian romances. His house and his stable were particularly legendary, one of the seven clans of Bethlehem is called the Anatreh, named after ʿAntarah. It formerly acted as the guardians of the Church of the Nativity, the Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov wrote his Symphony No.2 based on the legend of ʿAntar. In 1898 the French painter Étienne Dinet published his translation of a 13th-century epic Arab poem Antar which brought Antar bin Shaddad to European notice. It has been followed by a number of works such as Diana Richmonds Antar
Hatim Altaaey, formally Hatem ibn Abdellah ibn Saad at-Taiy was a famous Arab poet who belonged to the Tai Arabian tribe, and the father of the Sahabi Adi ibn Hatim. Stories about his extreme generosity have made him an icon to Arabs up till the present day and his tribe were Arab Christians before converting to Islam in the early 7th century. He was mentioned in some Hadiths by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and he was buried in Towaren, Hail. The tomb is described in the Arabian Nights and he lived in the sixth century CE. He figures in The Arabian Nights, the celebrated Persian poet Saadi, in his work Gulistan writes, Hatim Taï no longer exists but his exalted name will remain famous for virtue to eternity. Distribute the tithe of your wealth in alms, for when the husbandman lops off the exuberant branches from the vine and he is mentioned in Saadis Bostan. According to legends in various books and stories, he was a personality in Tai. He is a figure in the rest of the Middle East as well as India & Pakistan.
Many books have been written about him in different countries and languages, several movies and TV Series have been produced about his adventures. Rozat-ul-Sufa mentions that In the eighth year after the birth of his eminence the Prophet, died Noushirwan the Just, according to 17th-century Orientalist DHerbelot, his tomb was located at a small village called Anwarz, in Arabia. Poems, On Avarice by Hatem Taiy Qissa-e-Hatem Tai is very popular in South Asia, multiple movies about Hatem Tai are based on this story. It consists of an introduction describing his ancestors and his own virtues. In seven chapters, seven of his adventures are given, do good, and cast it upon the waters. Do no evil, if you do, such shall you meet with and he who speaks the truth is always tranquil. Let him bring an account of the mountain of Nida, Let him produce a pearl of the size of a ducks egg Let him bring an account of the bath of Bad-gard. A king falls in love with her and wanders around, not knowing where to go or what to do, by chance he meets Hatem Tai, to whom he tells his story.
Hatem undertakes to find the answers to the questions, Hatim Tai, directed by Homi Wadia Hatim Tai, directed by Babubhai Mistri Dastaan-e-Hatimtai - An Indian TV Series aired on DD National. Hūd began to build an army and overthrew the King of Yemen in a military coup
Al-Andalus, known as Muslim Spain or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal. At its greatest geographical extent in the century, southern France—Septimania—was briefly under its control. Rule under these kingdoms led to a rise in cultural exchange, a number of achievements that advanced Islamic and Western science came from al-Andalus including major advances in trigonometry, surgery and other fields. Al-Andalus became an educational center for Europe and the lands around the Mediterranean Sea as well as a conduit for culture. For much of its history, al-Andalus existed in conflict with Christian kingdoms to the north, after the fall of the Umayyad caliphate, al-Andalus was fragmented into a number of minor states and principalities. Attacks from the Christians intensified, led by the Castilians under Alfonso VI, the Almoravid empire intervened and repelled the Christian attacks on the region, deposing the weak Andalusi Muslim princes and included al-Andalus under direct Berber rule.
In the next century and a half, al-Andalus became a province of the Berber Muslim empires of the Almoravids and Almohads, the Christian kingdoms in the north of the Iberian Peninsula overpowered the Muslim states to the south. In 1085, Alfonso VI captured Toledo, starting a gradual decline of Muslim power, with the fall of Córdoba in 1236, most of the south quickly fell under Christian rule and the Emirate of Granada became a tributary state of the Kingdom of Castile two years later. In 1249, the Portuguese Reconquista culminated with the conquest of the Algarve by Afonso III, finally, on January 2,1492, Emir Muhammad XII surrendered the Emirate of Granada to Queen Isabella I of Castile, completing the Christian Reconquista of the peninsula. The toponym al-Andalus is first attested to by inscriptions on coins minted by the new Muslim government in Iberia, the etymology of the name has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals. A number of proposals since the 1980s have contested this, Vallvé proposed a corruption of the name Atlantis, halm derives the name from a Gothic term *landahlauts.
Bossong suggests derivation from a pre-Roman substrate and they crossed the Pyrenees and occupied Visigothic Septimania in southern France. Most of the Iberian peninsula became part of the expanding Umayyad Empire and it was organized as a province subordinate to Ifriqiya, so, for the first few decades, the governors of al-Andalus were appointed by the emir of Kairouan, rather than the Caliph in Damascus. Visigothic lords who agreed to recognize Muslim suzerainty were allowed to retain their fiefs, resistant Visigoths took refuge in the Cantabrian highlands, where they carved out a rump state, the Kingdom of Asturias. In the 720s, the al-Andalus governors launched several raids into Aquitaine. At the Battle of Poitiers in 732, the al-Andalus raiding army was defeated by Charles Martel, in 734, the Andalusi launched raids to the east, capturing Avignon and Arles and overran much of Provence. In 737, they climbed up the Rhône valley, reached as far as Burgundy, Charles Martel of the Franks, with the assistance of Liutprand of the Lombards, invaded Burgundy and Provence and expelled the raiders by 739.
Relations between Arabs and Berbers in al-Andalus had been tense in the years after the conquest
Arabic literature is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language. The Arabic word used for literature is Adab, which is derived from a meaning of etiquette, Arabic literature emerged in the 5th century with only fragments of the written language appearing before then. The Quran, widely regarded by people as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language, would have the greatest lasting effect on Arabic culture and its literature. Arabic literature flourished during the Islamic Golden Age, but has remained vibrant to the present day, with poets, the Quran had a significant influence on the Arab language. The language used in it is called classical Arabic, and while modern Arabic is very similar and it contains injunctions, homilies, direct addresses from God and even comments on itself on how it will be received and understood. It is also, admired for its layers of metaphor as well as its clarity, the word Quran means recitation, and in early times the text was transmitted orally.
The first attempt at a written version was during the reign of the third Rightly Guided Caliph. Although it contains elements of both prose and poetry, and therefore is closest to Saj or rhymed prose, the Quran is regarded as entirely apart from these classifications, the text is believed to be divine revelation and is seen by Muslims as being eternal or uncreated. This leads to the doctrine of ijaz or inimitability of the Quran which implies that nobody can copy the works style, Bring you ten chapters like unto it, and call whomsoever you can, other than God, if you speak the truth. This doctrine of ijaz possibly had a limiting effect on Arabic literature. And as to the poets, those who go astray follow them Do you not see that they wander about bewildered in every valley and this may have exerted dominance over the pre-Islamic poets of the 6th century whose popularity may have vied with the Quran amongst the people. There were a lack of significant poets until the 8th century. One notable exception was Hassan ibn Thabit who wrote poems in praise of Muhammad and was known as the prophets poet, just as the Bible has held an important place in the literature of other languages, The Quran is important to Arabic.
It is the source of ideas and quotes. Aside from the Quran the hadith or tradition of what Muhammed is supposed to have said, the entire body of these acts and words are called sunnah or way and the ones regarded as sahih or genuine of them are collected into hadith. Some of the most significant collections of hadith include those by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, the research into the life and times of Muhammad, and determining the genuine parts of the sunnah, was an important early reason for scholarship in or about the Arabic language. Muhammad inspired the first Arabic biographies, known as al-sirah al-nabawiyyah, the earliest was by Wahb ibn Munabbih, whilst covering the life of the prophet they told of the battles and events of early Islam and have numerous digressions on older biblical traditions. Some of the earliest work studying the Arabic language was started in the name of Islam, tradition has it that the caliph Ali, after reading a copy of Quran with errors in it, asked Abu al-Aswad al-Duali to write a work codifying Arabic grammar
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD. While the lexis and stylistics of Modern Standard Arabic are different from Classical Arabic, in the Arab world, little distinction is made between CA and MSA, and both are normally called al-fuṣḥá in Arabic, meaning the most eloquent. During the first Islamic century the majority of Arabic poets and Arabic-writing persons spoke a form of Arabic as their mother tongue and their texts, although mainly preserved in far manuscripts, contain traces of non-standardized Classical Arabic elements in morphology and syntax. The standardization of Classical Arabic reached completion around the end of the 8th century, by the 8th century, knowledge of Classical Arabic had become an essential prerequisite for rising into the higher classes throughout the Islamic world. Ibn Khaldun described the pronunciation of the ⟨ق⟩ as a voiced velar /g/ and he even described that the Islamic prophet Muhammad may have had the /g/ pronunciation.
^1 Allophone of short /a/ in certain imalah contexts ^2 In pre-Classical Arabic, some Arabs said banē for banā and zēda for zāda. This /eː/ merged with /aː/ in Classical Arabic, besides dialects with no definite article, the Safaitic inscriptions exhibit about four different article forms, ordered by frequency, h-, ʾ-, ʾl-, and hn-. The Old Arabic of the Nabataean inscriptions exhibits almost exclusively the form ʾl-
Suraqah al-Bariqi was a companion of Muhammad and was a member of the Tribe Bariq. He was an Arab from Bareq in Arabian Peninsula, which was part of the Umayyad caliphate. He is considered as one of the greatest poets, much of his poetry revolves around the philosophy of life. Some consider his poems to be a representation of his life story. He started writing poetry when he was young and he is well known for his sharp intelligence and wittiness. Among the topics he discussed were courage, the philosophy of life, and his great talent brought him very close to many leaders of his time. He praised those leaders and kings and his powerful and honest poetic style earned great popularity in his time. He was a contemporary of the trio, Farazdaq. Thus there is no article on our poet in the Kitab al-Aghani and he, joined in the fray with his sympathies for Farazdaq. The anecdotes relating to the Flyting which he and Jarir composed against each other, as narrated on the authority of Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf and his full name was Suraqah b.
It is said that Muhammad b, utârid al-Dârimî, a noble, offered four thousand dirhams and a horse to the poet who could compose a poem giving al-Farazdaq preference over Jarir. Of all poets Surâqah, who had composed some invective upon Jarir, took up the challenge and produced a piece of lampoon which was carried to Jarîr. Jarir tried throughout the night but failed. At break of day, his poetical genius came to his aid and the sharp lampoon that this great poet produced is said to have silenced Surâqah against Jarir once for all