Mohammed Awzal is the most important author in the literary tradition of the Berber Shilha language. He was born around 1680 in the village of al-Qaṣaba in tribal territory of the Indouzal, in the region of Sus in Morocco and died in 1749, his full name in Arabic is Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Ibrāhīm al-Akbīlī al-Hawzālī al-Sūsī.. He is the author of several works in Arabic which are preserved in manuscripts. There are few hard facts about Awzal's life, he may have killed somebody from his tribe when he was young and this may have been the reason for him to seek refuge in Tamegroute, a village known for an ancient sanctuary, where he started his religious studies. It was towards the end of his studies that he wrote in Arabic, as an essay, his first work, Mahamiz al-Ghaflan. After some time he came back to his place of origin, putting himself at the disposal of the family of the murder victim, they could have taken revenge on him but instead, convinced of the sincerity of his conversion and of his new choice of life, they forgave him.
Life, was not always easy in his village as his preachings were not popular. It seems that in reaction to such resistance he composed his second work, in the Tanbih; when he returned to Tamegroute his master, Sheikh Ahmad, recognising his talent as a poet, supported the writing of his first work in Shilha, entitled Al-Ḥawḍ "The Reservoir". This work, divided in two parts like other works on Islamic law, is a complete legal manual according to the Maliki school, its main sources are two classical texts, the ʿAqīdat ahl al-tawḥīd by Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf al-Sanūsī, the Mukhtaṣar by Khalīl ibn Isḥāq al-Jundī. His following work, Baḥr al-Dumūʿ "The Ocean of Tears", an exhortation in verse and treatise on eschatology; this is the best known text by Al Awzal and a masterpiece of Berber literature. It can be found as a manuscript in private collections; the text has been translated into French by B. H. Stricker and Arsène into English by N. van den Boogert. At the time of writing "The Ocean of Tears", 1714), the poet had returned for a last time to his village of birth, where he worked as a teacher and a mufti until his death.
He left a son, Bṛahim. The dating of his last and shorter work in Berber is uncertain, al-Naṣīḥah "The Advice", is an ode in praise of Sidi Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Nāṣir, Awzal's spiritual guide and grand master of the Nāṣirīyah Sufi order inspired as a funeral eulogy by his death, around 1708. A third of all known Shilha manuscripts contain parts of his works, the largest Berber text in existence is a commentary by al-Hasan al-Tamuddizti on Awzal's al-Hawd. Awzal, in his honor, is the name of rhymed couplets and long poems that Ishilhin women chant daily or weekly, between the afternoon and sunset Islamic obligatory prayer times, in the tomb complexes of local holy figures. Hemmou Talb Awzal interprété par Ali Chouhad One of these poems translated into French Boogert, Nico van den. Berber Literary Tradition of the Sous — with an edition and translation of'The Ocean of Tears' by Muḥammad Awzal. Leiden: NINO. ISBN 90-6258-971-5 Jean-Dominique Luciani, El H'aoudh: Texte berbère par Meh'ammed ben Ali ben Brahim, publié avec une traduction française et des notes, Algers 1897 Bruno H. Stricker, L'océan des pleurs: Poème berbère de Muhammad al-Awzali, Leiden 1960 Stroomer, Two projects concerning Shilha Berber in Leiden Leiden contains one of the world's best Shilha and Awzal collections KANSAS AFRICAN STUDIES NEWSLETTER Kansas African Studies Center, University of Kansas, Vol. XI, No.
2, Fall 2004 Contains “Islam and Politics in Southwestern Morocco: Ishilhin Women's Religious Ritual Chants,” article by Margaret Rausch, citing'awzal' chants
Algebra is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory and analysis. In its most general form, algebra is the study of mathematical symbols and the rules for manipulating these symbols, it includes everything from elementary equation solving to the study of abstractions such as groups and fields. The more basic parts of algebra are called elementary algebra. Elementary algebra is considered to be essential for any study of mathematics, science, or engineering, as well as such applications as medicine and economics. Abstract algebra is a major area in advanced mathematics, studied by professional mathematicians. Elementary algebra differs from arithmetic in the use of abstractions, such as using letters to stand for numbers that are either unknown or allowed to take on many values. For example, in x + 2 = 5 the letter x is unknown, but the law of inverses can be used to discover its value: x = 3. In E = mc2, the letters E and m are variables, the letter c is a constant, the speed of light in a vacuum.
Algebra gives methods for writing formulas and solving equations that are much clearer and easier than the older method of writing everything out in words. The word algebra is used in certain specialized ways. A special kind of mathematical object in abstract algebra is called an "algebra", the word is used, for example, in the phrases linear algebra and algebraic topology. A mathematician who does research in algebra is called an algebraist; the word algebra comes from the Arabic الجبر from the title of the book Ilm al-jabr wa'l-muḳābala by the Persian mathematician and astronomer al-Khwarizmi. The word entered the English language during the fifteenth century, from either Spanish, Italian, or Medieval Latin, it referred to the surgical procedure of setting broken or dislocated bones. The mathematical meaning was first recorded in the sixteenth century; the word "algebra" has several related meanings as a single word or with qualifiers. As a single word without an article, "algebra" names a broad part of mathematics.
As a single word with an article or in plural, "an algebra" or "algebras" denotes a specific mathematical structure, whose precise definition depends on the author. The structure has an addition, a scalar multiplication; when some authors use the term "algebra", they make a subset of the following additional assumptions: associative, unital, and/or finite-dimensional. In universal algebra, the word "algebra" refers to a generalization of the above concept, which allows for n-ary operations. With a qualifier, there is the same distinction: Without an article, it means a part of algebra, such as linear algebra, elementary algebra, or abstract algebra. With an article, it means an instance of some abstract structure, like a Lie algebra, an associative algebra, or a vertex operator algebra. Sometimes both meanings exist for the same qualifier, as in the sentence: Commutative algebra is the study of commutative rings, which are commutative algebras over the integers. Algebra began with letters standing for numbers.
This allowed proofs of properties. For example, in the quadratic equation a x 2 + b x + c = 0, a, b, c can be any numbers whatsoever, the quadratic formula can be used to and find the values of the unknown quantity x which satisfy the equation; that is to say. And in current teaching, the study of algebra starts with the solving of equations such as the quadratic equation above. More general questions, such as "does an equation have a solution?", "how many solutions does an equation have?", "what can be said about the nature of the solutions?" are considered. These questions led extending algebra to non-numerical objects, such as permutations, vectors and polynomials; the structural properties of these non-numerical objects were abstracted into algebraic structures such as groups and fields. Before the 16th century, mathematics was divided into only two subfields and geometry. Though some methods, developed much earlier, may be considered nowadays as algebra, the emergence of algebra and, soon thereafter, of infinitesimal calculus as subfields of mathematics only dates from the 16th or 17th century.
From the second half of 19th century on, many new fields of mathematics appeared, most of which made use of both arithmetic and geometry, all of which used algebra. Today, algebra has grown until it includes many branches of mathematics, as can be seen in the Mathematics Subject Classification where none of the first level areas is called algebra. Today algebra in
Sufism or Taṣawwuf, variously defined as "Islamic mysticism", "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam", is mysticism in Islam, "characterized... values, ritual practices and institutions" which began early in Islamic history and represents "the main manifestation and the most important and central crystallization of" mystical practice in Islam. Practitioners of Sufism have been referred to as "Sufis". Sufis have belonged to different ṭuruq or "orders" – congregations formed around a grand master referred to as a wali who traces a direct chain of successive teachers back to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad; these orders meet for spiritual sessions in meeting places known as khanqahs or tekke. They strive for ihsan, as detailed in a hadith: "Ihsan is to worship Allah as if you see Him. Sufis regard Muhammad as al-Insān al-Kāmil, the primary perfect man who exemplifies the morality of God, see him as their leader and prime spiritual guide. All Sufi orders trace most of their original precepts from Muhammad through his cousin and son-in-law Ali, with the notable exception of one.
Although the overwhelming majority of Sufis, both pre-modern and modern and are adherents of Sunni Islam, there developed certain strands of Sufi practice within the ambit of Shia Islam during the late medieval period. Although Sufis were opposed to dry legalism, they observed Islamic law and belonged to various schools of Islamic jurisprudence and theology. Sufis have been characterized by their asceticism by their attachment to dhikr, the practice of remembrance of God performed after prayers, they gained adherents among a number of Muslims as a reaction against the worldliness of the early Umayyad Caliphate and have spanned several continents and cultures over a millennium expressing their beliefs in Arabic and expanding into Persian and Urdu, among others. Sufis played an important role in the formation of Muslim societies through their missionary and educational activities. According to William Chittick, "In a broad sense, Sufism can be described as the interiorization, intensification of Islamic faith and practice."Despite a relative decline of Sufi orders in the modern era and criticism of some aspects of Sufism by modernist thinkers and conservative Salafists, Sufism has continued to play an important role in the Islamic world, has influenced various forms of spirituality in the West.
The Arabic word tasawwuf translated as Sufism, is defined by Western authors as Islamic mysticism. The Arabic term sufi has been used in Islamic literature with a wide range of meanings, by both proponents and opponents of Sufism. Classical Sufi texts, which stressed certain teachings and practices of the Quran and the sunnah, gave definitions of tasawwuf that described ethical and spiritual goals and functioned as teaching tools for their attainment. Many other terms that described particular spiritual qualities and roles were used instead in more practical contexts; some modern scholars have used other definitions of Sufism such as "intensification of Islamic faith and practice" and "process of realizing ethical and spiritual ideals". The term Sufism was introduced into European languages in the 18th century by Orientalist scholars, who viewed it as an intellectual doctrine and literary tradition at variance with what they saw as sterile monotheism of Islam. In modern scholarly usage the term serves to describe a wide range of social, cultural and religious phenomena associated with Sufis.
The original meaning of sufi seems to have been "one who wears wool", the Encyclopaedia of Islam calls other etymological hypotheses "untenable". Woollen clothes were traditionally associated with mystics. Al-Qushayri and Ibn Khaldun both rejected all possibilities other than ṣūf on linguistic grounds. Another explanation traces the lexical root of the word to ṣafā, which in Arabic means "purity"; these two explanations were combined by the Sufi al-Rudhabari, who said, "The Sufi is the one who wears wool on top of purity". Others have suggested that the word comes from the term ahl aṣ-ṣuffah, who were a group of impoverished companions of Muhammad who held regular gatherings of dhikr; these men and women who sat at al-Masjid an-Nabawi are considered by some to be the first Sufis. According to Carl W. Ernst the earliest figures of Sufism are Muhammad his companions. Sufi orders are based on the "bay‘ah", given to Muhammad by his Ṣahabah. By pledging allegiance to Muhammad, the Sahabah had committed themselves to the service of God.
Verily, those who give Bai'âh to you they are giving Bai'âh to Allâh. The Hand of Allâh is over their hands. Whosoever breaks his pledge, breaks it only to his own harm, whosoever fulfils what he has covenanted with Allâh, He will bestow on him a great reward. — Sufis believe that by giving bayʿah to a legitimate Sufi shaykh, one is pledging allegiance to Muhammad. It is through Muhammad that Sufis aim to learn about and connect with God. Ali is regarded as one of the
Marrakesh is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco. It is the fourth largest city in the country, after Casablanca and Tangier, it is the capital city of the mid-southwestern region of Marrakesh-Safi. Located to the north of the foothills of the snow-capped Atlas Mountains, Marrakesh is situated 580 km southwest of Tangier, 327 km southwest of the Moroccan capital of Rabat, 239 km south of Casablanca, 246 km northeast of Agadir. Marrakesh is the second most important of Morocco's four former imperial cities after Fez; the region has been inhabited by Berber farmers since Neolithic times, but the actual city was founded in 1062, by Abu Bakr ibn Umar and cousin of Almoravid king Yusuf ibn Tashfin. In the 12th century, the Almoravids built many madrasas and mosques in Marrakesh that bear Andalusian influences; the red walls of the city, built by Ali ibn Yusuf in 1122–1123, various buildings constructed in red sandstone during this period, have given the city the nickname of the "Red City" or "Ochre City".
Marrakesh grew and established itself as a cultural and trading center for the Maghreb and sub-Saharan Africa. After a period of decline, the city was surpassed by Fez, but in the early 16th century, Marrakesh again became the capital of the kingdom; the city regained its preeminence under wealthy Saadian sultans Abu Abdallah al-Qaim and Ahmad al-Mansur, who embellished the city with sumptuous palaces such as the El Badi Palace and restored many ruined monuments. Beginning in the 17th century, the city became popular among Sufi pilgrims for Morocco's seven patron saints, who are entombed here. In 1912 the French Protectorate in Morocco was established and T'hami El Glaoui became Pasha of Marrakesh and held this position nearly throughout the protectorate until the role was dissolved upon the independence of Morocco and the reestablishment of the monarchy in 1956. In 2009, Marrakesh mayor Fatima Zahra Mansouri became the second woman to be elected mayor in Morocco. Like many Moroccan cities, Marrakesh comprises an old fortified city packed with vendors and their stalls, bordered by modern neighbourhoods, the most prominent of, Gueliz.
Today it is one of the busiest cities in Africa and serves as a major economic center and tourist destination. Tourism is advocated by the reigning Moroccan monarch, Mohammed VI, with the goal of doubling the number of tourists visiting Morocco to 20 million by 2020. Despite the economic recession, real estate and hotel development in Marrakesh have grown in the 21st century. Marrakesh is popular with the French, numerous French celebrities own property in the city. Marrakesh has the largest traditional market in Morocco, with some 18 souks selling wares ranging from traditional Berber carpets to modern consumer electronics. Crafts employ a significant percentage of the population, who sell their products to tourists. Marrakesh is one of North Africa’s largest centers of wildlife trade, despite the illegality of much of this trade. Much of this trade can be found in adjacent squares. Tortoises are popular for sale as pets, but Barbary macaques and snakes can be seen. Marrakesh is served by Ménara International Airport and the Marrakesh railway station, which connects the city to Casablanca and northern Morocco.
Marrakesh has several schools, including Cadi Ayyad University. A number of Moroccan football clubs are located here, including Najm de Marrakech, KAC Marrakech, Mouloudia de Marrakech and Chez Ali Club de Marrakech; the Marrakesh Street Circuit hosts the World Touring Car Championship, Auto GP and FIA Formula Two Championship races. The exact meaning of the name is debated. One possible origin of the name Marrakesh is from the Berber words amur akush, which means "Land of God". According to historian Susan Searight, the town's name was first documented in an 11th-century manuscript in the Qarawiyyin library in Fez, where its meaning was given as "country of the sons of Kush"; the word mur is used now in Berber in the feminine form tamurt. The same word "mur" appears in Mauretania, the North African kingdom from antiquity, although the link remains controversial as this name originates from μαύρος mavros, the ancient Greek word for black; the common English spelling is "Marrakesh", although "Marrakech" is widely used.
The name is spelt Mṛṛakc in the Berber Latin alphabet, Marraquexe in Portuguese, Marraquech in Spanish, "Mer-raksh" in Moroccan Arabic. From medieval times until around the beginning of the 20th century, the entire country of Morocco was known as the "Kingdom of Marrakesh", as the kingdom's historic capital city was Marrakesh; the name for Morocco is still "Marrakesh" to this day in Persian and Urdu as well as many other South Asian languages. Various European names for Morocco are directly derived from the Berber word Murakush. Conversely, the city itself was in earlier times called Marocco City by travelers from abroad; the name of the city and the country diverged after the Treaty of Fez divided Morocco into a French protectorate in Morocco and Spanish protectorate in Morocco, but the old interchangeable usage lasted until about the interregnum of Mohammed Ben Aarafa. The latter episode set in motion the country's return to independence, when Morocco became al-Mamlaka al-Maġribiyya, its name no longer refer
Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world
Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world during the Islamic Golden Age, written in the Arabic language. These developments took place in the Middle East, Central Asia, Al-Andalus, North Africa, in the Far East and India, it parallels the genesis of other Islamic sciences in its assimilation of foreign material and the amalgamation of the disparate elements of that material to create a science with Islamic characteristics. These included Greek and Indian works in particular, which were translated and built upon. Islamic astronomy played a significant role in the revival of Byzantine and European astronomy following the loss of knowledge during the early medieval period, notably with the production of Latin translations of Arabic works during the 12th century. Islamic astronomy had an influence on Chinese astronomy and Malian astronomy. A significant number of stars in the sky, such as Aldebaran and Deneb, astronomical terms such as alidade and nadir, are still referred to by their Arabic names.
A large corpus of literature from Islamic astronomy remains today, numbering 10,000 manuscripts scattered throughout the world, many of which have not been read or catalogued. So, a reasonably accurate picture of Islamic activity in the field of astronomy can be reconstructed. Ahmad Dallal notes that, unlike the Babylonians and Indians, who had developed elaborate systems of mathematical astronomical study, the pre-Islamic Arabs relied on empirical observations; these observations were based on the rising and setting of particular stars, this area of astronomical study was known as anwa. Anwa continued to be developed after Islamization by the Arabs, where Islamic astronomers added mathematical methods to their empirical observations. According to David King, after the rise of Islam, the religious obligation to determine the qibla and prayer times inspired more progress in astronomy for centuries. Donald Hill divided Islamic Astronomy into the four following distinct time periods in its history: Following the Islamic conquests, under the early caliphate, Muslim scholars began to absorb Hellenistic and Indian astronomical knowledge via translations into Arabic.
The first astronomical texts that were translated into Arabic were of Persian origin. The most notable of the texts was Zij al-Sindhind, an 8th-century Indian astronomical work, translated by Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Fazari and Yaqub ibn Tariq after 770 CE with the assistance of Indian astronomers who visited the court of caliph Al-Mansur in 770. Another text translated was the Zij al-Shah, a collection of astronomical tables compiled in Sasanid Persia over two centuries. Fragments of texts during this period indicate that Arabs adopted the sine function in place of the chords of arc used in Greek trigonometry; the House of Wisdom was an academy established in Baghdad under Abbasid caliph Al-Ma'mun in the early 9th century. From this time, independent investigation into the Ptolemaic system became possible. According to Dallal, the use of parameters and calculation methods from different scientific traditions made the Ptolemaic tradition "receptive right from the beginning to the possibility of observational refinement and mathematical restructuring".
Astronomical research was supported by the Abbasid caliph al-Mamun through The House of Wisdom. Baghdad and Damascus became the centers of such activity; the caliphs not only endowed the work with formal prestige. The first major Muslim work of astronomy was Zij al-Sindh by al-Khwarizmi in 830; the work contains tables for the movements of the Sun, the Moon and the five planets known at the time. The work is significant; this work marks the turning point in Islamic astronomy. Hitherto, Muslim astronomers had adopted a research approach to the field, translating works of others and learning discovered knowledge. Al-Khwarizmi's work marked the beginning of nontraditional methods of study and calculations. In 850, al-Farghani wrote Kitab fi Jawani; the book gave a summary of Ptolemic cosmography. However, it corrected Ptolemy based on findings of earlier Arab astronomers. Al-Farghani gave revised values for the obliquity of the ecliptic, the precessional movement of the apogees of the Sun and the Moon, the circumference of the Earth.
The book was circulated through the Muslim world, translated into Latin. In addition to Alfraganus's findings, Egyptian Astronomer Ibn Yunus was the first Astronomer to find valid fault in Ptolemy's calculations about the planet's movements and their peculiarity in the late 10th century. Ptolemy calculated that Earth's wobble, otherwise known as precession, varied 1 degree every 100 years. Ibn Yunus contradicted this finding by calculating; this was impossible to believe, since it was still thought that the Earth was the center of the universe. Ibn Yunus and Ibn al-Shatir's findings were part of Copernicus's calculations to figure out that the Sun was the center of the universe; the period when a distinctive Islamic system of astronomy flourished. The period began as the Muslim astronomers began questioning the framework of the Ptolemaic system of astronomy; these criticisms, remained within the geocentric framework and followed Ptolemy's astronomical paradigm.
Morocco the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country located in the Maghreb region of North West Africa with an area of 710,850 km2. Its capital is the largest city Casablanca, it overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Morocco claims the areas of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, all of them under Spanish jurisdiction. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa; the Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, allowing Morocco to remain the only northwest African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, which rules to this day, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, it regained its independence in 1956, has since remained comparatively stable and prosperous by regional standards.
Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco occupies two thirds of the territory, peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock; the unitary sovereign state of Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors; the king can issue decrees called dahirs. He can dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court.
Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, its official languages are Arabic and Berber. E; the Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, French are widely spoken. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Sephardi Jews, West African and European influences. Morocco is a member of the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union, it has the fifth largest economy of Africa. The full Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah translates to "Kingdom of the West". For historical references, medieval Arab historians and geographers sometimes referred to Morocco as al-Maghrib al-Aqṣá to distinguish it from neighbouring historical regions called al-Maghrib al-Awsaṭ and al-Maghrib al-Adná; the basis of Morocco's English name is Marrakesh, its capital under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad Caliphate. The origin of the name Marrakesh is disputed, but is most from the Berber words amur akush or "Land of God"; the modern Berber name for Marrakesh is Mṛṛakc. In Turkish, Morocco is known as a name derived from its ancient capital of Fes.
However, this was not the case in other parts of the Islamic world: until the middle of the 20th century, the common name of Morocco in Egyptian and Middle Eastern Arabic literature was Marrakesh. The English name Morocco is an anglicisation of the Spanish "Marruecos", from which derives the Tuscan "Morrocco", the origin of the Italian "Marocco"; the area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between 190,000 and 90,000 BC. A recent publication may demonstrate an earlier habitation period, as Homo sapiens fossils discovered in the late 2000s near the Atlantic coast in Jebel Irhoud were dated to 315,000 years before present. During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, resembling a savanna more than today's arid landscape. Twenty-two thousand years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the Iberomaurusian "Mechta-Afalou" burials and European Cro-Magnon remains.
The Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Beaker culture in Morocco. Mitochondrial DNA studies have discovered the Saami of Scandinavia; this supports theories that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of southwestern Europe was the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers who repopulated northern Europe after the last ice age. Northwest Africa and Morocco were drawn into the wider emerging Mediterranean world by the Phoenicians, who established trading colonies and settlements in the early Classical period. Substantial Phoenician settlements were at Chellah and Mogador. Mogador was a Phoenician colony as early as the early 6th century BC. Morocco became a realm of the Northwest African civilisation of ancie