Ibn al-Durayhim

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ʻAlī ibn Muḥammad Ibn al-Durayhim (Arabic: ابن الدريهم‎; 1312–1359/62 CE) was an Arab[1] cryptologist who gave detailed descriptions of eight cipher systems that discussed substitution ciphers, leading to the earliest suggestion of a "tableau" of the kind that two centuries later became known as the "Vigenère table".[2]

His book entitled Clear Chapters Goals and Solving Ciphers was recently discovered, but has yet to be published. It includes the use of the statistical techniques pioneered by Al-Kindi and Ibn 'Adlan.[3]


  1. ^ Deavours, Cipher A. (1997). Selections from Cryptologia: History, People, and Technology. Artech House. ISBN 9780890068625. 
  2. ^ Leeuw, ed. by Karl de; Bergstra, Jan (2007). The History of Information Security: A Comprehensive Handbook (1. ed.). Elsevier. p. 279. ISBN 0444516085. 
  3. ^ Broemeling, Lyle D. (1 November 2011). "An Account of Early Statistical Inference in Arab Cryptology". The American Statistician. 65 (4): 255–257. doi:10.1198/tas.2011.10191.