A geographer is a scientist whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society. The Greek prefix, "geo," means "earth" and the Greek suffix, "graphy," meaning "description," so a geographer is someone who studies the earth; the word "geography" is a Middle French word, believed to have been first used in 1540. Although geographers are known as people who make maps, map making is the field of study of cartography, a subset of geography. Geographers do not study only the details of the natural environment or human society, but they study the reciprocal relationship between these two. For example, they study how the natural environment contributes to human society and how human society affects the natural environment. In particular, physical geographers study the natural environment while human geographers study human society. Modern geographers are the primary practitioners of the GIS, who are employed by local and federal government agencies as well as in the private sector by environmental and engineering firms.
The paintings by Johannes Vermeer titled The Geographer and The Astronomer are both thought to represent the growing influence and rise in prominence of scientific enquiry in Europe at the time of their painting in 1668–69. There are three major fields of study, which are further subdivided: Physical geography: including geomorphology, glaciology, climatology, pedology, oceanography and environmental geography. Human geography: including Urban geography, cultural geography, economic geography, political geography, historical geography, marketing geography, health geography, social geography. Regional geography: including atmosphere and lithosphereThe National Geographic Society identifies five broad key themes for geographers: location place human-environment interaction movement regions Media related to Geographers at Wikimedia Commons Steven Seegel. Map Men: Transnational Lives and Deaths of Geographers in the Making of East Central Europe. University of Chicago Press, 2018. ISBN 978-0-226-43849-8
Derviş Mehmed Zillî, known as Evliya Çelebi, was an Ottoman explorer who travelled through the territory of the Ottoman Empire and neighboring lands over a period of forty years, recording his commentary in a travelogue called the Seyahatname. The name Çelebi is an honorific title meaning gentleman. Evliya Çelebi was born in Constantinople in 1611 to a wealthy family from Kütahya. Both his parents were attached to the Ottoman court, his father, Derviş Mehmed Zilli, as a jeweller, his mother as an Abkhazian relation of the grand vizier Melek Ahmed Pasha. In his book, Evliya Çelebi traces his paternal genealogy back to Khoja Akhmet Yassawi, an early Sufi mystic. Evliya Çelebi received a court education from the Imperial ulama, he may have joined the Gulshani Sufi order, as he shows an intimate knowledge of their khanqah in Cairo, a graffito exists in which he referred to himself as Evliya-yı Gülşenî. A devout Muslim opposed to fanaticism, Evliya could recite the Quran from memory and joked about Islam.
Though employed as clergy and entertainer to the Ottoman grandees, Evliya refused employment that would keep him from travelling. His journal writing began in Constantinople, taking notes on buildings, markets and culture, in 1640 it was extended with accounts of his travels beyond the confines of the city; the collected notes of his travels form. He fought the House of Habsburg in Principality of Transylvania. Evliya Çelebi died in 1684, it is unclear whether he was in Cairo at the time. Evliya Çelebi visited the town of Mostar in Ottoman Bosnia and Herzegovina, he wrote that the name Mostar means "bridge-keeper", in reference to the town's celebrated bridge, 28 meters long and 20 meters high. Çelebi wrote that it "is like a rainbow arch soaring up to the skies, extending from one cliff to the other.... I, a poor and miserable slave of Allah, have passed through 16 countries, but I have never seen such a high bridge, it is thrown from rock to rock as high as the sky." In 1660 Çelebi went to Kosovo and referred to the central part of the region as Arnavud and noted that in Vučitrn its inhabitants were speakers of Albanian or Turkish and few spoke "Boşnakca".
The highlands around the Tetovo, Peć and Prizren areas Çelebi considered as being the "mountains of Arnavudluk". Çelebi referred to the "mountains of Peć" as being in Arnavudluk and considered the Ibar river that converged in Mitrovica as forming Kosovo's border with Bosnia. He viewed the "Kılab" or Lab river as having its source in Arnavudluk and by extension the Sitnica as being part of that river. Çelebi included the central mountains of Kosovo within Arnavudluk. Çelebi claimed to have encountered Native Americans as a guest in Rotterdam during his visit of 1663. He wrote: " cursed those priests, saying,'Our world used to be peaceful, but it has been filled by greedy people, who make war every year and shorten our lives.'"While visiting Vienna in 1665–66, Çelebi noted some similarities between words in German and Persian, an early observation of the relationship between what would be known as two Indo-European languages. Çelebi visited Crete and in book II describes the fall of Chania to the Sultan.
Of oil merchants in Baku Çelebi wrote: "By Allah's decree oil bubbles up out of the ground, but in the manner of hot springs, pools of water are formed with oil congealed on the surface like cream. Merchants wade into these pools and collect the oil in ladles and fill goatskins with it, these oil merchants sell them in different regions. Revenues from this oil trade are delivered annually directly to the Safavid Shah." Evliya Çelebi remarked on the impact of Cossack raids from Azak upon the territories of the Crimean Khanate, destroying trade routes and depopulating the regions. By the time of Çelebi's arrival, many of the towns visited were affected by the Cossacks, the only place he reported as safe was the Ottoman fortress at Arabat.Çelebi wrote of the slave trade in the Crimea: A man who had not seen this market, had not seen anything in this world. A mother is severed from her son and daughter there, a son—from his father and brother, they are sold amongst lamentations, cries of help and sorrow.
In 1667 Çelebi expressed his marvel at the Parthenon's sculptures and described the building as "like some impregnable fortress not made by human agency." He composed a poetic supplication that the Parthenon, as "a work less of human hands than of Heaven itself, should remain standing for all time." In contrast to many European and some Jewish travelogues of Syria and Palestine in the 17th century, Çelebi wrote one of the few detailed travelogues from an Islamic point of view. Çelebi visited Palestine twice, once in 1649 and once in 1670–1. An English translation of the first part, with some passages from the second, was published in 1935–1940 by the self-taught Palestinian scholar Stephan Hanna Stephan who worked for the Palestine Department of Antiquities. Although many of the descriptions the Seyâhatnâme were written in an exaggerated manner or were plainly inventive fiction or third-source misinterpretation, his notes remain a useful guide to the culture and lifestyles of the 17th century Ottoman Empire.
The first volume deals with Constantinople, the final volume with Egypt. There is no English translation of the entire Seyahatname, although there are translations of various parts; the longest single English translation was published in 1834 by Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall, an Austrian orientalist: it may be found unde
Ahmed Muhiddin Piri, better known as Piri Reis, was an Ottoman admiral, navigator and cartographer. He is known today for his maps and charts collected in his Kitab-ı Bahriye, a book that contains detailed information on navigation, as well as accurate charts describing the important ports and cities of the Mediterranean Sea, he gained fame as a cartographer when a small part of his first world map was discovered in 1929 at the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. His world map is the oldest known Turkish atlas showing the New World, one of the oldest maps of America still in existence anywhere. Piri Reis' map is centered on the Sahara at the latitude of the Tropic of Cancer. In 1528, Piri Reis drew a second world map. According to his imprinting text, he had drawn his maps using about 20 foreign charts and mappae mundi including one by Christopher Columbus, he was executed in 1553. For many years, little was known about the identity of Piri Reis; the name Piri Reis means Captain Piri. Today, based on the Ottoman archives, it is known that his full name was "Hacı Ahmed Muhiddin Piri" and that he was born either in Gelibolu on the European part of the Ottoman Empire, or in Karaman in central Anatolia the capital of the Beylik of Karaman.
The exact date of his birth is unknown. His father's name was Hacı Mehmed Piri; the honorary and informal Islamic title Hadji in Piri's and his father's names indicate that they both had completed the Hajj by going to Mecca during the dedicated annual period. Piri began engaging in government-supported privateering when he was young, following his uncle Kemal Reis, a well-known corsair and seafarer of the time, who became a famous admiral of the Ottoman Navy. During this period, together with his uncle, he took part in many naval wars of the Ottoman Empire against Spain, the Republic of Genoa and the Republic of Venice, including the First Battle of Lepanto in 1499 and the Second Battle of Lepanto in 1500; when his uncle Kemal Reis died in 1511, Piri returned to Gelibolu, where he started working on his studies about navigation. By 1516, he was again at sea as a ship captain in the Ottoman fleet, he took part in the 1516–17 Ottoman conquest of Egypt. In 1522 he participated in the Siege of Rhodes against the Knights of St. John, which ended with the island's surrender to the Ottomans on 25 December 1522 and the permanent departure of the Knights from Rhodes on 1 January 1523.
In 1524 he captained the ship. In 1547, Piri had risen to the rank of Reis as the Commander of the Ottoman Fleet in the Indian Ocean and Admiral of the Fleet in Egypt, headquartered in Suez. On 26 February 1548 he recaptured Aden from the Portuguese, followed in 1552 by the sack of Muscat, which Portugal had occupied since 1507, the strategically important island of Kish. Turning further east, Piri Reis attempted to capture the island of Hormuz in the Strait of Hormuz, at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, unsuccessfully; when the Portuguese turned their attention to the Persian Gulf, Piri Reis occupied the Qatar peninsula to deprive the Portuguese of suitable bases on the Arabian coast. He returned to Egypt, an old man approaching the age of 90; when he refused to support the Ottoman Vali of Basra, Kubad Pasha, in another campaign against the Portuguese in the northern Persian Gulf, Piri Reis was beheaded in 1553. Several warships and submarines of the Turkish Navy have been named after Piri Reis.
Piri Reis is the author of the Kitāb-ı Baḥrīye, or "Book of the Sea", one of the most famous cartographical works of the period. The work was first published in 1521, it was revised in 1524-1525 with additional information and better-crafted charts in order to be presented as a gift to Suleiman I; the revised edition had a total of 434 pages containing 290 maps. Although he was not an explorer and never sailed to the Atlantic, he compiled over twenty maps of Arab, Portuguese, Chinese and older Greek origins into a comprehensive representation of the known world of his era; this work included the explored shores of both the African and American continents. In his text, he wrote that he used the "maps drawn in the time of Alexander the Great" as a source, but most he had mistakenly confused the 2nd-century Greek geographer Ptolemy with Alexander's general of the same name, since his map is similar with the Jan of Stobnica famous reproduction map of Ptolemy, printed in 1512. Ptolemy's Geographia had been translated in Turkish after a personal order of Mehmed II some decades before.
It can be seen that the Atlantic part of the map originates with Columbus because of the errors it contains
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory; some historians are recognized by training and experience. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere. During the Irving v Penguin Books and Lipstadt trial, it became evident that the court needed to identify what was an "objective historian" in the same vein as the reasonable person, reminiscent of the standard traditionally used in English law of "the man on the Clapham omnibus"; this was necessary so that there would be a legal bench mark to compare and contrast the scholarship of an objective historian against the illegitimate methods employed by David Irving, as before the Irving v Penguin Books and Lipstadt trial, there was no legal precedent for what constituted an objective historian.
Justice Gray leant on the research of one of the expert witnesses, Richard J. Evans, who compared illegitimate distortion of the historical record practice by holocaust deniers with established historical methodologies. By summarizing Gray's judgement, in an article published in the Yale Law Journal, Wendie E. Schneider distils these seven points for what he meant by an objective historian: The historian must treat sources with appropriate reservations. Schneider uses the concept of the "objective historian" to suggest that this could be an aid in assessing what makes an historian suitable as an expert witnesses under the Daubert standard in the United States. Schneider proposed this, because, in her opinion, Irving could have passed the standard Daubert tests unless a court was given "a great deal of assistance from historians". Schneider proposes that by testing an historian against the criteria of the "objective historian" even if an historian holds specific political views, providing the historian uses the "objective historian" standards, he or she is a "conscientious historian".
It was Irving's failure as an "objective historian" not his right wing views that caused him to lose his libel case, as a "conscientious historian" would not have "deliberately misrepresented and manipulated historical evidence" to support his political views. The process of historical analysis involves investigation and analysis of competing ideas and purported facts to create coherent narratives that explain "what happened" and "why or how it happened". Modern historical analysis draws upon other social sciences, including economics, politics, anthropology and linguistics. While ancient writers do not share modern historical practices, their work remains valuable for its insights within the cultural context of the times. An important part of the contribution of many modern historians is the verification or dismissal of earlier historical accounts through reviewing newly discovered sources and recent scholarship or through parallel disciplines like archaeology. Understanding the past appears to be a universal human need, the telling of history has emerged independently in civilizations around the world.
What constitutes history is a philosophical question. The earliest chronologies date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, though no historical writers in these early civilizations were known by name. Systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, a development that became an important influence on the writing of history elsewhere around the Mediterranean region; the earliest known critical historical works were The Histories, composed by Herodotus of Halicarnassus who became known as the "father of history". Herodotus attempted to distinguish between more and less reliable accounts, conducted research by travelling extensively, giving written accounts of various Mediterranean cultures. Although Herodotus' overall emphasis lay on the actions and characters of men, he attributed an important role to divinity in the determination of historical events. Thucydides eliminated divine causality in his account of the war between Athens and Sparta, establishing a rationalistic element that set a precedent for subsequent Western historical writings.
He was the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event, while his successor Xenophon introduced autobiographical elements and character studies in his Anabasis. The Romans adopted the Greek tradition. While early Roman works were still written in Greek, the Origines, composed by the Roman statesman Cato the Elder, was written in Latin, in a conscious effort to counteract Greek cultural influence. Strabo was an important exponent of the Greco-Roman tradition of combining geography with history, presenting a descriptive history of peoples and places known to his era. Livy (59 BCE
Al-Mas‘udi was an Arab historian and traveler. He is sometimes referred to as the "Herodotus of the Arabs". Al-Mas‘udi was one of the first to combine history and scientific geography in a large-scale work, The Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems, a world history. More described as prolific and as a polymath, he was the author of "over twenty" works, which dealt with "a wide variety of religious and secular subjects, including history, the natural sciences and theology." Apart from what Al-Mas‘udi writes of himself little is known. He had been born in Baghdad and was descended from Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud, a companion of the Prophet Muhammad, he mentions the names of many scholar associates. The true extent of al-Mas‘udi's travels has met some skepticism, yet conservative estimates hold it was considerable: Al-Mas‘udi's travels occupied most of his life from at least 903/915 CE to near the end of his life, his journeys took him to most of the Persian provinces, Armenia and other regions of the Caspian Sea.
He travelled to the Indus Valley, other parts of India the western coast. He sailed on the Indian Ocean, the Red Sea, the Mediterranean and the Caspian; some biographies include Sri Lanka and China among his travels, but we know that he received information on China from Abu Zaid al-Sirafi whom he met on the coast of the Persian Gulf. In Syria al-Mas‘udi met the Byzantine admiral convert-to-Islam, Leo of Tripoli, from whom he learned much about Byzantium, he spent his last years in Egypt. In Egypt he found a copy of a Frankish king list from Clovis to Louis IV, written by an Andalusian bishop. Little is known of his means and funding of his extensive travels within and beyond the lands of Islam, it has been speculated that like many travelers he may have been involved in trade. Towards the end of The Meadows of Gold, al-Mas‘udi wrote: The information we have gathered here is the fruit of long years of research and painful efforts of our voyages and journeys across the East and the West, of the various nations that lie beyond the regions of Islam.
The author of this work compares himself to a man who, having found pearls of all kinds and colours, gathers them together into a necklace and makes them into an ornament that its possessor guards with great care. My aim has been to trace the lands and the histories of many peoples, I have no other. We know that al-Mas‘udi wrote a revised edition of Muruj adh-dhahab in 956 CE. Al-Mas ` udi in his Tanbih states. Lunde and Stone provide a detailed reminder of the intellectual environment in which al-Mas‘udi lived: He lived at a time when books were available and cheap. Aside from large public libraries in major towns like Baghdad, many individuals, like Mas‘udi's friend al-Suli, had private libraries containing thousands of volumes; the prevalence of books and their low price was the result of the introduction of paper to the Islamic world by Chinese papermakers captured at the Battle of Talas in 751. Soon afterwards there were paper mills in most large towns and cities; the introduction of paper coincided with the coming to power of the Abbasid dynasty, there is no doubt that the availability of cheap writing material contributed to the growth of the Abbasid bureaucracy, postal system, lively intellectual life.
They note that Mas‘udi encourages his readers to consult other books he has written, expecting these to be accessible to his readership. They note the stark contrast between contemporary European conditions confronting say the author of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and this literate Islamic world. Ahmad Shboul mentions the rich blend of Greek philosophy, Persian literature, Indian mathematics and the rich heritage of the ancient cultures that went into the vigorous life of the day; this enabled the society of the day to manifest a knowledge seeking and analytical attitude. There was a natural association of scholarly minded people in this civilized atmosphere, al-Mas‘udi much took part in this energizing activity. Al-Mas‘udi was a pupil or junior colleague of a number of prominent intellectuals, including the philologists al-Zajjaj, ibn Duraid and ibn Anbari, he was acquainted with famous poets, including Kashajim, whom he met in Aleppo. He was well read in philosophy, knowing the works of al-Kindi and al-Razi, the Aristotelian thought of al-Farabi and the Platonic writings.
Al-Mas‘udi's extant writings do not confirm his meeting with his contemporaries al-Razi and al-Farabi, however such meetings were likely. He does record his meeting with al-Farabi's pupil Yahya ibn Adi. In addition he was familiar with the medical work of Galen, with Ptolemaic astronomy, with the geographical work of Marinus and with the studies of Islamic geographers and astronomers, he indicates training in jurisprudence. He was aware of the work of others. Subki states that al-Mas‘udi was a student of ibn Surayj, the leading scholar of the Shafi'ite school. Al-Subki claimed. Al-Mas‘udi met Shafi'ites during his stay in Egypt, he met Zahirites in Aleppo such as Ibn Jabir and Niftawayh.
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī, known as Al-Biruni in English, was an Iranian scholar and polymath. He was from Khwarazm – a region which encompasses modern-day western Uzbekistan, northern Turkmenistan. Biruni is regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era and was well versed in physics, mathematics and natural sciences, distinguished himself as a historian and linguist, he studied all fields of science and was compensated for his research and strenuous work. Royalty and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni to conduct research and study to uncover certain findings, he lived during the Islamic Golden Age, in which scholarly thought went hand in hand with the thinking and methodology of the Islamic religion. In addition to this type of influence, Al-Biruni was influenced by other nations, such as the Greeks, who he took inspiration from when he turned to studies of philosophy, he was conversant in Khwarezmian, Arabic and knew Greek and Syriac. He spent much of his life in Ghazni capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty, in modern-day central-eastern Afghanistan.
In 1017 he travelled to South Asia and authored a study of Indian culture after exploring the Hinduism practised in India. He was given the title "founder of Indology", he was an impartial writer on customs and creeds of various nations, was given the title al-Ustadh for his remarkable description of early 11th-century India. He was born in the outer district of the capital of the Afrighid dynasty of Khwarezm. To conduct research, Al-Biruni used different methods to tackle the various fields. Many consider Al-Biruni one of the greatest scientists in history, of Islam because of his discoveries and methodology, he lived during the Islamic Golden Age, which promoted astronomy and encouraged all scholars to work on their research. Al-Biruni spent the first twenty-five years of his life in Khwarezm where he studied Islamic jurisprudence, grammar, astronomy, medicine and dabbled in the field of physics and most other sciences as well; the Iranian Khwarezmian language, the language of Biruni, survived for several centuries after Islam until the Turkification of the region, so must some at least of the culture and lore of ancient Khwarezm, for it is hard to see the commanding figure of Biruni, a repository of so much knowledge, appearing in a cultural vacuum.
He was sympathetic to the Afrighids, who were overthrown by the rival dynasty of Ma'munids in 995. He left his homeland for Bukhara under the Samanid ruler Mansur II the son of Nuh. There he corresponded with Avicenna and there are extant exchanges of views between these two scholars. In 998, he went to the court of the Ziyarid amir of Tabaristan, Shams al-Mo'ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir. There he wrote his first important work, al-Athar al-Baqqiya'an al-Qorun al-Khaliyya on historical and scientific chronology around 1000 A. D. though he made some amendments to the book. He visited the court of the Bavandid ruler Al-Marzuban. Accepting the definite demise of the Afrighids at the hands of the Ma'munids, he made peace with the latter who ruled Khwarezm, their court at Gorganj was gaining fame for its gathering of brilliant scientists. In 1017, Mahmud of Ghazni took Rey. Most scholars, including al-Biruni, were taken to the capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty. Biruni was made court astrologer and accompanied Mahmud on his invasions into India, living there for a few years.
He was forty-four years old. Biruni became acquainted with all things related to India, he may have learned some Sanskrit. During this time he wrote his study of India, finishing it around 1030. Along with his writing, Al-Biruni made sure to extend his study to science while on the expeditions, he sought to find a method to measure the height of the sun, created an early version of an astrolabe for that purpose. Al-Biruni was able to make much progress in his study over the frequent travels that he went on throughout the lands of India. Ninety-five of 146 books known to have been written by Bīrūnī were devoted to astronomy and related subjects like mathematical geography, his religion contributed to his research of astronomy, as in Islam and prayer require knowing the precise directions of sacred locations, which can only be found using astronomical data. Biruni's major work on astrology is an astronomical and mathematical text, only the last chapter concerns astrological prognostication, his endorsement of astrology is limited, in so far as he condemns horary astrology as'sorcery'.
In discussing speculation by other Muslim writers on the possible motion of the Earth, Biruni acknowledged that he could neither prove nor disprove it, but commented favourably on the idea that the Earth rotates. He wrote an extensive commentary on Indian astronomy in the Tahqiq ma li-l-hind translation of Aryabhatta's work, in which he claims to have resolved the matter of Earth's rotation in a work on astronomy, no longer extant, his Miftah-ilm-alhai'a: he rotation of the earth does in no way impair the value of astronomy, as all appearances of an astronomic character can quite as well be explained according to this theory as to the other. There
Ḥamdallāh Mustawfī Qazvīnī was a Persian historian and epic poet, descended from a family of Arab origin. Mustawfi is the author of Nozhat ol-Gholub, Zafar-Nameh, the Tarikh e Gozideh, his tomb is a structure with a blue turquoise conical dome, at Qazvin. In his works regarding the history of Tabriz, Mustawfi mentions that before the arrival of the Mongols the people of Tabriz spoke Pahalavi Persian and began to speak Adhari Turkish during Illkhanate rule, he mentions that the people of Maragha and Ardabil had their own Persian dialects. Verily God hath preferred amongst His creatures of the Arabs the Quraysh, among the Persians the men of Fars: for which reason the people of this province... were known as' the Best of the Persians.' List of Iranian scientists Ḥamd-Allāh Mostawfi at Encyclopædia Iranica