Two terms traditionally used in the Islamic world are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa, which refers to philosophy as well as logic and physics. Early Islamic philosophy began with al-Kindi in the 2nd century of the Islamic calendar and ended with Averroes in the 6th century AH, broadly coinciding with the period known as the Golden Age of Islam; the death of Averroes marked the end of a particular discipline of Islamic philosophy called the Peripatetic Arabic School, philosophical activity declined in Western Islamic countries such as Islamic Iberia and North Africa. Islamic philosophy persisted for much longer in Muslim Eastern countries, in particular Safavid Persia and Mughal Empires, where several schools of philosophy continued to flourish: Avicennism, Illuminationist philosophy, Mystical philosophy, Transcendent theosophy, Isfahan philosophy. Ibn Khaldun, in his Muqaddimah, made important contributions to the philosophy of history. Interest in Islamic philosophy revived during the Nahda movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, continues to the present day.
Islamic philosophy had a major impact in Christian Europe, where translation of Arabic philosophical texts into Latin "led to the transformation of all philosophical disciplines in the medieval Latin world", with a strong influence of Muslim philosophers being felt in natural philosophy and metaphysics. Islamic philosophy refers to philosophy produced in an Islamic society. Islamic philosophy is a generic term that can be used in different ways. In its broadest sense it means the world view of Islam, as derived from the Islamic texts concerning the creation of the universe and the will of the Creator. In another sense it refers to any of the schools of thought that flourished under the Islamic empire or in the shadow of the Arab-Islamic culture and Islamic civilization. In its narrowest sense it is a translation of Falsafa, meaning those particular schools of thought that most reflect the influence of Greek systems of philosophy such as Neoplatonism and Aristotelianism, it is not concerned with religious issues, nor produced by Muslims.
Nor do all schools of thought within Islam admit the usefulness or legitimacy of philosophical inquiry. Some argue that there is no indication that the limited knowledge and experience of humans can lead to truth, it is important to observe that, while "reason" is sometimes recognised as a source of Islamic law, this may have a different meaning from "reason" in philosophy. The historiography of Islamic philosophy is marked by disputes as to how the subject should be properly interpreted; some of the key issues involve the comparative importance of eastern intellectuals such as Ibn Sina and of western thinkers such as Ibn Rushd, whether Islamic philosophy can be read at face value or should be interpreted in an esoteric fashion. Supporters of the latter thesis, like Leo Strauss, maintain that Islamic philosophers wrote so as to conceal their true meaning in order to avoid religious persecution, but scholars such as Oliver Leaman disagree; the main sources of classical or early Islamic philosophy are the religion of Islam itself and Greek philosophy which the early Muslims inherited as a result of conquests, along with pre-Islamic Indian philosophy and Persian philosophy.
Many of the early philosophical debates centered around reconciling religion and reason, the latter exemplified by Greek philosophy. Some Muslims oppose the idea of philosophy as un-Islamic; the popular Salafist website IslamQA.info declares philosophy to be an "alien entity": The terminology of Islamic philosophy did not emerge as a branch of knowledge, taught in the curriculum of Islamic studies until it was introduced by Shaykh Mustafa Abd al-Raziq – the Shaykh of al-Azhar – as a reaction to western attacks on Islam based on the idea that Islam has no philosophy. But the fact of the matter is; the fatwa claims that "the majority of fuqaha’ have stated that it is haraam to study philosophy, lists some of these: Ibn Nujaym writing in al-Ashbaah wa’l-Nazaa’im. Maani’ Hammad al-Juhani, is quoted as declaring that because philosophy does not follow the moral guidelines of the Sunnah, "philosophy, as defined by the philosophers, is one of the most dangerous falsehoods and most vicious in fighting faith and religion on the basis of logic, which it is easy to use to confuse people in the name of reason and metaphor that distort the religious texts".
Ibn Abi al-Izz, a commentator on al-Tahhaawiyyah, condemns philosophers as the ones who "most deny the Last Day and its events. In their view Paradise and Hell are no more than parables for the masses to understand, but they have no reality beyond people’s minds." In early Islamic
Almería is a city in Andalusia, located in the southeast of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea, is the capital of the province of the same name. It was Abd-ar-Rahman III who founded the Alcazaba, which gave this city its name: Al-Mari'yah. In the 10th and 11th centuries, it formed part of the Caliphate of Córdoba, grew wealthy on trade and the textile industry silk, it suffered many sieges and fell under Christian domination in 1489. In 1522, Almería was devastated by an earthquake and rebuilding and recovery did not get underway until the 19th century. During the Spanish Civil War, the city was shelled by the German Navy, fell to Franco in 1939, it has since rebuilt its economy around vegetable production, with 100,000 acres of greenhouses, supplying much of Europe. In the first century, Christian documents report that there was a town named Urci near the current site of Almería, in the Hispania of the Roman Empire. However, this is disputed. However, missionary Saint Indaletius is said to have evangelized Urci and become its first bishop, is the patron saint of Almería.
The city was refounded by Calipha Abd-ar-Rahman III of Córdoba in 955 AD. It was to be a principal harbour in his extensive domain to strengthen his Mediterranean defences, its Moorish castle, the Alcazaba of Almería, is the second largest among the Muslim fortresses of Andalusia, after the Alhambra. In this period, the port city of Almería reached its historical peak. After the fragmentation of the Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031, Almería continued to be ruled by powerful local Muslim Taifa emirs like Jairan, the first independent Emir of Almería and Cartagena, Almotacin, the poet emir. Both Jairan and Almotacin were fearless warriors, but sophisticated patrons of the arts. A silk industry, based upon plantings of mulberry trees in the hot, dry landscape of the province, supported Almería in the 11th century and made its strategic harbour an more valuable asset. Contested by the emirs of Granada and Valencia, Almería experienced many sieges, including one fierce siege when Christians, called to the Second Crusade by Pope Eugene III, were encouraged to counter the Muslim forces on a more familiar coast.
On that occasion Alfonso VII, starting on 11 July 1147, at the head of mixed armies of Catalans, Genoese and Franks, led a crusade against the rich city, Almería was captured on 17 October 1147. Within a decade, Almería had passed to the control of the Muslim Almoravid emirs, not until the late 15th century did it became again a Christian city when it accepted the sovereignty the Catholic Monarchs and Isabel, on December 26, 1489; the 16th century was for Almería a century of human catastrophes. The people who had remained Muslim were expelled from Almería after the War of Las Alpujarras in 1568 and scattered across Spain. Landings and attacks by Berber pirates were frequent in the 16th century, continued until the early 18th century. At that time, huge iron mines were discovered and French and British companies set up business in the area, bringing renewed prosperity and returning Almería to a position of relative importance within Spain. During the Spanish Civil War the city was shelled by the German Navy, with news reaching the London and Parisian press about the "criminal bombardment of Almería by German planes".
Almería surrendered in 1939. In the second half of the 20th century, Almería witnessed spectacular economic growth due to tourism and intensive agriculture, with crops grown year-round in massive invernaderos – plastic-covered "greenhouses" – for intensive vegetable production. After Franco's death and popular approval of the new Spanish Constitution, the people of southern Spain were called on to approve an autonomous status for the region in a referendum. While the referendum were approved with 118,186 votes for and 11,092 votes against in Almería province, an absolute majority of all 279,300 registered electors was needed, the result in Almería was just 42%; the Government impugned the result, Almería remained part of the present autonomous region of Andalusia. The Alcazaba, a medieval fortress, begun in the 10th century but destroyed by an earthquake in 1522, it includes a triple line of a majestic keep and large gardens. It commands a city quarter with buildings dressed in pastel colors, of Muslim-age aspect.
Almería air raid shelters, underground galleries for civilian protection during the Spanish Civil War the longest in Europe open for tourists. The Cathedral has a fortress-like appearance due to its towers and protected paths, created to defend it from Mediterranean pirates. Designated as a mosque, it was converted into a Christian church, before being destroyed in the 1522 earthquake. In the 16th century it was rebuilt in the Renaissance style, whilst keeping some of its defensive features. Renaissance church of Santiago, built in 1533, with tower and portal decorated with reliefs. Chanca, a group of houses carved into rocks. Castle of San Cristobal, now in ruins, it is connected to the Alcazaba by a line of walls. Museum of Almería. Includes findings from Prehistoric, Roman, Greek ages and Muslim objects from the Alcazaba. Paseo de Coches, a modern seaside promenade with gardens and palms. Almería has the highest proportion of Muslim population of any Spanish city at 11-20%, depending on source.
Famous natives of Almería include Nicolás Salmerón y Alonso, who in 1873 was the third president
Fez is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fas-Meknas administrative region. It is the second largest city in Morocco with a population of 1.4 million. Located to the northeast of Atlas Mountains, Fez is situated at the crossroad of the important cities of all regions, it is surrounded by the high grounds, the old city is penetrated by the River of Fez flowing from the west to east. Fez was founded under the Idrisid rule during the 8th-9th century, it consisted of competing settlements. The migration of 2000 Arab families in the early 9th century gave the nascent city its Arabic character. After the downfall of the Idrisid dynasty, several empires came and went until the 11th century when the Almoravid Sultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin united the two settlements and rebuilt the city, which became today's Fes el Bali quarter. Under the Almoravid rule, the city gained a reputation for the religious scholarship and the mercantile activity. Fez was expanded during the Almohad rule and became the largest city in the world during 1170-1180 with the estimated population of 200,000.
Fez reached its zenith in the Marinid-era. Numerous madrasas, mosques and city gates were constructed which survived up until today; these buildings are considered the hallmarks of Moroccan architectural styles. Marinid sultans founded Fes Jdid quarter, where newer palaces and gardens were established. During this time, the Jewish population of the city grew as well, with the Mellah attracting the Jewish migrants from other North African regions. After the overthrow of the Marinid dynasty, the city declined and replaced by Marrakesh for political and cultural influence, but remained as the capital under the Wattasids and modern Morocco until 1912. Today, the city consists of two old medina quarters, Fes el Bali and Fes Jdid, modern urban area of Ville Nouvelle constructed during the French colonial era; the medina of Fez is listed as a World Heritage Site and is believed to be one of the world's largest urban pedestrian zones. It has the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in 859 and the oldest continuously functioning university in the world.
It has Chouara Tannery from the 11th century, one of the oldest tanneries in the world. The city has been called the "Mecca of the West" and the "Athens of Africa," a nickname it shares with Cyrene in Libya. Fez or Fas is related to the Berber name Fazaz of the region in which it was built; the name is itself derived from an ancient Berber tribe, called the Banu Fazaz in Arabic chronicles. An unfounded myth is that it was derived from the Arabic word فأس Faʾs which means pickaxe, which legends say Idris I of Morocco used when he created the lines of the city. One noticeable thing was that the pickaxe was made from gold. During the rule of the Idrisid dynasty, Fez consisted of two cities: Fas, founded by Idris I, al-ʿĀliyá, founded by his son, Idris II. During Idrisid rule the capital city was known as al-ʿĀliyá, with the name Fas being reserved for the separate site on the other side of the river, it is not known whether the name al-ʿĀliyá referred to both urban areas. It wasn't until 1070 that the two agglomerations were united and the name Fas was used for the combined site.
The city was founded on a bank of the Jawhar river by Idris I in 789, founder of the Idrisid dynasty. His son, Idris II, built a settlement on the opposing river bank; these settlements would soon develop into two walled and autonomous sites in conflict with one another: Madinat Fas and Al-'Aliya. In 808 Al-'Aliya replaced Walili as the capital of the Idrisids. Arab emigration to Fez, including 800 Andalusi families of Berber descent in 817–818 expelled after a rebellion against the Umayyads of Córdoba, 2000 Arab families banned from Kairouan after another rebellion in 824, gave the city its Arabic character; the Andalusians settled in what was called the Fez, while the Tunisians found their home in al-'Aliya. These two waves of immigrants would subsequently give their name to the sites'Adwat Al-Andalus and'Adwat al-Qarawiyyin. With the influx of Arabic-speaking Andalusians and Turnisians, the majority of the population was Arab, but rural Berbers from the surrounding countryside settled there throughout this early period in Madinat Fas and in Fes Jdid during the Marinid period.
Upon the death of Idris II in 828, the dynasty’s territory was divided among his sons. The eldest, received Fez; the newly fragmented Idrisid power would never again be reunified. During Yahya ibn Muhammad's rule in Fez the Kairouyine mosque, one of the oldest and largest in Africa, was built and its associated University of Al Quaraouiyine was founded. Comparatively little is known about Idrisid Fez, owing to the lack of comprehensive historical narratives and that little has survived of the architecture and infrastructure of early Fez; the sources that mention Idrisid Fez, describe a rather rural one, not having the cultural sophistication of the important cities of Al-Andalus and Ifriqiya. In the 10th century, the city was contested by the Caliphate of Córdoba and the Fatimid Caliphate of Tunisia, who ruled the city through a host of Zenata clients; the Fatimids took the city in 927 and expelled the Idrissids, after which their Miknasa
Maqāmah are an Arabic prosimetric literary genre which alternates the Arabic rhymed prose known as Saj‘ with intervals of poetry in which rhetorical extravagance is conspicuous. The origins of the usage of the word as a genre-label are debated, but according to Amina Shah, The meaning of the word Makamat is derived from "a place where one stands upright" and hence the place where one is at any time. Next it is used metonymically to denote "the persons assembled at any place" and by another translation, "the discourses delivered or conversations held in any such assembly"; this metaphorical use of the word Makamat has however been restricted to discourse and conversations like those narrated by Hariri and his predecessor Al Hamadani, which are composed in a finished style, for the purpose of exhibiting specimens of various kinds of eloquence, exemplifying rules of grammar and poetry. According to J. Hämeen-Anttila, the typical maqāmāt can be schematized'into “isnād”, “general introduction,” “link,” “episode proper,” “recognition scene,” “envoi,” and “finale.”'
Ailin Qian has exemplified this schema with reference to that Maqamat Badi' az-Zaman al-Hamadhani:'after the initial isnād,' the narrator ʿĪsā'tells the audience that for a certain reason “I was in such-and-such a city” or “I traveled from here to there”. That is followed by a transitional formula, like “one day, when I...”, “and so on till...”, leading to the “episode proper.” Through the eyes of ʿĪsā we are introduced to an anonymous trickster who shows remarkable erudition and eloquence, always succeeds “in swindling money out of the gullible narrator.”' The trickster al-Iskandarī's identity is recognised. In many of the Hamadhānian maqāmāt, an envoi marks the end of the story, but the envoi is followed by a “finale,” where ʿĪsā and al-Iskandarī are described as departing."There is still much scholarly debate concerning the origins of the genre' of the maqāma. However, the tenth-century author Badī' al-Zaman al-Hamadhāni is wisely said to have invented the form with his Maqamat Badi' az-Zaman al-Hamadhani.
This was extended by al-Hariri of Basra in the next century. Both authors' maqāmāt center on trickster figures whose wanderings and exploits in speaking to assemblies of the powerful are conveyed by a narrator; the protagonist is a silver-tongued hustler, a rogue drifter who survives by dazzling onlookers with virtuoso displays of rhetorical acrobatics, including mastery of classical Arabic poetry, classical philosophy. There are 50 unrelated episodes in which the rogue character in disguise, tricks the narrator out of his money and leads him into various straitened and violent circumstances. Despite this serial abuse, the narrator-dupe character continues to seek out the trickster, fascinated by his rhetorical flow. Manuscripts of al-Harīrī's Maqāmāt, anecdotes of a roguish wanderer Abu Zayd from Saruj, were illustrated with miniatures. A noted illustrator was Yahya ibn Mahmud al-Wasiti. Al-Harīrī far exceeded the rhetorical stylistics of the genre's innovator, al-Hamadhani, to such a degree that his maqāmāt were used as a textbook for rhetoric and lexicography and indeed as schoolbooks for until Early Modern times.
The maqāma genre was cultivated in Hebrew in Spain, beginning with Yehūda al-Ḥarīzī's translation of al-Harīrī's maqāmāt into Hebrew, which he titled maḥberōt'ītī'ēl. Two years he composed his own maḥbārōt, titled Sēfer Taḥkemōnī. With this work, al-Ḥarīzī sought to raise the literary prestige of Hebrew to exceed that of Classical Arabic, just as the bulk of Iberian Jewry was finding itself living in a Spanish-speaking, Latin- or Hebrew-literate environment and Arabic was becoming less studied and read. Hebrew maqāmāt made more significant departures and stylistically, from the classical Arabic maqāmāt of al-Hamadhānī and al-Harīrī. Joseph ibn Zabara, a resident of Barcelona and Catalan speaker, wrote the Sēfer sha'ashū'īm, in which the author, the narrator, the protagonist are all Ibn Zabara himself, in which the episodes are arranged in linear, not cyclical fashion, in a way that anticipates the structure of Spanish picaresque novels such as the anonymous Lazarillo de Tormes and Guzmán de Alfarache by Mateo Alemán.
Al-Hamadhani, Badi` al-Zaman. Maqamat. Ed. Muhammad `Abduh. Beirut: al-Maktaba al-kathulikiyya, s.a. ---. The Maqamat of Badi' al-zaman al-hamadhani: Translated from the Arabic with an Introduction and Notes. Trans. W. J. Prendergast. London: Curzon Press, 1915. Al-Hariri, Abu Muhammad al-Qasim ibn `Ali. Maqamat al-Hariri. Ed. `Isa Saba. Beirut: Dar Sadr. ---. Sharh Maqamat al-Hariri. Beirut: Dar al-Turath, 1968. Al-Saraqusti, Abu l-Tahir Muhammad ibn Yusuf. Al-Maqamat al-Luzumiya. Trans. James T. Monroe. Leiden: Brill, 2002. ---. Al-Maqamat al-luzumiyah li-l-Saraqusti. Ed. Ibrahim Badr Ahmad Dayf. Alexandria: al-Hay'at al-Misriyat al-'Ammah li-l-Kitab, 2001. ---. al-Maqamat al-Luzumiyya. Ed. Hasan al-Waragli. Tetuan: Manšurat `Ukaz, 1995. ---. al-Maqamat al-Luzumiyya li'l-Saraqusti. Ed. Ibrahim Badr Ahmad Dayf. Alexandria: al-
Tlemcen is a city in north-western Algeria, the capital of the province of the same name. The city has developed leather and textile industries, which it ships to the port of Rashgun for export, it had a population of 140,158 at the 2008 census. The origin of the name Tlemcen is uncertain. One theory is that it is the feminine plural of Talmest, which means a certain type of well which forms a small lake. Another theory traces the name to the Berber words Thala Imsan, which can mean "the dry spring" or "the fountain of lions"; the name is sometimes spelled Tlemsan, or Tilimsen. Tlemcen became a military outpost of the Romans in the 2nd century CE under the name of Pomaria, it was an important city in the North Africa see of the Roman Catholic Church, where it was the center of a diocese. Its bishop, was a prominent representative at the Council of Carthage, its bishop Honoratus was exiled in 484 by the Vandal king Huneric for denying Arianism, it was a center of a large Christian population for many centuries after the city's Arab conquest in 708 AD.
In the eighth century and the ninth century, the city became a Kingdom of Banu Ifran of the Kharijite sufri. These same Berber Kharijis began to develop various small Saharan oases and to link them into regular trans-Saharan caravan routes terminating at Tlemcen—beginning a process that would determine Tlemcen's historical role for all of the next millennium. In 1082 the Almoravid leader Yusuf ibn Tashfin founded the city of Tagrart, which merged with the existing settlement, now called Agadir and since became known as Tlemcen. Tlemcen passed from Almoravid to Almohad control in the mid-twelfth century. However, in the early thirteenth century, Ibn Ghaniya attempted to restore Almoravid control of the Maghreb. In about 1209, the region around Tlemcen was devastated by retreating Almoravid forces, not long before their final defeat by the Almohads at the Battle of Jebel Nafusa in 1210. Despite the destruction of Tlemcen's already-feeble agricultural base, Tlemcen rose to prominence as a major trading and administrative center in the region under the succeeding reign of the Almohads.
After the end of Almohad rule during the 1230s, Tlemcen became the capital of one of three successor states, the Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen. It was thereafter ruled for centuries by successive Zayyanid sultans, its flag was a white crescent pointing upwards on a blue field. During the Middle Ages, Tlemcen not only served as a trading city connecting the "coastal" route across the Maghreb with the trans-Saharan caravan routes, but housed a European trading center which connected African and European merchants. In particular, Tlemcen was one of the points. Tlemcen was integrated into the European financial system. So, for example, Genoese bills of exchange circulated there, at least among merchants not subject to religious prohibitions. At the peak of its success, in the first half of the fourteenth century, Tlemcen was a city of 40,000 inhabitants, it housed several well-known madrasas and numerous wealthy religious foundations, becoming the principal intellectual center of the central Maghreb.
At the souq around the Great Mosque, merchants sold woolen fabrics and rugs from the East and gold from across the Sahara, local earthenware and leather goods, a variety of Mediterranean maritime goods "redirected" to Tlemcen by corsairs—in addition to the intentional European imports available at the funduk. Merchant houses based in Tlemcen, such as the al-Makkari maintained regular branch offices in Mali and the Sudan. In the fourteenth century, the city twice fell under the rule of the Marinid sultan, Abu al-Hasan Ali and his son Abu'Inan. In both cases, the Marinids found; these episodes appear to have marked the beginning of the end. Over the following two centuries, Zayyanid Tlemcen was intermittently a vassal of Ifriqiya, Maghrib al-Aksa, or Aragon; when the Spanish took the city of Oran from the kingdom in 1509, continuous pressure from the Berbers prompted the Spanish to attempt a counterattack against the city of Tlemcen, deemed by the Papacy to be a crusade. The Spanish failed to take the city in the first attack, although the strategic vulnerability of Tlemcen caused the kingdom's weight to shift toward the safer and more fortified corsair base at Algiers.
The ruler of Tlemcen is reported to have been advised by a Jewish viceroy named Abraham, who, in the time of the Inquisition of Torquemada, opened the gates of Tlemcen to Jewish and Muslim refugees fleeing Spain. Abraham is said to have supported them with his own money and with the tolerance of the king of Tlemcen. In 1554, the kingdom of Tlemcen came under Ottoman rule, which deposed the Saadi Moroccan rule but restored by Moroccans in 1556; the Ottomans were fighting a naval war against the Spaniards across the Mediterranean, the Kingdom of Tlemcen became another vassal of the Sultan in Constantinople. Tlemcen and the Algerian provinces regained effective independence in their own affairs in 1671, although Tlemcen was no longer a government seat as before; the Spanish were evicted from Oran in 1792, but thirty years they were replaced by the French, who seized Algiers. A French fleet bombarded Algiers in 1830, at which point the dey capitulated to French colonial rule.
Salé is a city in north-western Morocco, on the right bank of the Bou Regreg river, opposite the national capital Rabat, for which it serves as a commuter town. Founded in about 1030 by Arabic-speaking Berbers, the Banu Ifran, it became a haven for pirates in the 17th century as an independent republic before being incorporated into Alaouite Morocco; the city's name is sometimes transliterated as Sallee. The National Route 6 connects it to Fez and Meknes in the east and the N1 to Kénitra in the north-east, it recorded a population of 890,403 in the 2014 Moroccan census. The Phoenicians established a settlement called Sala the site of a Roman colony, Sala Colonia, on the south side of the Bou Regreg estuary, it is sometimes confused with Salé, on the opposite north bank. Salé was founded in about 1030 by Arabic-speaking Berbers who cultivated the legend that the name was derived from that of Salah, son of Ham, son of Noah; the Banu Ifran Berber dynasty began construction of a mosque about the time.
The present-day Great Mosque of Salé was built during the 12th-century reign of the Almohad sultan Abu Yaqub Yusuf, although not completed until 1196. During the 17th century, Rabat was known as New Salé, or Salé la neuve, as it expanded beyond the ancient city walls to include the Chellah, which had become a fortified royal necropolis under the rule of Abu Yaqub Yusuf's son, Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur. In September 1260, Salé was raided and occupied by warriors sent in a fleet of ships by King Alfonso X of Castile. After the victory of the Marinid dynasty, the historic Bab el-Mrissa was constructed by the Sultan Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Abd Al-Haqq which remains as a landmark of the city. In the 17th century, Salé became a haven for Barbary pirates, among them Moriscos turned corsair, who formed an independent Republic of Salé. Salé pirates roamed the seas, cruised the shipping routes between Atlantic colonial ports and Europe, seizing ships from the Americas and Europe for goods and captives, they sold their sometimes passengers into slavery in the Arabic world.
Despite the legendary reputation of the Salé corsairs, their ships were based across the river in Rabat, called "New Salé" by the English. The European powers took action to try to subdue the threat from the Barbary Coast. On 20 July 1629, the city of Salé was bombarded by French Admiral Isaac de Razilly with a fleet composed of the ships Licorne, Saint-Louis, Catherine, Sainte-Anne, Saint-Jean. During the decades preceding the independence of Morocco, Salé was the stronghold of some "national movement" activists; the reading of the "Latif" became popular in some cities of Morocco. In 1851, Salé was bombarded in retaliation for piracy being practiced by Moroccan ships against European traders. A petition against the so-called "Berber Dahir" was given to Sultan Mohamed V and the Resident General of France; the petition and the "Latif" prayer led to the withdrawal and adjustment of the so-called "Berber Decree" of May 1930. The activists who opposed the "Berber Decree" feared that the explicit recognition of the Berber Customary Law would threaten the position of Islam and its Sharia law system.
Others believed that opposing the French-engineered "Berber Decree" was a means to turn the table against the French occupation of Morocco. The widespread storm, created by the "Berber Dahir" controversy created a somewhat popular Moroccan nationalist elite based in Salé and Fez; this period helped develop the political awareness and activism that would lead fourteen years to the signing of the Manifest of Independence of Morocco on 11 January 1944 by many "Slawi" activists and leaders. Salé has been deemed to have been the stronghold of the Moroccan left for many decades, where many leaders have resided. Salé has played a important part in Moroccan history; the first demonstrations for independence against the French, for example, began in Salé. Numerous government officials, decision makers, royal advisers of Morocco have been from Salé. Salé people, the Slawis, have always had a "tribal" sense of belonging, a sense of pride that developed into a feeling of superiority towards the "berranis", i.e. Outsiders.
The prefecture is divided administratively into the following: Salé features a Mediterranean climate with warm to hot dry summers and mild damp winters. Located along the Atlantic Ocean, Salé has a mild, temperate climate, shifting from cool in winter to warm days in the summer months; the nights are always cool, with daytime temperatures rising about +7/8 C°. The winter highs reach only 17.2 °C in December–February. Summer daytime highs hover around 25 °C, but may exceed 30 °C during heat waves. Summer nights are pleasant and cool, ranging between 11 °C and 19 °C and exceeding 20 °C. Rabat belongs to the sub-humid bioclimatic zone with an average annual precipitation of 560 mm. Salé's climate resembles the southwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the coast of SoCal. Recent developments, including the new bridge connecting to Rabat, the new Rabat-Salé tramway and coastal development demonstrate government investment. Private development companies such as Emaa
The Marinid dynasty or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century. In 1244, the Marinid rulers overthrew the Almohad Caliphate; the Marinid dynasty held sway over all the Maghreb in the mid-14th century. It supported the Kingdom of Granada in Al-Andalus in 14th centuries; the Marinids were overthrown after the 1465 revolt. The Wattasid dynasty, a related ruling house, came to power in 1472; the Marinids were a branch of the Wassin, a nomadic Zenata Berber tribe that lived in the Zibans before being driven towards Tlemcen by the Arab invasion in the 11th century. The tribe had first frequented the area between Figuig, Morocco. Following the arrival of Arab tribes in the area in the 11th-12th centuries, Marinids moved to the north-west of present-day Algeria, before settling into northern Morocco by the beginning of the 13th century; the Marinids took their name from Marin ibn Wartajan al-Zenati. After arriving in Morocco, they submitted to the Almohad dynasty, at the time the ruling house.
After contributing to the Battle of Alarcos, in central Spain, the tribe started to assert itself as a political power. Starting in 1213, they began to tax farming communities of north-eastern Morocco; the relationship between them and the Almohads became strained and starting in 1215, there were regular outbreaks of fighting between the two parties. In 1217 they tried to occupy eastern Morocco, but they were expelled, pulling back and settling in the eastern Rif mountains. Here they remained for nearly 30 years. During their stay in the Rif, the Almohad state suffered huge blows, losing large territories to the Christians in Spain, while the Hafsids of Ifriqia broke away in 1229, followed by the Zayyanid dynasty of Tlemcen in 1235. Between 1244 and 1248 the Marinids were able to take Taza, Salé, Meknes and Fes from the weakened Almohads; the Marinid leadership installed in Fes declared war on the Almohads, fighting with the aid of Christian mercenaries. Abu Yusuf Yaqub captured Marrakech in 1269.
After the Nasrids ceded Algeciras to the Marinids, Abu Yusuf went to Al-Andalus to support the ongoing struggle against the Kingdom of Castile. The Marinid dynasty tried to extend its control to include the commercial traffic of the Strait of Gibraltar, it was in this period that the Spanish Christians were first able to take the fighting to Morocco: in 1260 and 1267 they attempted an invasion of Morocco, but both attempts were defeated. After gaining a foothold in Spain, the Marinids became active in the conflict between Muslims and Christians in Iberia. To gain absolute control of the trade in the Strait of Gibraltar, from their base at Algeciras they started the conquest of several Spanish towns: by the year 1294 they had occupied Rota and Gibraltar. In 1276 they founded Fes Jdid, which they made their military centre. While Fes had been a prosperous city throughout the Almohad period becoming the largest city in the world during that time, it was in the Marinid period that Fes reached its golden age, a period which marked the beginning of an official, historical narrative for the city.
It is from the Marinid period that Fes' reputation as an important intellectual centre dates, they established the first madrassas in the city and country. The principal monuments in the medina, the residences and public buildings, date from the Marinid period. Despite internal infighting, Abu Said Uthman II initiated huge construction projects across the land. Several madrassas were built; the building of these madrassas were necessary to create a dependent bureaucratic class, in order to undermine the marabouts and Sharifian elements. The Marinids strongly influenced the policy of the Emirate of Granada, from which they enlarged their army in 1275. In the 13th century, the Kingdom of Castile made several incursions into their territory. In 1260, Castilian forces raided Salé and, in 1267, initiated a full-scale invasion, but the Marinids repelled them. At the height of their power, during the rule of Abu al-Hasan'Ali, the Marinid army was large and disciplined, it consisted of 40,000 Zenata cavalry, while Arab nomads contributed to the cavalry and Andalusians were included as archers.
The personal bodyguard of the sultan consisted of 7,000 men, included Christian and Black African elements. Under Abu al-Hasan another attempt was made to reunite the Maghreb. In 1337 the Abdalwadid kingdom of Tlemcen was conquered, followed in 1347 by the defeat of the Hafsid empire in Ifriqiya, which made him master of a huge territory, which spanned from southern Morocco to Tripoli. However, within the next year, a revolt of Arab tribes in southern Tunisia made them lose their eastern territories; the Marinids had suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of a Portuguese-Castilian coalition in the Battle of Río Salado in 1340, had to withdraw from Andalusia, only holding on to Algeciras until 1344. In 1348 Abu al-Hasan was deposed by his son Abu Inan Faris, who tried to reconquer Algeria and Tunisia. Despite several successes, he was strangled by his own vizir in 1358, after which the dynasty began to decline. After the death of Abu Inan Faris in 1358, the real power lay with the viziers, while the Marinid sultans were paraded and forced to succeed eac