Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs, was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia. The Seljuqs established both the Seljuk Empire and the Sultanate of Rum, which at their heights stretched from Iran to Anatolia, were targets of the First Crusade; the Seljuqs originated from the Qynyk branch of the Oghuz Turks, who in the 9th century lived on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian Sea and Aral Sea in their Yabghu Khaganate of the Oghuz confederacy, in the Kazakh Steppe of Turkestan. During the 10th century, due to various events, the Oghuz had come into close contact with Muslim cities; when Seljuq, the leader of the Seljuq clan, had a falling out with Yabghu, the supreme chieftain of the Oghuz, he split his clan off from the bulk of the Tokuz-Oghuz and set up camp on the west bank of the lower Syr Darya. Around 985, Seljuq converted to Islam. In the 11th century the Seljuqs migrated from their ancestral homelands into mainland Persia, in the province of Khurasan, where they encountered the Ghaznavid empire.
In 1025, 40,000 families of Oghuz Turks migrated to the area of Caucasian Albania. The Seljuqs defeated the Ghaznavids at the Battle of Nasa plains in 1035. Tughril and Yabghu received the insignias of governor, grants of land, were given the title of dehqan. At the Battle of Dandanaqan they defeated a Ghaznavid army, after a successful siege of Isfahan by Tughril in 1050/51, they established an empire called the Great Seljuk Empire; the Seljuqs mixed with the local population and adopted the Persian culture and Persian language in the following decades. After arriving in Persia, the Seljuqs adopted the Persian culture and used the Persian language as the official language of the government, played an important role in the development of the Turko-Persian tradition which features "Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers." Today, they are remembered as great patrons of Persian culture, art and language. They are regarded as the partial ancestors of the Western Turks – the present-day inhabitants of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan and Turkey.
The "Great Seljuqs" were heads of the family. Turkish custom called for the senior member of the family to be the Great Seljuq, although the position was associated with the ruler of western Persia. Muhammad's son Mahmud II succeeded him in western Persia, but Ahmad Sanjar, the governor of Khurasan at the time being the senior member of the family, became the Great Seljuq Sultan; the rulers of western Persia, who maintained a loose grip on the Abbasids of Baghdad. Several Turkic emirs gained a strong level of influence in the region, such as the Eldiduzids. Mahmud II 1118–1131 1131–1134 disputed between: Dawud Mas'ud 1131 Toghrul II 1132–1134 Mas'ud 1133–1152 Malik Shah III 1152–1153 Muhammad II Suleiman Shah 1160–1161 Arslan Shah 1161–1174 Toghrul III 1174–1194In 1194, Tugrul III was killed in battle with the Khwarezm Shah, who annexed Hamadan. Kerman was a province in southern Persia. Between 1053 and 1154, the territory included Umman. Qawurd 1041–1073 Kerman Shah 1073–1074 Sultan Shah 1074–1075 Hussain Omar 1075–1084 Turan Shah I 1084–1096 Iran-Shah 1096–1101 Arslan Shah I 1101–1142 Mehmed I 1142–1156 Toğrül Shah 1156–1169 Bahram Shah 1169–1174 Arslan Shah II 1174–1176 Turan Shah II 1176–1183 Muhammad Shah 1183–1187Muhammad abandoned Kerman, which fell into the hands of the Oghuz chief Malik Dinar.
Kerman was annexed by the Khwarezmid Empire in 1196. Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1085–1086 Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah I of Great Seljuq 1086–1087 Qasim ad-Dawla Abu Said Aq Sunqur al-Hajib 1087–1094 Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1094–1095 Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan 1095–1113 Tadj ad-Dawla Alp Arslan al-Akhras 1113–1114 Sultan Shah 1114–1123To the Artuqids Sultans/Emirs of Damascus: Aziz ibn Abaaq al-Khwarazmi 1076–1079 Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1079–1095 Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq 1095–1104 Tutush II 1104 Muhi ad-Din Baqtash 1104Damascus seized by the Burid Toghtekin The Seljuq line having been deprived of any significant power ended in the early 14th century. Kutalmish 1060–1077 Suleyman I 1077–1086 Dawud Kilij Arslan I 1092–1107 Malik Shah 1107–1116 Rukn ad-Din Mesud I 1116–1156 Izz ad-Din Kilij Arslan II 1156–1192 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw I 1192–1196 Suleyman II 1196–1204 Kilij Arslan III 1204–1205 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw I 1205–1211 Izz ad-Din Kaykaus I 1211–1220 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad I 1220–1237 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw II 1237–1246 Izz ad-Din Kaykaus II 1246–1260 Rukn ad-Din Kilij Arslan IV 1248–1265 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad II 1249–1257 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw III 1265–1282 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1282–1284 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III 1284 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1284–1293 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III 1293–1294 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1294–1301 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III 1301–1303 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1303–1307 Seljuk Empire Sultanate of Rûm Ottoman dynasty List of Sunni Muslim dynasties Grousset, Rene.
The Empire of the Steppes: a History of Central Asia. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. P. 147. ISBN 0813506271. Peacock, A. C. S. Early Seljuq History: A New Interpretation. W.. The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Kangavar is a city and capital of Kangavar County, Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 48,901, in 12,220 families. Kangavar is located in the easternmost part of Kermanshah Province, on the modern road from Hamadan to Kermanshah, identical with a trace of the Silk Road, located at the distance of about 75 km from Hamadan and 96 km from Kermanshah, its name may be derived from the Avestan Kanha-vara,'enclosure of Kanha'. Kangavar was mentioned by Isidore of Charax in the 1st century AD, by the name of "Konkobar" or "Concobar" in the ancient province of Ecbatana. In antiquity, the city was in Media, with a temple of Artemis The district, which lies in the Kangavar river valley, is fertile and contains 30 villages. Kangavar township is 47 miles from Hamadan on the high road to Kermanshah. In the early 20th century, Kangāvar was held in fief by the family of a deceased court official, forming a separate government. Today, the town is best known for the archaeological remains of a mixed Sassanid and Achaemenid-style edifice.
During the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the ruins were misused as a source for building material for the expanding town. Excavation first began in 1968, by which time the "large structure with its great columns set on a high stone platform" had been associated with a comment by Isidore of Charax, that refers to a "temple of Artemis" at "Concobar" in Lower Medea, on the overland trade route between the Levant and India. References to Artemis in Iran are interpreted to be references to Anahita, thus Isidore's "temple of Artemis" came to be understood as a reference to a temple of Anahita. Although a general plan of the complex has been compiled, it is still not sufficient to learn about the function and shape of the terrace and the buildings that stood there. Given the lack of archaeological evidence for a temple-like building, "it is questionable whether the is identical with the ruins of Kangāvar. Isidorus described another temple of the first century AD, somewhere in the region of Congobar or at the place of the platform, according to the results of the excavation, seems to be built up in Sasanian times."Despite the archaeological findings, the association with the divinity of fertility and wisdom has made the site a popular tourist attraction.
1. Alireza Khazaei one of the youngest Iranian writers and literary geniuses in Iran. Kangavar Times Broadcast
The Byzantine Empire referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed.
Under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity; the borders of the empire evolved over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I, the empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries; the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when it lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arab caliphate. During the Macedonian dynasty, the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia. The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence, its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 ended the Byzantine Empire; the last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond. The first use of the term "Byzantine" to label the years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources.
The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts; the publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of "Byzantine" among French authors, such as Montesquieu. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world; the Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire", the "Empire of the Romans", "Romania", the "Roman Republic", as "Rhōmais". The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and as late as the 19th century Greeks referred to Modern Greek as Romaiika "Romaic." After 1204 when the Byzantine Empire was confined to its purely Greek provinces the term'Hellenes' was used instead. While the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its predominant Greek element.
The occasional use of the term "Empire of the Greeks" in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum were used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known as Rûm; the name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans through the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire
Hamadān or Hamedān is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 473,149, in 127,812 families. Hamedan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities, it is possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE. Hamedan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3,574-meter Alvand Mountain, in the midwest part of Iran; the city is 1,850 meters above sea level. The special nature of this old city and its historic sites attract tourists during the summer to this city, located 360 kilometres southwest of Tehran; the major sights of this city are the Ganj Nameh inscription, the Avicenna monument and the Baba Taher monument. The majority of the population is Persian. According to Clifford Edmund Bosworth, "Hamadan is a old city, it may conceivably, but improbably, be mentioned in cuneiform texts from ca. 1100 BC, the time of Assyrian King Tiglath-pilesar I, but is mentioned by Herodotus who says that the king of Media Diokes built the city of Agbatana or Ekbatana in the 7th century BC."Hamadan was established by the Medes.
It became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. Hamadan is mentioned in the biblical book of Ezra as the place where a scroll was found giving the Jews permission from King Darius to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem.. Its ancient name of Ecbatana is used in the Ezra text; because it was a mile above sea level, it was a good place to preserve leather documents. During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon was the capital of the country, Hamadan the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamadan. In the year 633 the battle of Nahavand took place and Hamadan fell into the hands of the Muslim Arabs. During the Buwayhids, the city suffered much damage. In the 11th century, the Seljuks shifted their capital from Baghdad to Hamadan; the city of Hamadan, its fortunes following the rise and fall of regional powers, was destroyed during the Timurid invasion. During the Safavid era, the city thrived. Thereafter, in the 18th century, Hamadan was surrendered to the Ottomans, but due to the work of Nader Shah e Afshar, Hamadan was cleared of invaders and, as a result of a peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans, it was returned to Iran.
Hamadan stands on the Silk Road, in recent centuries the city enjoyed strong commerce and trade as a result of its location on the main road network in the western region of Persia and Iran. During World War I, the city was the scene of heavy fighting between Russian and Turko-German forces, it was occupied by both armies, by the British, before it was returned to control of the Iranian government at the end of the war in 1918. Hamadan province lies in a temperate mountainous region to the east of Zagros; the vast plains of the north and northeast of the province are influenced by strong winds, that last throughout the year. The various air currents of this region are: the north and north west winds of the spring and winter seasons, which are humid and bring rainfall; the west-east air currents that blow in the autumn, the local winds that develop due to difference in air-pressure between the elevated areas and the plains, like the blind wind of the Asad Abad region. Hamadan is in the vicinity of the Alvand mountains and has a dry summer continental climate, in transition with a cold semi-arid climate, with snowy winters.
In fact, it is one of the coldest cities in Iran. The temperature may drop below −30 °C on the coldest days. Heavy snowfall is common during winter and this can persist for periods of up to two months. During the short summer, the weather is mild and sunny. According to the survey of 1997, the population of the province of Hamadan was 1,677,957. Based on official statistics of 1997, the population of Hamadan county was 563,444 people; the majority of population are Persians with a sizeable minority of Azeris, a small group of Persian Jews. Hamadan is home to cultural celebrities; the city is said to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities. Hamadan has always been well known for handicrafts like leather and carpets. Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 207 sites of historical and cultural significance in Hamadan; the Tomb of Esther and Mordechai is believed by some to hold the remains of the biblical Esther and her uncle Mordechai. The scientist and writer Avicenna is interred here.
The 11th-century Iranian poet Baba Taher is interred here. Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadani, author of the Maqamat, was born here. PAS Hamedan F. C. were founded on June 9, 2007 after the dissolution of PAS Tehran F. C.. The team, along with Alvand Hamedan F. C. is in the Azadegan League. Some sport complexes in this city include: Qods Stadium, Shahid Mofatteh Stadium, Takhti Sport Complex and the National Stadium of Hamadan. Before the Persian Constitutional Revolution, education in Hamadan was limited to some Maktab Houses and theological schools. Fakhrie Mozafari School was the first modern school of Hamadan, built after that revolution. Alliance and Lazarist were the first modern schools founded by foreign institutions in Hamadan; some of the popular universities in Hamadan include: Bu-Ali Sina University Hamadan Medical University Hamadan University of Technology Islamic Azad University of Hamadan Abolhassa
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016, is 8,765,000, making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world, the second largest city in Western Asia. Located along the Tigris River, the city was founded in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. Within a short time of its inception, Baghdad evolved into a significant cultural and intellectual center for the Islamic world. This, in addition to housing several key academic institutions, as well as hosting multiethnic and multireligious environment, garnered the city a worldwide reputation as the "Centre of Learning". Baghdad was the largest city of the Middle Ages for much of the Abbasid era, peaking at a population of more than a million; the city was destroyed at the hands of the Mongol Empire in 1258, resulting in a decline that would linger through many centuries due to frequent plagues and multiple successive empires. With the recognition of Iraq as an independent state in 1938, Baghdad regained some of its former prominence as a significant center of Arab culture.
In contemporary times, the city has faced severe infrastructural damage, most due to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the subsequent Iraq War that lasted until December 2011. In recent years, the city has been subjected to insurgency attacks; the war had resulted in a substantial loss of historical artifacts as well. As of 2018, Baghdad was listed as one of the least hospitable places in the world to live, ranked by Mercer as the worst of 231 major cities as measured by quality-of-life; the name Baghdad is pre-Islamic, its origin is disputed. The site where the city of Baghdad developed has been populated for millennia. By the 8th century AD, several villages had developed there, including a Persian hamlet called Baghdad, the name which would come to be used for the Abbasid metropolis. Arab authors, realizing the pre-Islamic origins of Baghdad's name looked for its roots in Persian, they suggested various meanings, the most common of, "bestowed by God". Modern scholars tend to favor this etymology, which views the word as a compound of bagh "god" and dād "given", In Old Persian the first element can be traced to boghu and is related to Slavic bog "god", while the second can be traced to dadāti.
A similar term in Middle Persian is the name Mithradāt, known in English by its Hellenistic form Mithridates, meaning "gift of Mithra". There are a number of other locations in the wider region whose names are compounds of the word bagh, including Baghlan and Bagram in Afghanistan or a village called Bagh-šan in Iran; the name of the town Baghdati in Georgia shares the same etymological origins. A few authors have suggested older origins for the name, in particular the name Bagdadu or Hudadu that existed in Old Babylonian, the Babylonian Talmudic name of a place called "Baghdatha"; some scholars suggested Aramaic derivations. When the Abbasid caliph, al-Mansur, founded a new city for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace; this was the official name on coins and other official usage, although the common people continued to use the old name. By the 11th century, "Baghdad" became the exclusive name for the world-renowned metropolis. After the fall of the Umayyads, the first Muslim dynasty, the victorious Abbasid rulers wanted their own capital from which they could rule.
They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon, on 30 July 762 the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned the construction of the city. It was built under the supervision of the Barmakids. Mansur believed that Baghdad was the perfect city to be the capital of the Islamic empire under the Abbasids. Mansur loved the site so much he is quoted saying: "This is indeed the city that I am to found, where I am to live, where my descendants will reign afterward"; the city's growth was helped by its excellent location, based on at least two factors: it had control over strategic and trading routes along the Tigris, it had an abundance of water in a dry climate. Water exists on both the north and south ends of the city, allowing all households to have a plentiful supply, uncommon during this time. Baghdad eclipsed Ctesiphon, the capital of the Sassanians, located some 30 km to the southeast. Today, all that remains of Ctesiphon is the shrine town of Salman Pak, just to the south of Greater Baghdad.
Ctesiphon itself had replaced and absorbed Seleucia, the first capital of the Seleucid Empire, which had earlier replaced the city of Babylon. According to the traveler Ibn Battuta, Baghdad was one of the largest cities, not including the damage it has received; the residents are Hanbal. Bagdad is home to the grave of Abu Hanifa where there is a cell and a mosque above it; the Sultan of Bagdad, Abu Said Bahadur Khan, was a Tartar king. In its early years, the city was known as a deliberate reminder of an expression in the Qur'an, when it refers to Paradise, it took four years to build. Mansur assembled engineers and art constructionists from around the world to come together and draw up plans for the city. Over 100,000 construction workers came to survey the plans. July was chosen as the starting time because two astrologers, Naubakht Ahva
Tughril Beg spelled Toghrul I, Toghril, Tugrul or Toghrïl Beg. Tughril united the Turkic warriors of the Great Eurasian Steppes into a confederacy of tribes, who traced their ancestry to a single ancestor named Seljuq, led them in conquest of eastern Iran, he would establish the Seljuq Sultanate after conquering Persia and retaking the Abbasid capital of Baghdad from the Buyid dynasty in 1055. Tughril relegated the Abbasid Caliphs to state figureheads and took command of the caliphate's armies in military offensives against the Byzantine Empire and the Fatimid Caliphate in an effort to expand his empire's borders and unite the Islamic world. Tughril was the son of Mikail ibn Seljuq. Tughril ascended to power ca. 1016. In the 1020s, Tughril and his other relatives were serving the Kara-Khanids of Bukhara. In 1026, the Kara-Khanids were driven out of Bukhara by the Ghaznavid Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni; this defeat made Arslan Isra'il flee to a place near Sarakhs, where he asked Mahmud for permission to settle in the area in return for military aid.
Mahmud, had Arslan Isra'il put in prison, where the latter soon died. Meanwhile and Chaghri remained loyal to their Kara-Khanid overlords. Although in 1029 they had some disputes with the Kara-Khanids, they continued to support them, still continued to participate in the Kara-Khanid wars against the Ghaznavids. After the Kara-Khanid ruler Ali-Tegin's death, the Seljuqs changed their allegiance to the ruler of Khwarazm, but were in 1035 repelled by the Oghuz ruler Shah Malik; the Seljuqs went to the same place which Arslan Isra'il had gone to, asked the son of Mahmud, Mas'ud I, for asylum. Mas'ud, considered the nomadic Turks a dangerous threat and sent an army under commander-in-chief Begtoghdi; the army was shortly defeated by the Seljuqs, who forced Mas'ud to cede Nasa and Dihistan in return for Seljuq recognition of Ghaznavid authority and protection of the region from other Turkic tribes. In 1037, the Seljuqs managed to force the Ghaznavids to cede them Sarakhs and Marw; the Seljuqs slowly began subdue the cities of Khorasan, when they captured Nishapur, Tughril proclaimed himself as the Sultan of Khorasan.
Mas'ud, after having returned to Khorasan, expelled the Seljuqs from Herat and Nishapur. He soon marched towards Merv to remove the Seljuq threat from Khorasan, his army included 12 to 60 war elephants. A battle shortly took place near Merv, known as the Battle of Dandanaqan, where the army of Mas'ud was defeated by a much smaller army under Tughril, his brother Chaghri Beg, the Kakuyid prince Faramurz. Mas'ud thus permanently lost control of all of western Khorasan; this victory marked the foundation of the Seljuk Empire, now expanding towards West. Tughril installed Chagri as the governor of Khorasan and prevented a Ghaznavid reconquest moved on to the conquest of the Iranian plateau in 1040-1044. In 1042/3, he conquered Ray and Qazvin, was at the same his suzerainty was acknowledged by the Justanid ruler of Dailam; the Sallarid ruler of Shamiran shortly acknowledged the suzerianty of Tughril. By 1054 his forces were contending in Anatolia with the Byzantines and in 1055 he was commissioned by the Abbasid Caliph Al-Qa'im to recapture Baghdad from the Buyids.
A revolt by Turcoman forces under his foster brother İbrahim Yinal, Buyid forces and an uprising against the Seljuqs led to the loss of the city to the Fatimids Caliph in 1058. Two years Tughril crushed the rebellion strangling İbrahim with his bowstring and entered Baghdad, he married the daughter of the Abbasid Caliph near the city of Tabriz. He died childless in the city of Rey in modern Iran and was succeeded by his nephew Suleiman, contested by Alp Arslan, both of them sons of his brother Chaghri, his cousin Kutalmish who had both been a vital part of his campaigns and a supporter of Inal's rebellion put forth a claim. Alp Arslan defeated Kutalmish for the throne and succeeded on April 27, 1064. Bosworth, C. E.. "The early Ghaznavids". In Frye, R. N; the Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 162–198. ISBN 0-521-20093-8. Bosworth, C. E.. "The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World". In Frye, R. N; the Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 5: The Saljuq and Mongol periods.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 1–202. ISBN 0-521-06936-X. Bosworth, C. E.. "Iran under the Buyids". In Frye, R. N; the Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 250–305. ISBN 0-521-20093-8. Madelung, W.. "The Minor Dynasties of Northern Iran". In Frye, R. N; the Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 198–249. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6. Minorsky, V.. "Tabriz". The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. Van Donzel, E. J. ed.. Islamic Desk Reference. E. J. Brill. More info