Niger or the Niger the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in West Africa named after the Niger River. Niger is bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria to the south, Benin to the southwest, Burkina Faso and Mali to the west, Algeria to the northwest. Niger covers a land area of 1,270,000 km2, making it the largest country in West Africa. Over 80% of its land area lies in the Sahara Desert; the country's predominantly Islamic population of about 21 million live in clusters in the far south and west of the country. The capital city is Niamey, located in Niger's southwest corner. Niger is a developing country, which ranks near the bottom in the United Nations' Human Development Index. Much of the non-desert portions of the country are threatened by periodic drought and desertification; the economy is concentrated around subsistence, with some export agriculture in the more fertile south, export of raw materials uranium ore. Niger faces serious challenges to development due to its landlocked position, desert terrain, inefficient agriculture, high fertility rates without birth control, the resulting overpopulation, the poor educational level and poverty of its people, lack of infrastructure, poor healthcare, environmental degradation.
Nigerien society reflects a diversity drawn from the long independent histories of its several ethnic groups and regions and their short period living in a single state. What is now Niger has been on the fringes of several large states. Since independence, Nigeriens have lived under five constitutions and three periods of military rule. After the military coup in 2010, Niger became a multi-party state. A majority of the population lives in rural areas, have little access to advanced education. Early human settlement in Niger is evidenced by numerous archaeological remains. In prehistoric times, the climate of the Sahara was wet and provided favorable conditions for agriculture and livestock herding in a fertile grassland environment five thousand years ago. In 2005–06, a graveyard in the Ténéré desert was discovered by Paul Sereno, a paleontologist from the University of Chicago, his team discovered 5,000-year-old remains of two children in the Ténéré Desert. The evidence along with remains of animals that do not live in desert are among the strongest evidence of the'green' Sahara in Niger.
It is believed that progressive desertification around 5000 BC pushed sedentary populations to the south and south-east. By at least the 5th century BC, Niger had become an area of trans-Saharan trade, led by the Berber tribes from the north, who used camels as a well-adapted means of transportation through the desert; this trade made Agadez a pivotal place of the trans-Saharan trade. This mobility, which would continue in waves for several centuries, was accompanied with further migration to the south and interbreeding between southern black and northern white populations, it was aided by the introduction of Islam to the region at the end of the 7th century. Several empires and kingdoms flourished during this era, up to the beginning of colonization in Africa; the Songhai Empire was an empire bearing the name of its main ethnic group, the Songhai or Sonrai, located in western Africa on the bend of the Niger River in present-day Niger and Burkina Faso. In the 7th century, Songhai tribes settled down north of modern-day Niamey and founded the Songhai city-states of Koukia and Gao.
By the 11th century, Gao had become the capital of the Songhai Empire. From 1000 to 1325, The Songhai Empire prospered and managed to maintain peace with its neighboring empires including the Mali Empire. In 1325 the Songhai Empire was conquered by the Mali Empire but was freed in 1335 by prince Ali Kolen and his brother, Songhai princes held captive by Moussa Kankan, the ruler of the Mali Empire. From the mid-15th to the late 16th century, Songhai was one of the largest Islamic empires in history. Between the Niger River and Lake Chad lay Hausa kingdoms and fertile areas; these kingdoms flourished from the mid-14th century up until the early 19th century, when they were conquered by Usman dan Fodio, founder of the Sokoto Empire. The Hausa kingdoms were not a compact entity but several federations of kingdoms more or less independent of one other, their organization was somewhat democratic: the Hausa kings were elected by the notables of the country and could be removed by them. The Hausa Kingdoms began as seven states founded according to the Bayajidda legend by the six sons of Bawo.
Bawo was the only son of the Hausa queen Bayajidda or who came from Baghdad. The seven original Hausa states were: Daoura, Rano, Gobir and Biram; the Mali Empire was a Mandinka empire founded by Sundiata Keita circa 1230 that existed up to 1600. At its peak circa 1350, the empire extended as far west as Senegal and Guinee Conakry and as far east as western Niger; the Kanem-Bornu Empire was an empire that existed in modern-day Chad, Cameroon and Libya. The empire first existed and prospered as the Kanem Empire as early as the 9th century and as the Kingdom of Bornu until 1900. In the 19th century, contact with Europe began with the first European explorers—notably Monteil and Barth —to travel to Niger. Following the 1885 Berlin conference during which colonial powers outlined the division of Africa into colonial spheres, French military efforts to conquer existing African states were intensified in all French colo
Rosa Whitaker, a passionate champion for creating enterprising solutions to address poverty and promote prosperity across Africa, is recognized as one of the world’s leading experts on Africa trade and investment. As one of the key architects of the US African Growth and Opportunity Act while serving as a senior staff member in the US House of Representatives, Rosa spearheaded a revolution in US-African economic relations. AGOA continues to be the centerpiece of US-Africa economic policy and has contributed towards real and inclusive growth by creating billions of dollars in expanded trade in Africa and employment for millions of African people. Rosa Whitaker is President and CEO of The Whitaker Group, a leading transaction advisory and project development firm she founded in 2003. Since its inception, TWG has been the firm of choice for global brands investing and expanding market share in Africa in ways that achieve both commercial and human dividends. With offices in Washington, DC and Accra, The Whitaker Group has helped to deliver several billion dollars in projects and investments across Africa, now makes its own direct investments in African companies.
Offering forward-thinking projects, such as the “We Build You Grow” infrastructure initiative, TWG is known for innovative and sustainable solutions that create economic prosperity while promoting social equity and environmental stewardship. In 1997, Rosa was appointed by President William J. Clinton to serve as the first Assistant US Trade Representative for Africa and continued in this position under President George W. Bush, thereby reflecting the bipartisan consensus Rosa helped build on US-Africa policy. On the 10th anniversary of AGOA's passage, the US Trade Representative, Ron Kirk, said: "Of course, we owe special thanks to Rosa Whitaker, the “Mother of AGOA.” Rosa was among those who created the concept of AGOA, nursed it through ups and downs in Congress, was the leading US Government figure in translating AGOA from law to successful program." Before joining USTR, Whitaker was Senior Trade Adviser to Congressman Charles Rangel, the legendary "Lion of Harlem", who would go on to chair the House Ways and Means Committee.
She advised Rangel on issues related to the trade with China as well as Africa. Whitaker joined Rangel's staff from the State Department; as a career foreign service officer, she was posted to the US embassy in Cote d'Ivoire and served in the Office of International Energy Policy. Whitaker began her career in trade and economic diplomacy as Executive Director of the Washington DC Office of International Business. Whitaker launched The Whitaker Group after leaving USTR in 2003. At the outset, her goal was to help companies and governments take full advantage of the opportunities created by AGOA. Clients included the governments of Uganda, Lesotho, Côte d'Ivoire and Nigeria as well as a number of well-known multinationals; as co-chair with the late Congressman Jack Kemp of the AGOA Action Committee, Whitaker remained in the forefront of efforts to strengthen AGOA. In 2006 Whitaker added health to TWG's portfolio, developing partnerships between governments and the private sector to strengthen African health systems with Global Health Progress.
Since 2013, TWG has focused on mobilizing global finance and developers to expand infrastructure in Africa under its "We Build You Grow" initiative. As of 2014, TWG had helped develop $7 billion in infrastructure projects in the continent. In 2014, Whitaker announced plans for a Technology Fund to invest in African start-ups. Whitaker was born in Washington, D. C. and holds Master’s and bachelor's degrees from American University in Washington, D. C. and studied in Italy as well as at the Foreign Service Institute. Whitaker appears on the public speaking circuit and has lectured at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the National Defense University, she is a guest columnist for AllAfrica.com, has had opinion pieces published in a variety of publications including the Wall Street Journal and The Hill She is a sought-after expert on business and investment in Africa in a variety of venues and has been a guest on broadcasts on ABC News, CNN, the BBC and Bloomberg. In April 2008, Whitaker married Archbishop Nicholas Duncan-Williams, overseer of Christian Action Faith Ministries Worldwide.
In 2014, Whitaker and Duncan-Williams were named one of Africa's "Power Couples". In 2018 Rosa accepted the position of President of Mercy Ships International. Mercy Ships is a global faith-based charity operating the world’s largest private hospital ship bringing hope and healing to the poorest of the poor in Africa. Since its inception in 1978, Mercy Ships has provided services valued at more than $1.3 billion and treated nearly 3 million people with volunteers from more than 40 nations. Due to the generosity of so many philanthropists and caring people around the world, Mercy Ships will soon add another hospital ship to its program which would enable the charity to reach more vulnerable people -- doubling its current capacity; as President of Mercy Ships, Rosa assumes the mantle from the organization’s visionary and founder, Donald K. Stephens, who now serves as President-Emeritus, she served as Vice Chair of the MSI Executive Board. Noting that Africa carries 80% of the global disease burden, Rosa looks forward to using her deep Christian faith and vast experience to strengthening engagement with the private sector and philanthropists to alleviate this burden -- creating a compassionate and lasting legacy for the next generation.
Rosa has received numerous honors, including being named one of Foreign Policy Magazine’s Top 100 Global Thinkers. She is quoted in the media on Africa trade issues and ha
Ahmadu Bello University
Ahmadu Bello University is a federal government research university in Zaria, Kaduna State. ABU was founded on 4 October 1962, as the University of Northern Nigeria; the university operates two campuses: Kongo in Zaria. There is pre-degree school in Funtua; the Samaru campus houses the administrative offices and the faculties of physical sciences, life sciences, social sciences and languages, environmental design, medical sciences, agricultural sciences and research facilities. The Kongo campus hosts the faculties of Administration; the Faculty of Administration consists of Accounting, Business Administration, Local Government and Development Studies and Public Administration Departments. Additionally, the university is responsible for other institutions and programmes at other locations, it is named after the Sardauna of Sokoto, Alhaji Sir Ahmadu Bello, the first premier of Northern Nigeria. The university runs a wide variety of graduate programmes, it has a large medical programme with its own ABU Teaching Hospital, one of the largest teaching hospitals in Nigeria and Africa.
As Nigeria approached independence on October 1, 1960, it had only a single university: the University of Ibadan, established in 1948. The important Ashby Commission report recommended adding new universities in each of Nigeria's then-three regions and the capital, Lagos. Before the report, the regional governments had begun planning universities. In May 1960, the Northern Region had upgraded the School of Arabic Studies in Kano to become the Ahmadu Bello College for Arabic and Islamic Studies; the Ashby Commission report recommendations gave a new direction. It was decided to create a University of Northern Nigeria at Zaria; the university would take over the facilities of the Nigerian College of Arts and Technology at Samaru just outside Zaria, would incorporate the Ahmadu Bello College in Kano, the Agricultural Research Institute at Samaru, the Institute of Administration at Zaria, the Veterinary Research Institute at Vom on the Jos Plateau. The law establishing the new university was passed by the Northern Region legislature in 1961.
It was decided to name the university after Ahmadu Bello, the Kano college took the name of Abdullahi Bayero, a past Emir of Kano. At the opening on 4 October 1962, thanks in part to absorbing existing institutions, ABU claimed four faculties comprising 15 departments. Students in all programmes numbered only 426; the challenges were enormous. Over 60 years of British colonial rule, education in the Northern Region had lagged far behind that of the two southern regions. Few students from the north had qualifications for university entrance, fewer still northerners had qualifications for teaching appointments. Of the original student body, only 147 were from the north. ABU's first vice chancellor was British. Only two Nigerians — Dr. Iya Abubakar and Adamu Baikie — were among the earliest round of faculty appointments. Facilities on the main Samaru campus were inadequate, the administration and integration of the physically separated pre-existing institutions was difficult. Under the vice chancellorship of Dr. Norman Alexander and administrative staffing was developed, new departments and programmes were created, major building plans were undertaken, student enrollments grew rapidly.
By the end of Alexander's tenure 1,000 students were enrolled. The New Zealand-born Alexander, from 1966, became a kind of "freelance vice-chancellor", offering his expertise to help in the setting up of other Commonwealth universities in the West Indies and Africa. In 1966, Dr. Alexander was succeeded as ABU vice chancellor by Dr. Ishaya Shuaibu Audu, a pediatrician and associate professor at the University of Lagos. Audu had been born in Wusasa, near Zaria, in 1928. A native Hausa, he was a northerner. However, his membership in the Hausa Christian community of Wusasa had some impact on his tenure. ABU was affected by the coups and the anti-Igbo riots of 1966. But, under Dr. Audu's leadership, ABU was to grow and develop at an faster pace. Growth in student enrollments had been held hostage to growth and development of A-level training at the secondary school level. So beginning in 1968–69 ABU broke free from the British three-year heritage and established the School of Basic Studies to provide advanced secondary pre-degree training on campus.
Students who entered through the School of Basic Studies embarked on a four-year programme toward a bachelor's degree. Opposed by some, the school proved a great success and enrollments expanded more rapidly. By its tenth year ABU total enrollments including non- and pre-degree programmes were put at over 7,000 of which more than half were in degree programmes. In its first ten years, the University of Ibadan produced 615 graduates. At ABU the corresponding figure after 10 years was 2,333 first degrees, along with several advanced degrees. From the beginning, ABU was remarkable for the breadth of its ambition. In its institutions, but on or close by the main campus by Samaru, ABU was creating a range of programmes that only the most comprehensive of U. S. state universities could have matched. Ranging far beyond the standard fields of the arts, social sciences and sc
Olusegun Mathew Okikiola Aremu Obasanjo, GCFR, Ph. D. is a former Nigerian Army general, President of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007. Obasanjo was a career soldier before serving twice as his nation's head of state: He served as a military ruler from 13 February 1976 to 1 October 1979, as a democratically elected president from 29 May 1999 to 29 May 2007. From July 2004 to January 2006, Obasanjo served as Chairperson of the African Union. Olusegun Obasanjo was born on 5 March 1937 to his father Amos Adigun Obaluayesanjo "Obasanjo" Bankole and his mother Ashabi in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria, his mother died in 1958 and his father died in 1959. He became an orphan at the age of 22. In 1948, Obasanjo enrolled into Saint David Ebenezer School at Ibogun, for his primary school education. From 1952 to 1957, he attended Baptist Boys' High School, for his secondary school education. In 1958, Olusegun Obasanjo joined the Nigerian Army; some of his studies and training included Mons Cadet School, England. Obasanjo served in the 5th Battalion of the Nigerian Army in Kaduna and in Cameroon between 1958 and 1959.
He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Nigerian Army in 1959 and promoted to a lieutenant in 1960. As lieutenant, Obasanjo served in the Nigerian contingent of the United Nations Force in the Congo in 1960, he joined the only engineering unit of the Nigerian Army and became its unit commander in 1963. In 1963, Obasanjo was promoted to the rank of captain in the Nigerian Army, he was attached to the College of Military Engineering at Kirkee, India in 1965. That year, he was promoted to the rank of major. In 1965, he attended India. Obasanjo was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1967, appointed commander Second Area command of the Nigerian Army, he was made Commander, Ibadan, between 1967 and 1969. Obasanjo’s colonel promotion came in 1969, he was appointed from general officer commanding 3rd Infantry Division, Nigerian Army. He was made the commander, Third Marine Commando Division, South-Eastern State, during the Nigerian Biafran Civil War. On 12 January 1970, Obasanjo accepted the Biafran surrender ending the Nigerian Civil War.
From 1970 to 1975, he was the commander of Nigerian Army. Earlier in 1972, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general. In January 1975 the head of state for the federal republic of Nigeria, General Yakubu Gowon, made Obasanjo the Federal commissioner for works and housing. On 29 July 1975, when General Murtala Mohammed took power as head of state via a military coup, Obasanjo was appointed as the chief of staff supreme headquarters. In January 1976 he was promoted to lieutenant general. Following a failed coup by Lt. Col. Buka Suka Dimka in which General Murtala Mohammed was killed, Obasanjo was chosen as head of state by the supreme military council on 13 February 1976. Obasanjo resigned as head of state and resigned from the army on 1 October 1979, handing over power to the newly elected civilian president of Shehu Shagari. In January 1975, General Yakubu Gowon appointed Obasanjo as the Federal commissioner for works and housing to oversee the development of housing, roads, bridges and street lighting in the country following the oil boom.
In July 1975, General Murtala Mohammed took power as head of state via a military coup, Obasanjo was appointed as the chief of staff supreme headquarters. On 13 February 1976, coup plotters, led by Army Col. Dimka, marked him and other senior military personnel for assassination. Murtala was killed during the attempted coup; the low profile security policy adopted by Murtala had allowed the plotters easy access to their targets. The coup was foiled because the plotters missed Obasanjo and General Theophilus Danjuma, chief of army staff and de facto number three man in the country; the plotters failed to monopolize communications, although they were able to take over the radio station to announce the coup attempt. Obasanjo and Danjuma established a chain of command and re-established security in Lagos, thereby regaining control. Obasanjo was appointed as head of state by the Supreme Military Council. Keeping the chain of command established by Murtala, Obasanjo pledged to continue the programme for the restoration of civilian government in 1979 and to carry forward the reform programme to improve the quality of public service.
The military regime of Obasanjo benefited from oil revenues. Increased oil revenues permitted government spending for infrastructure and improvements on a large scale; the oil boom was marred by a minor recession in 1978–79. The government planned to relocate the federal capital from Lagos to Abuja, a more central location in the interior of the country, it intended to relieve the congestion in the Lagos area. Abuja was chosen. However, as head of state
Chinwoke Mbadinuju was Governor of Anambra State in Nigeria from 29 May 1999 to 29 May 2003, elected on the People's Democratic Party platform. His period in office was noted for internal PDP disputes resulting in a failure of effective government. After leaving office, he was embroiled in court cases over alleged involvement in a political murder. Chinwoke Mbadinuju was born on 14 June 1945, he obtained a BA in Political Science, a doctorate in Government. He gained a Law degree from one of the best English Universities, He was an editor of Times International. Before entering politics he was an Associate Professor of Politics and African Studies at the State University of New York, he was Personal Assistant to Governor of the old Enugu State, Dr. Jim Chris Nwobodo, between 1979 and 1980, he served as the Personal Assistant to President Shehu Shagari between 1980 and 1983. He is married to Nnebuogo Mbadinuju, they have five children: Ada Mbadinuju, Chetachi Mbadinuju, Nwachukwu Mbadinuju, Uche Mbadinuju and Chima Mbadinuju.
After the return to democracy in 1998, Chinwoke Mbadinuju became the People's Democratic Party candidate for Anambra State governorship in competition with professor A. B. C Nwosu, who had served four military governors as Commissioner for Health, after a dispute that had to be resolved by the PDP Electoral Appeal Panel, he was elected Governor of Anambra State in April 1999 and he was the least performed Governor since the creation of the state in 1991. Mbadinuju had been sponsored by an Anambra kingmaker. After a falling out between Mbadinuju and his "godfather", the power struggle between the two men crippled the machinery of government in the state. By September 2002, unpaid teachers had been on strike for a year and civil servants and court workers had been on strike for months; the president of the Onitsha branch of the Nigerian Bar Association, Barnabas Igwe, said state leaders had pocketed the money meant to pay the striking workers. On 1 September 2002, Igwe and his pregnant wife Amaka were brutally and publicly assassinated by Nigerian militia men.
While in office, Chinwoke Mbaninuju passed a law that created the Anambra Vigilante Services, which enshrined the Bakassi Boys, a popular if feared vigilante group credited with reducing crime in the state. Mbadinuju said that crime in the state had reached such an appalling level that something had to be done. In a November 2009 interview, Mbadinuju defended his decision on the basis of the results it achieved in reducing crime, he fell out with Chris Uba, another power broker or godfather in the state. Mbadinuju claimed that he was excluded from the governorship contest in 2003 despite winning the PDP primaries because Uba and President Olusegun Obasanjo opposed his candidacy. In his place, Dr. Chris Ngige ran for the PDP, but he was beaten by the candidate of the All Progressives Grand Alliance. After the election was nullified and re-run, Chris Ngige gained the post. In December 2005, the police arraigned Chinwoke Mbadinuju on charges that he had conspired to murder Barnabas Igwe of the Nigerian Bar Association and his wife, Amaka, in September 2002.
Mbadinuju was accused of masterminding the killing although he was in Houston, Texas at the time of the assassination. Igwe had been a vocal critic of Mbadinuju, calling for his resignation due to the failure to pay government workers for several months. In January 2006 Mbadinuju was retained in prison custody over the suit. In June 2008, the case was reopened when an Abuja High Court said Chinwoke Mbadinuju was again wanted over alleged forgery and conspiracy in the murder of Barnabas Igwe, his wife; the police claimed the accused had forged a police document exonerating Mbadinuju of the Igwes' killing
Gum arabic known as acacia gum, arabic gum, gum acacia, Senegal gum and Indian gum, by other names, is a natural gum consisting of the hardened sap of various species of the acacia tree. Gum arabic is collected from predominantly Acacia senegal and Vachellia seyal; the term "gum arabic" does not indicate a particular botanical source. In a few cases so‐called "gum arabic" may not have been collected from Acacia species, but may originate from Combretum, Albizia or some other genus; the gum is harvested commercially from wild trees in Sudan and throughout the Sahel, from Senegal to Somalia—though it is cultivated in Arabia and West Asia. Gum arabic is a complex mixture of glycoproteins and polysaccharides predominantly consisting of arabinose and galactose, it is soluble in water and used in the food industry as a stabilizer, with EU E number E414. Gum arabic is a key ingredient in traditional lithography and is used in printing, paint production, glue and various industrial applications, including viscosity control in inks and in textile industries, though less expensive materials compete with it for many of these roles.
While gum arabic is now produced throughout the African Sahel, it is still harvested and used in the Middle East. Gum arabic was defined by the 31st Codex Committee for Food Additives, held at The Hague from 19–23 March 1999, as the dried exudate from the trunks and branches of Acacia senegal or Vachellia seyal in the family Fabaceae. A 2017 safety re-evaluation by the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources of the European Food Safety Authority said that the term "gum arabic" does not indicate a particular botanical source. Gum arabic's mixture of polysaccharides and glycoproteins gives it the properties of a glue and binder, edible by humans. Other substances have replaced it where toxicity is not an issue, as the proportions of the various chemicals in gum arabic vary and make it unpredictable. Still, it remains an important ingredient in soft drink syrup and "hard" gummy candies such as gumdrops, M&M's chocolate candies. For artists, it is the traditional binder in watercolor paint, in photography for gum printing, it is used as a binder in pyrotechnic compositions.
Pharmaceutical drugs and cosmetics use the gum as a binder, emulsifying agent, a suspending or viscosity increasing agent. Wine makers have used gum arabic as a wine fining agent, it is an important ingredient in shoe polish, can be used in making homemade incense cones. It is used as a lickable adhesive, for example on postage stamps and cigarette papers. Lithographic printers employ it to keep the non-image areas of the plate receptive to water; this treatment helps to stop oxidation of aluminium printing plates in the interval between processing of the plate and its use on a printing press. Gum arabic is used in the food industry as a stabilizer and thickening agent in icing, soft candy, chewing gum and other confectionery and to bind the sweeteners and flavorings in soft drinks. A solution of sugar and gum arabic in water, gomme syrup, is sometimes used in cocktails to prevent the sugar from crystallizing and provide a smooth texture. Gum arabic is a soluble dietary fibre, a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals.
It is considered safe for human consumption. There is indication of harmless flatulence in some people taking large doses of 30g or more per day, it is not degraded in the intestine, but fermented in the colon under the influence of microorganisms—it is a prebiotic. There is no scientific consensus about its caloric value; the US FDA set a value of 4 kcal/g for food labelling, but in Europe no value was assigned for soluble dietary fibre. A 1998 review concluded that "based on present scientific knowledge only an arbitrary value can be used for regulatory purposes". In 2008 the FDA sent a letter of no objection in response to an application to reduce the rated caloric value of gum arabic to 1.7 kcal/g. Gum arabic is used as a binder for watercolor painting because it dissolves in water. Pigment of any color is suspended within the acacia gum in varying amounts, resulting in watercolor paint. Water acts as a vehicle or a diluent to thin the watercolor paint and helps to transfer the paint to a surface such as paper.
When all moisture evaporates, the acacia gum does not bind the pigment to the paper surface, but is absorbed by deeper layers. If little water is used, after evaporation the acacia gum functions as a true binder in a paint film, increasing luminosity and helping prevent the colors from lightening. Gum arabic allows more subtle control over washes, because it facilitates the dispersion of the pigment particles. In addition, acacia gum slows evaporation of water, giving longer working time; the addition of a little gum arabic to watercolor pigment and water allows for easier lifting of pigment from paper and thus can be a useful tool when lifting out color when painting in watercolor. Gum arabic has a long history as additives to ceramic glazes, it acts as a binder, helping the glaze adhere to the clay before it is fired, thereby minimising damage by handling during the manufacture of the piece. As a secondary effect, it acts as a deflocculant, increasing the fluidity of the glaze mixture but making it more to sediment out into a hard cake if not used for a while.
The gum is made up into a solution in hot water (typica
Benue State is one of the North central states in Nigeria with a population of about 4,253,641 in 2006 census. It is inhabited predominantly by the Tiv and Igede peoples, who speak Tiv and Igede languages respectively, its capital is Makurdi, Benue is a rich agricultural region. Benue State is named after the Benue River and was formed from the former Benue-Plateau State in 1976, along with Igala and some part of Kwara State. In 1991 some areas of Benue state, along with areas in Kwara State, were carved out to become part of the new Kogi State. Igbo people are found in the boundary areas like Oju etc.. Samuel Ortom is the governor and Benson Abounu is the deputy governor. Both were elected under the All Progressives Congress but defected to the Peoples Democratic Party in 2018. Benue state has three universities: Federal University of Agriculture, Benue State University, University of Mkar, it has two polytechnics: Benue State Polytechnic and Fidei polytechnic, Gboko as well as the Akperan Orshi college of Agriculture Yandev.
There are about four colleges of education which are Federal College of Education Agasha, College of Education Oju, College of Education Kastina Ala. Benue State as it exists today is a surviving legacy of an administrative entity, carved out of the protectorate of northern Nigeria at the beginning of the twentieth century; the territory was known as Munshi Province until 1918 when the name of its dominant geographical feature, the'Benue River' was adopted. The State, located in the North Central region of Nigeria, has a total population of 4,253,641 in 2006 census, with an average population density of 99 persons per km2; this makes Benue the 9th most populous state in Nigeria. However, the distribution of the population according to Local government areas shows marked duality. There are areas of low population density; such as Guma, Gwer East, Katsina-Ala, Apa and Agatu, each with less than seventy persons per km2, while Vandeikya, Ogbadibo and Gboko have densities ranging from 160 persons to 200 persons per 2.
Makurdi LGA has over 380 person per km2. The males are 49.8 percent of the total population. Benue State region was depleted of its human population during the slave trade, it is rural, with scattered settlements in tiny compounds or homesteads, whose population range from 630 people, most of whom are farmers. Urbanization in Benue State did not predate the colonial era; the few towns established during colonial rule remained small up to the creation of Benue State in 1976. Benue towns can be categorised into three groups; the first group consists of those with a population of 80,000 to 500,000 people. These include Makurdi, the State Capital and Otukpo the "headquarters" of the two dominant ethnic groups; the second group comprises towns with a population of between 20,000 and 50,000 people and includes Katsina-Ala, Zaki-Biam, Ukum￼￼, Adikpo, Kwande. These are all local government headquarters; the third category comprises towns with a population of 10,000 to 19,000 people and includes Vandeikya, lhugh, Adoka, Okpoga, Oju, Ugbokolo, Ugbokpo, Otukpa and Korinya.
Most of these towns are headquarters of created Local Government Areas and/or district headquarters or major market areas. Some of the headquarters of the newly created LGAs have populations of less than 10,000 people; such places include Tse-Agberaba, Buruku, Idekpa and Obarikeito. Apart from earth roads, periodic markets and chemists, the rural areas are used for farming, relying on the urban centres for most of their urban needs. Benue State has no problem of capital city primacy. Rather, three towns stand out clearly as important urban centres which together account for more than 70 per cent of the social amenities provided in the state and all the industrial establishments; these centres are Makurdi and Otukpo. They are amongst the oldest towns in the state and are growing at a much faster rate than the smaller younger towns. Makurdi doubles as the capital of the state and the headquarters of Makurdi LGA, while Gboko and Oju double as the local government and ethnic headquarters. All the roads in the state radiate from these three centres.
As an administrative unit, Benue State was first created on 3 February 1976. It was one of the seven states created by the military administration headed by General Murtala Mohammed, which increased the number of states in the country from 13 to 19. In 1991, its boundaries were re-adjusted with the creation of Kogi State; the new Benue State of today has twenty-three local government areas, which are administered by local government councils. Benue State lies within the lower river Benue trough in the middle belt region of Nigeria, its geographic coordinates are longitude 7° 47' and 10° 0' East. Latitude 6° 25' and 8° 8' North; the state shares a common boundary with the Republic of Cameroon on the south-east. Benue occupies a landmass of 34,059 square kilometres. Based on Köppen climate classification, Benue State lies within the AW climate and experiences two distinct seasons, the Wet season and the Dry season; the rainy season lasts from April to October with annual rai