Russia at the 2012 Summer Olympics
The Russian Federation competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom, from 27 July to 12 August 2012. This was the nation's fifth consecutive appearance at the Summer Olympics as an independent nation; the Russian Olympic Committee sent a total of 436 athletes to the Games, 208 men and 228 women, to compete in 24 sports. For the first time in its Olympic history, Russia was represented by more female than male athletes. Russia left London with a total of 82 medals, finishing fourth in the overall medal standings, but was stripped of 15 medals for doping violations. Most of these medals were awarded to the team in athletics, gymnastics and weightlifting. Of the twenty-four sports played by the Russian athletes, at least a single Olympic medal was won in sixteen of them. Russian athletes dominated in rhythmic gymnastics and synchronized swimming, where they won gold medals in all the events. Nine Russian athletes won more than a single Olympic medal in London. Russia's team-sport athletes proved successful at these games, as the men's volleyball and basketball teams won gold and bronze medals, respectively.
For the first time in its history, Russia won Olympic gold medals in judo, winning two golds in the men’s events. The success was attributed to an increased investment in the sport by the government and Vladimir Putin’s personal interest. Among the nation's medalists were Aliya Mustafina, who emerged as one of the most successful Russian gymnasts in history, with a total of four Olympic medals at a single games, Maria Sharapova, who won silver in the women's tennis singles against United States' Serena Williams. Anastasia Davydova became the most successful synchronized swimmer in Olympic history, with a total of five gold medals, while her compatriots Natalia Ishchenko and Svetlana Romashina managed to win gold medals in both duet and team events. Olga Zabelinskaya became the first Russian female cyclist to win two Olympic medals in road events. Diver Ilya Zakharov recaptured Russia's success in his sport after 12 years, as he won its first gold medal in men's springboard. Rhythmic gymnast Evgeniya Kanaeva made history by becoming the first back-to-back Olympic champion in the individual all-around event, while the Russian group in rhythmic gymnastics defended their Olympic title for the fourth consecutive time in the group all-around.
The Russian Olympic Committee selected a team of 436 athletes, 208 men and 228 women, to compete in all sports except field hockey and football. Athletics was the nation's largest team with a total of 104 competitors; the Russian team featured twelve defending champions from Beijing, including pole vaulter Yelena Isinbayeva, synchronized swimmer Anastasia Davydova, race walkers Olga Kaniskina and Valeriy Borchin, modern pentathlete Andrey Moiseev and rhythmic gymnast Evgeniya Kanaeva. Among these champions, Isinbayeva and Kanaeva managed to defend their Olympic titles for the second consecutive time in their events. Kanaeva became the first rhythmic gymnast to win back to back gold medal at the Olympics. Volleyballer Yevgeniya Estes became the first Russian athlete to compete in six Olympic games, although she first appeared as part of the Unified Team. Meanwhile, rifle shooters Artem Khadjibekov and Sergei Kovalenko, volleyballer Sergey Tetyukhin made their fifth Olympic appearance. Equestrian show jumper Vladimir Tuganov, at age 51, was the oldest athlete of the team, while relay swimmer Mariya Baklakova was the youngest at age 15.
Other notable Russian athletes featured NBA basketball players Andrei Kirilenko and Timofey Mozgov, high jumpers Ivan Ukhov and Anna Chicherova, US-based swimmers Vladimir Morozov and Arkady Vyatchanin, gymnast and world individual all-around champion Aliya Mustafina. World number-one female tennis player Maria Sharapova, who competed at her first Olympics, became Russia's first female flag bearer at the opening ceremony. Russian athletes have qualified a team of 3 through 2011 World Archery Championships. Russian athletes have so far achieved qualifying standards in the following athletics events: 26 Russian track and field athletes failed doping tests in the aftermath of the London Olympics, nine medals were rescinded. On 1 May 2013, discus thrower Darya Pishchalnikova stripped off her silver medal and thereby received a 10-year ban by the International Olympic Committee for a positive doping test on oxandrolone. On January 30, 2015 3000 m steeplechaser Yuliya Zaripova received a 2 years and 6 months ban from the Russian Anti-Doping Agency after a positive doping test for blood doping.
Afterwards, it was that said Russia “sabotaged” the 2012 Olympics by allowing athletes who should have been banned for doping violations to compete in the London Olympics, with RUSADA covering up positive tests and punishing only those athletes that would have been banned anyway. Key Note–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round Men Track & road eventsField eventsCombined events – Decathlon Women Track & road eventsField eventsCombined events – Heptathlon Russia's women team qualified for the event by win the EuroBasket Women 2011; the men qualified through the world qualification tournament. Women's event – 1 team of 12 players Men's event – 1 team of 12 players. RosterThe following i
The Garcia Report was an investigation produced by Michael J. Garcia into allegations of corruption in world association football. Garcia was appointed in July 2012 to investigate ethical breaches at the FIFA, football's world governing body. A month he announced an investigation into persistent public accusations of bribery and corruption in the 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cup bids, won in 2010 by Russia and Qatar respectively. After a two year investigation, Garcia submitted his 350-page report in September 2014, to Hans-Joachim Eckert, the FIFA's head of adjudication on ethical matters, he refused to publish the report, citing various legal grounds, instead releasing his own 42-page summary in November 2014. Eckert's summary was criticised in the media as a whitewash. After unsuccessfully appealing for the FIFA to publish the full report, Garcia resigned in protest. Over the following years there was much speculation in the media regarding the contents of the report which aspects Eckert had left out of his summary and Garcia had felt were serious enough to warrant his resignation.
In June 2017, the German newspaper Bild announced that it had obtained a leaked copy of the report and planned to publish it. FIFA released the report on the following day. On 17 July 2012, in the wake of announced anti-corruption reforms by the President of the FIFA, Sepp Blatter, the organisation appointed former United States Attorney Michael J. Garcia as Chairman of the investigative branch of its Ethics Committee, while German judge Hans-Joachim Eckert was appointed as Chairman of the Ethics Committee's adjudication chamber; the reformed Ethics Committee was given the power to retrospectively investigate old cases. As Garcia and Eckert fulfilled FIFA's statute of them or their families not having a paid connection to soccer in the previous four years, The Guardian wrote that "Garcia and Eckert are regarded as key independent figures from outside the so-called'football family' who can help restore FIFA's credibility after bribery and vote-buying scandals."Upon their appointment and Eckert were tasked to investigate alleged illegal payments made by FIFA marketing company International Sports and Leisure to former FIFA President João Havelange and former Executive Committee member Ricardo Teixeira, as well as to evaluate the behaviour of FIFA President Sepp Blatter in the affair.
ISL had specialized in buying and selling broadcast rights to FIFA events such as World Cups on contracts worth millions of dollars. The case was closed on 30 April 2014 after an investigation by Garcia, with Eckert ruling that bribes had been paid by ISL between 1992 and 2000 to Havelange and Nicolas Leoz, then-President of CONMEBOL; as Havelange and Leoz had resigned from their posts earlier in April 2014, no "superfluous" further action was taken. In contrast, Blatter was exonerated of "criminal or ethical misconduct", but was described as "clumsy" and it was questioned whether he "knew or should have known over the years before the bankruptcy of ISL that ISL had made bribes to other FIFA officials". In August 2012, Garcia declared his intention to investigate the bidding process and decision to award the right to host the 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cup to Russia and Qatar by the FIFA Executive Committee; the decision of host venues had taken place in December 2010. In May 2011, while before a British parliamentary inquiry, the former chairman of England's failed 2018 bid, David Triesman, accused FIFA executive committee members Jack Warner, Worawi Makudi, Nicolas Leoz and Ricardo Teixeira of requesting bribes from the English team in exchange for support.
The parliamentary inquiry received evidence from The Sunday Times that FIFA executive committee members Issa Hayatou and Jacques Anouma were bribed with $1.5m by the Qatar team. The whistleblower who spoke to The Sunday Times, Phaedra Al Majid, retracted her allegations in July 2011. In December 2011, The Daily Telegraph reported that the Federal Bureau of Investigation were investigating alleged hacking into email accounts for England and the United States' World Cup bids. FIFA forbids bid teams to offer incentives to members of its executive committee and their relatives. Garcia subsequently expanded his investigation into the entire bidding process for the 2018 World Cup. Garcia's investigation allowed him to demand interviews with football officials, with those refusing subject to disciplinary action. Garcia was not able to interview Mohammed bin Hammam, the former FIFA vice-president, as Hammam is banned for life from football activity. Garcia's investigation remit extended to individuals who might have violated FIFA's code of ethics.
Garcia was expected to name individuals. Garcia has no ability to subpoena people to speak to him or to ask internet service providers for documents. Garcia was assisted in his production of the report by Cornel Borbély, the deputy chairman of the investigatory chamber of the FIFA ethics committee. Borbély produced the section of the report that investigated Russia, as Garcia was sanctioned from entering the country, the United States, to prevent a potential conflict of interest as Garcia is American. Russia was the only bidding country which Garcia failed to travel to in the course of his investigations. Garcia delivered his 350-page report in September 2014, it was subsequently announced by Hans-Joachim Eckert, the head of the adjudicatory arm of FIFA's ethics committee, that it would not be made public for legal reasons. Eckert said that only his judgement on the report will be published, in the spring of 2015, the report had only been seen by fou
90th Academy Awards
The 90th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, honored the best films of 2017, took place at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. The ceremony was held on March 4, 2018, rather than its usual late-February date to avoid conflicting with the 2018 Winter Olympics. During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 24 categories; the ceremony was televised in the United States by American Broadcasting Company, produced by Michael De Luca and Jennifer Todd and directed by Glenn Weiss. Comedian Jimmy Kimmel hosted for the second consecutive year. In related events, the Academy held its 9th Annual Governors Awards ceremony at the Grand Ballroom of the Hollywood and Highland Center on November 11, 2017. On February 10, 2018, in a ceremony at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, the Academy Scientific and Technical Awards were presented by host actor Sir Patrick Stewart; the Shape of Water won a leading four awards, including Best Picture and Best Director for Guillermo del Toro.
Dunkirk won three awards. Frances McDormand and Sam Rockwell won Best Actress and Best Supporting Actor awards for Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri while Gary Oldman won Best Actor for Darkest Hour. Allison Janney won Best Supporting Actress honor for Tonya. With a U. S. viewership of 26.5 million, it was the least-watched show in Oscar history. The nominees for the 90th Academy Awards were announced on January 2018, at 5:22 a.m.. PST, at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, via global live stream, from the Academy and by actors Tiffany Haddish and Andy Serkis; the Shape of Water led all nominees with thirteen nominations. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, indicated with a double dagger; the Academy held its 9th annual Governors Awards ceremony on November 11, 2017, during which the following awards were presented: Academy Honorary Awards Agnès Varda – French film director, writer and producer Charles Burnett – American director, producer and cinematographer Donald Sutherland – Canadian actor Owen Roizman – American cinematographerSpecial Achievement Academy Award Alejandro González Iñárritu for his virtual reality project Carne y Arena The following individuals, listed in order of appearance, presented awards or performed musical numbers.
Despite the mixed reception received from the preceding year's ceremony, the Academy rehired Michael De Luca and Jennifer Todd as producers for the second consecutive year. In May 2017, it was announced. Kimmel expressed that he was thrilled to be selected to MC the gala again, commenting, "Hosting the Oscars was a highlight of my career and I am grateful to Cheryl and the Academy for asking me to return to work with two of my favorite people, Mike De Luca and Jennifer Todd. If you think we screwed up the ending this year, wait until you see what we have planned for the 90th anniversary show!" Jimmy extensively campaigned for the ceremony, shooting several promos and discussions on his talk show. ABC scheduled a "sneak peak" of its new Sunday night talk show The Alec Baldwin Show after the ceremony. On December 4, 2017, it was announced that the timing of the ceremony and its pre-show had been changed and both would be scheduled to broadcast a half-hour earlier than prior telecasts. In the first half of the nominations announcement, pre-taped category introductions were included that featured actresses Priyanka Chopra, Rosario Dawson, Gal Gadot, Salma Hayek, Michelle Rodriguez, Zoe Saldana, Molly Shannon, Rebel Wilson and Michelle Yeoh.
As per the tradition of the Academy, the previous year's Best Actor winner presents the Best Actress award for the next year's ceremony. The Best Actor award was presented by Helen Mirren. Warren Beatty and Faye Dunaway returned to present the Best Picture Award for the second year in the row, after last year's announcement error. Sixth-year in a row Derek McLane designed the stage with forty-five million Swarovski crystals. At the time of the nominations announcement on January 23, 2018, the combined gross of the nine Best Picture nominees at the North American box offices was $568.2 million, with an average of $63.1 million per film. When the nominations were announced, Dunkirk was the highest-grossing film among the Best Picture nominees with $188 million in domestic box office receipts. Get Out was the second-highest-grossing film with $175.6 million, followed by The Post, Darkest Hour, Lady Bird, Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, The Shape of Water, Call Me by Your Name, Phantom Thread. From the date of announcements to the time of the ceremony on March 4, 2018, the total made by the Best Picture nominees at the North American box offices was $126.7 million, with an average of $14.1 million per film.
The Post and The Shape of Water had the highest grossed during that frame, followed by Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Darkest Hour, Phantom Thread, Lady Bird, C
2014 Winter Olympics
The 2014 Winter Olympics called the XXII Olympic Winter Games and known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event, held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014. Both the Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics were organized by the Sochi Organizing Committee. Sochi was selected as the host city in July 2007, during the 119th IOC Session held in Guatemala City, it was the first Olympics to be held in a CIS state since the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Soviet Union was the host nation for the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow; these were the first Olympic Games under the International Olympic Committee presidency of Thomas Bach. A record 98 events in fifteen winter sport disciplines were held during the Games. A number of new competitions—a total of twelve accounting for gender—were held during the Games, including biathlon mixed relay, women's ski jumping, mixed-team figure skating, mixed-team luge, half-pipe skiing and snowboard slopestyle, snowboard parallel slalom.
The events were held around two clusters of new venues: an Olympic Park constructed in Sochi's Imeretinsky Valley on the coast of the Black Sea, with Fisht Olympic Stadium, the Games' indoor venues located within walking distance, snow events in the resort settlement of Krasnaya Polyana. The 2014 Winter Olympics were the most expensive Games in the history of the Olympics. While budgeted at US$12 billion, major cost overruns, alleged to have been the result of corruption, caused this figure to expand to US$51 billion, more than three times the cost of the 2012 London Olympics and surpassing the estimated $44 billion cost of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing; the 2014 Games achieved a record broadcast audience of 2.1 billion people worldwide. In 2016, an independent report commissioned by the World Anti-Doping Agency confirmed allegations that the Russian Olympic team had been involved in a state-sponsored doping program, active from at least late-2011 through August 2015; the program was active during the Winter Olympics in Sochi, athletes had benefited from the cover-up.
The IOC stripped thirteen medals from Russian athletes in 2017, but nine were reinstated by the Court of Arbitration for Sport. In December 2017, the IOC voted to suspend the Russian Olympic Committee, with an option for whitelisted athletes to compete independently during the 2018 Winter Olympics. Sochi was elected on 4 July 2007 during the 119th International Olympic Committee session held in Guatemala City, defeating bids from Salzburg, Austria; this is the first time. The Soviet Union was the host of the 1980 Summer Olympics held around Moscow; as of October 2013, the estimated combined cost of the 2014 Winter Olympics had topped US$51 billion. This amount included the cost for Olympic games themselves and cost of Sochi infrastructural projects; this total is over four times the initial budget of $12 billion, made the Sochi games the most expensive Olympics in history, exceeding the estimated $44 billion cost of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, which hosted 3 times as many events. Dmitry Kozak was the main overseer for the events in Sochi.
In its final budget published in June 2014, Olimpstroy—the state corporation that oversaw the Sochi Olympics development—reported the total allocated funds for the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics of 1,524 billion rubles. However, only about a fifth of that budget was directly related to the Olympic games, while the rest went into urban and regional regeneration and the conversion of the Sochi region into an all-year round sea and alpine resort; the breakdown table below is based on a report that has analyzed the distribution of Olimpstroy's $49.5 billion budget. Estimates suggest that additional unrecoverable operational costs could have added another $3 billion. With an average February temperature of 8.3 °C and a humid subtropical climate, Sochi is the warmest city to host a Winter Olympic Games. Sochi 2014 is the 12th straight Olympics to outlaw smoking, it is the first time that an Olympic Park has been built for hosting winter games. The Sochi Olympic Park was built by the Black Sea coast in the Imeretinsky Valley, about 4 km from Russia's border with Abkhazia/Georgia.
The venues were clustered around a central water basin on which the Medals Plaza is built, allowing all indoor venues to be within walking distance. It features "The Waters of the Olympic Park", a choreographed fountain which served as the backdrop in the medals awards and the opening and closing ceremonies of the event; the new venues include: Fisht Olympic Stadium – ceremonies 40,000 spectators Bolshoy Ice Dome – ice hockey, 12,000 spectators Shayba Arena – ice hockey, 7,000 spectators Adler Arena Skating Center – speed skating, 8,000 spectators Iceberg Skating Palace – figure skating, short track speed skating, 12,000 spectators Ice Cube Curling Center – curling, 3,000 spectators Main Olympic village International broadcasting centre and main press room Laura Biathlon & Ski Complex – biathlon, cross-country skiing Rosa Khutor Extreme Park – freestyle skiing and snowboarding Rosa Khutor Alpine Resort – alpine skiing
International Olympic Committee
The International Olympic Committee is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland. Created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas in 1894, it is the authority responsible for organising the modern Summer and Winter Olympic Games; the IOC is the governing body of the National Olympic Committees, which are the national constituents of the worldwide Olympic Movement. As of 2016, there are 206 NOCs recognised by the IOC; the current president of the IOC is Thomas Bach of Germany, who succeeded Jacques Rogge of Belgium in September 2013. The IOC was created by Pierre de Coubertin, on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president; as of January 2019, its membership consists of 96 active members, 45 honorary members, an honorary president and two honour members. The IOC is the supreme authority of the worldwide modern Olympic movement; the IOC organises the modern Olympic Games and Youth Olympic Games, held in summer and winter, every four years. The first Summer Olympics was held in Athens, Greece, in 1896.
The first Summer YOG were in Singapore in 2010 and the first Winter YOG in Innsbruck were in 2012. Until 1992, both Summer and Winter Olympics were held in the same year. After that year, the IOC shifted the Winter Olympics to the years between Summer Games, to help space the planning of the two events from one another, improve the financial balance of the IOC, which receives a proportionally greater income in Olympic years. In 2009, the UN General Assembly granted the IOC Permanent Observer status; the decision enables the IOC to be directly involved in the UN Agenda and to attend UN General Assembly meetings where it can take the floor. In 1993, the General Assembly approved a Resolution to further solidify IOC–UN cooperation by reviving the Olympic Truce. During each proclamation at the Olympics, announcers speak in different languages: French is always spoken first, followed by an English translation, the dominant language of the host nation; the IOC received approval in November 2015 to construct a new headquarters in Lausanne.
The cost of the project was estimated to stand at $156m. The IOC announced on 11 February 2019 that "Olympic House" would be inaugurated on 23 June 2019 to coincide with its 125th anniversary; the Olympic Museum remains in Lausanne. The stated mission of the IOC is to promote the Olympics throughout the world and to lead the Olympic Movement: To encourage and support the organisation and coordination of sport and sports competitions, it is the IOC's supreme organ and its decisions are final. Extraordinary Sessions may be convened by the President or upon the written request of at least one third of the members. Among others, the powers of the Session are: To amend the Olympic Charter. To elect the members of the IOC, the Honorary President and the honorary members. To elect the President, the Vice-Presidents and all other members of the IOC Executive Board. To elect the host city of the Olympic Games. In addition to the Olympic medals for competitors, the IOC awards a number of other honours; the IOC President's Trophy is the highest sports award given to athletes who have excelled in their sport and had an extraordinary career and created a lasting impact on their sport The Pierre de Coubertin medal is awarded to athletes who demonstrate a special spirit of sportsmanship in Olympic events The Olympic Cup is awarded to institutions or associations with a record of merit and integrity in developing the Olympic Movement The Olympic Order is awarded to individuals for distinguished contributions to the Olympic Movement, superseded the Olympic Certificate The Olympic Laurel is awarded to individuals for promoting education, culture and peace through sport The Olympic town status has been given to some towns which have been important for the Olympic movement For most of its existence, the IOC was controlled by members who were selected by other members.
Countries that had hosted. When named, they did not become the representatives of their respective countries to the IOC, but rather the opposite, IOC members in their respective countries. "Granted the honour of becoming a member of the International Olympic Committee and declaring myself aware of my responsibilities in such a capacity, I undertake to serve the Olympic Movement to the best of my ability. The membership of IOC members ceases in the following circumstances: Resignation: any IOC member may cease their membership at any tim
Federal Security Service
The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation is the principal security agency of Russia and the main successor agency to the USSR's Committee of State Security. Its main responsibilities are within the country and include counter-intelligence and border security, counter-terrorism, surveillance as well as investigating some other types of grave crimes and federal law violations, it is headquartered in Lubyanka Square, Moscow's centre, in the main building of the former KGB. According to the 1995 Federal Law "On the Federal Security Service", direction of the FSB is executed by the president of Russia, who appoints the Director of FSB; the immediate predecessor of the FSB was the Federal Counterintelligence Service of Russia, itself a successor to the KGB: on 12 April 1995, Russian president Boris Yeltsin signed a law mandating a reorganization of the FSK, which resulted in the creation of the FSB. In 2003, the FSB's responsibilities were widened by incorporating the independent Border Guard Service and a major part of the abolished Federal Agency of Government Communication and Information.
The three major structural successor components of the former KGB that remain administratively independent of the FSB are the Foreign Intelligence Service, the State Guards, the Main Directorate of Special Programs of the President of the Russian Federation. Under Russian federal law, the FSB is a military service just like the armed forces, the MVD, the FSO, the SVR, the FSKN, Main Directorate for Drugs Control and EMERCOM's civil defence, but its commissioned officers do not wear military uniforms; the FSB is responsible for internal security of the Russian state, counterintelligence, the fight against organized crime and drug smuggling, whereas overseas espionage is the primary responsibility of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service, successor to the KGB's First Directorate, as well as the GRU, a body within the Russian Ministry of Defence. However, the FSB's FAPSI conducts electronic surveillance abroad. All law enforcement and intelligence agencies in Russia work under the guidance of the FSB, if necessary.
The FSB employs about 66,200 uniformed staff, including about 4,000 special forces troops. It employs about Border Service of the 160,000–200,000 border guards. Under Article 32 of the Federal Constitutional Law On the Government of the Russian Federation, The FSB answers directly to the RF president and the Director of FSB, while a member of the RF government, headed by the Chairman of Government, reports to the president only; the Federal Security Service is one of the successor organisations of the Soviet Committee of State Security. Following the attempted coup of 1991—in which some KGB units as well as the KGB head Vladimir Kryuchkov played a major part—the KGB was dismantled and ceased to exist from November 1991. In December 1991, two government agencies answerable to the Russian president were created by President Yeltsin's decrees on the basis of the relevant main directorates of the defunct KGB: Foreign Intelligence Service and the Federal Agency of Government Communications and Information.
In January 1992, another new institution, the Ministry of Security took over domestic and border security responsibilities. Following the 1993 constitutional crisis, the Ministry of Security was reorganized on 21 December 1993 into the Federal Counter-Intelligence Service; the FSK was headed by Sergei Stepashin. Before the start of the main military activities of the First Chechen War the FSK was responsible for the covert operations against the separatists led by Dzhokhar Dudayev. In 1995, the FSK was renamed and reorganized into the Federal Security Service by the Federal Law "On the Federal Security Service" signed by the president on 3 April 1995; the FSB reforms were rounded out by decree No. 633, signed by Boris Yeltsin on 23 June 1995. The decree made the tasks of the FSB more specific, giving the FSB substantial rights to conduct cryptographic work, described the powers of the FSB director; the number of deputy directors was increased to 8: 2 first deputies, 5 deputies responsible for departments and directorates and 1 deputy director heading the Moscow City and Moscow regional directorate.
Yeltsin appointed Colonel-General Mikhail Ivanovich Barsukov as the new director of the FSB. In 1998 Yeltsin appointed Vladimir Putin, a KGB veteran who would succeed Yeltsin as federal president, as director of the FSB. Putin was reluctant to take over the directorship, but once appointed conducted a thorough reorganization, which included the dismissal of most of the FSB's top personnel. Putin appointed Nikolai Patrushev as the head of FSB in 1999. After the main military offensive of the Second Chechen War ended and the separatists changed tactics to guerilla warfare, overall command of the federal forces in Chechnya was transferred from the military to the FSB in January 2001. While the army lacked technical means of tracking the guerrilla groups, the FSB suffered from insufficient human intelligence due to its inability to build networks of agents and informants. In the autumn of 2002, the separatists launched a massive campaign of terrorism against the Russian civilians, including t
Jim Walden (lawyer)
James Walden is an American lawyer. A thought leader in the legal world, Walden has broken new ground in a wide range of significant cases with lasting consequences for criminal and social justice and political accountability. Through creative and aggressive legal strategies, he has brought about real change and enduring impact on matters of national and global importance. A veteran litigator of high-profile criminal and regulatory matters, Walden is a nationally recognized legal analyst and public policy expert. Rising from humble working-class beginnings, Walden put himself through law school at Temple University, where he graduated first in his class, he was hired by the U. S Department of Justice as an Assistant U. S. Attorney for the Eastern District of New York where he became a federal prosecutor at age 27, his innovative prosecutorial and investigative techniques resulted in the convictions of hundreds of mob members, the ultimate dismantling of New York’s infamous Five Families. After serving the U.
S Department of Justice from 1993 to 2002, Walden entered private practice specializing in white-collar criminal defense, in 2015 founded the law firm of Walden Macht & Haran LLP where he is a leading U. S. attorney on high-profile criminal, governmental and regulatory matters. Walden is lead counsel to Governor Phil Murphy’s Investigative Task Force on the State of New Jersey’s tax incentive program, represents the District Attorney's Association of the State of New York in a constitutional challenge to a law that allows for executive overreach and degrades separation of powers between the three branches of state government. Walden represents prominent whistleblowers, including Dr. Grigory Rodchenkov, the former head of the Moscow anti-doping laboratory. Through this representation, Walden was invited by the U. S. Helsinki Commission to testify before the Congress, to consult on the development of groundbreaking bipartisan legislation, the Rodchenkov Anti-Doping Act, to criminalize doping fraud in international sports while providing an instrumental gateway for the DOJ to investigate and prosecute related corrupt practices.
He represents Brittany Kaiser, former Director of Business Development for Cambridge Analytica, who has offered critical evidence on commercial and political data practices to various U. S. federal agencies and congressional investigations, to British Parliament. In the white-collar defense arena, Walden has represented Joseph Cassano, CEO of AIG's Financial Products unit, high-stakes "Poker Princess" Molly Bloom and a diverse array of high-profile corporate executives. Defiant in the face of injustice, Walden’s inventive class-action litigation strategies brought against city and state agencies have resulted in triumphant outcomes for thousands of New Yorkers, he remedied the rights of disabled and impoverished citizens whose food stamps and Social Security benefits were illegally terminated. In a class action school-bullying suit against the New York City Department of Education, Walden fought relentlessly to correct the systematic failure by the agency to fulfill its obligations to protect students, achieving a settlement that established landmark anti-bullying protocols in the largest school system in the U.
S. This case set a legal precedent for sweeping national reform; as part of a lawsuit against the New York City Housing Authority on behalf of its tenants who demanded the agency uphold its federal mandate to provide safe, dignified housing after years of neglect, Walden procured a court-ordered injunction forcing decades-overdue lead inspections and removal in thousands of apartments with young children. Walden’s work is depicted on screen in the Oscar-winning documentary film Icarus, in Aaron Sorkin's feature film Molly's Game. in the National Geographic documentary series Inside the American Mob and in the Vanity Fair documentary The Disco Inferno. Walden is a frequent legal commentator on his own cases, on issues of national and global importance, his work has been featured in The New York Times, 60 Minutes, CNN, Fox News, MSNBC, BBC, Channel 4 and other international news outlets. Walden received his B. A. from Hamilton College. He graduated magna cum laude from Temple University School of Law in 1991 where he was first in his class.
After graduating from law school, Walden clerked for Anthony J. Scirica in the U. S Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. At age 27, Walden was hired by the U. S. Attorney's Office for the Eastern District of New York as an Assistant U. S. Attorney where he ascended to lead the first Computer Crimes and Intellectual Property unit for the U. S Department of Justice. After breaking up a human trafficking ring as a newly minted Assistant U. S. Attorney, Walden moved to an organized crime unit where he indicted and convicted hundreds of mob members, resulting in the dismantling of New York’s infamous Five Families, his innovative prosecutorial and investigative techniques were instrumental in the bringing to justice of the bosses and soldiers of the Bonanno, Gambino and Lucchese crime families. Working in close collaboration with the FBI, DEA, NYPD and other agencies, Walden’s endeavors in the prosecution of a broad range of complex racketeering trials saw him garner many honors and awards, including the “Director’s Award for Superior Performance” and the Federal Law Enforcement Foundation’s “Prosecutor of the Year.”
Following his public service as a federal prosecutor, Walden moved into private practice. He led the white-collar practices at two major international law firms, first at O'Melveny & Myers LLP and at Gibson Dunn & Crutcher LLP as co-chair of the firm's White-Collar-Criminal Defense & Investigations practice and head of its pro bono practice, he spearheaded succes