Future plc is a British media company founded in 1985. It publishes more than 50 magazines in fields such as video games, films, photography and knowledge, it is a constituent of the FTSE Fledgling Index. The company owns the US company Future US; the company was founded as Future Publishing in Somerton, Somerset in 1985 by Chris Anderson with the sole magazine Amstrad Action. An early innovation was the inclusion of free software on magazine covers, the first company to do so. In the 1990s, the company published Arcane, a magazine which focused on tabletop games. Anderson sold Future to Pearson PLC for £52.7m in 1994, but bought it back in 1998, with Future chief executive Greg Ingham and Apax Venture Partners, for £142m. In 2001, Anderson left Future. In 2007, the State of Texas filed a lawsuit against Future plc for violating the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act; the lawsuit alleges that the Future plc owned website GamesRadar "failed to include necessary disclosures and obtain parental consent before collecting personal information from children."
The owner of the other websites settled in March 2008, though the final disposition against Future plc is not public record. In November 2009, Future reported a fall in profits from £9.5 million to £3.7 million in the fiscal year that ended 30 September 2009. Future attributed this to problems with their US market, hit by a fall in the general advertising market. In March 2010, Future announced that it was exploring the possibility of reviving its GamesMaster brand on television; the video games show had run from 1992 until 1998 but while the spin-off magazine continued to be published for a further 20 years, its last issue hit the newsstands on 1 November 2018. Future won the Association of Online Publishers Consumer Digital Publisher of the Year Award for the third year in a row in 2010. Future published the official magazines for the consoles of all three major games console manufacturers; the company had a period of shuttering print media properties in favour of digital media, closing many titles and selling off others.
In January 2012, Future sold its U. S. consumer music magazines, including Guitar World and Revolver, to NewBay Media for $3 million. In April 2013, it completed the sale of major components of its UK media-music brands for £10.2 million to Team Rock Ltd. In September 2013 – but bought these back for £800,000 in 2017 after Team Rock went into administration. In August 2013, Future acquired two Australian computing titles, APC and TechLife from Bauer Media Group. Future announced it would cut 55 jobs from its UK operation as part of a restructuring to adapt "more to the company's rapid transition to a digital business model." The company announced in March 2014 that it would close all of its U. S.-based print publications and shift U. S. print support functions such as consumer marketing and editorial leadership for Future's international print brands to the UK. In 2014, Future sold its sport and craft titles to Immediate Media, its auto titles to Kelsey Media. In 2016, Future started to expand its web portfolio through a series of acquisitions.
It bought Blaze Publishing to diversify into the shooting market and acquired Noble House Media to increase its interest in telecoms media. Future completed the purchase of rival specialist magazine publisher Imagine on 21 October 2016 after receiving approval from the Competition and Markets Authority. In 2018, Future made further major acquisitions, it bought the What Hi-Fi?, FourFourTwo, Practical Caravan and Practical Motorhome brands from Haymarket. Future acquired NewBay Media, publisher of numerous broadcast, professional video, systems integration trade titles, as well as several consumer music magazines.. It intends to complete the acquisition of U. S. B2C publisher Purch for $132m by September 2018. Future purchased nextmedia computing and tech assets in the same month and incorporating PC PowerPlay articles into the online versions of PC Gamer. In January 2019, Future sold some B2B brands to Datateam Media Group. In February 2019, Future acquired Mobile Nations including Android Central, iMore, Windows Central and Thrifter.
In March 2014, it was announced that the company's CFO Zillah Byng-Maddick would become the company's fourth CEO in nine years on 1 April 2014 after Mark Wood, CEO since 2011, stepped down. Richard Huntingford is chairman. Official website
KDE is an international free software community developing Free and Open Source software. As a central development hub, it provides tools and resources that allow collaborative work on this kind of software. Well-known products include the Plasma Desktop, KDE Frameworks and a range of cross-platform applications like Krita or digikam designed to run on Unix and Unix-like desktops, Microsoft Windows and Android. Being one of KDE's most recognized projects, the Plasma Desktop is the official / default desktop environment on many Linux distributions, such as openSUSE, Mageia, OpenMandriva, Kubuntu, KaOS and PCLinuxOS; the KDE community and its work can be measured in the following figures: KDE is one of the largest active Free Software communities. More than 2500 contributors participate in developing KDE software. About 20 new developers contribute their first code each month. KDE software consists of over 6 million lines of code. KDE software has been translated into over 108 languages. KDE software is available on more than 114 official FTP mirrors in over 34 countries.
A read-only mirror of all repositories can be found on Github. There are many free software projects maintained by the KDE community; the project known as KDE or KDE SC nowadays consists of three parts: KDE Plasma, a platform UI that provides the base for different workspaces like Plasma Desktop or Plasma Mobile KDE Frameworks, a collection of more than 70 free-to-use libraries built on top of Qt KDE Applications KDE Plasma is a user interface technology that can be adjusted to run on various form factors like desktops, netbooks and smartphones or embedded devices. The brand Plasma for the graphical workspaces has been introduced from KDE SC 4.4 onwards. During the fourth series there have been two additional workspaces besides the Plasma 4 Desktop called Plasma Netbook and Plasma Active; the latest KDE Plasma 5 features the following workspaces: Plasma Desktop for any mouse or keyboard driven computing devices like desktops or laptops Plasma Mobile for smartphones Plasma Minishell for embedded and touch-enabled devices, like IoT or automotive Plasma Media Center for TVs and set-top boxes KDE Frameworks provide more than 70 free and open-source libraries built on top of Qt.
Starting with Qt 5, this platform was transformed into a set of modules, now referred to as KDE Frameworks. These modules include: Solid, Phonon, etc. and are licensed either under the LGPL, BSD license, MIT License or X11 license. KDE Applications is a bundle of software, part of the official KDE Applications release. Like Okular, Dolphin or KDEnlive, they are built on KDE Frameworks and released on a 4 months schedule with the version numbering consisting of YY. MM. Software, not part of the official KDE Applications bundle can be found in the "Extragear" section, they feature their own versioning numbers. There are many standalone applications like KTorrent, Krita or Amarok that are designed to be portable between operating systems and deployable independent of a particular workspace or desktop environment; some brands consist of multiple applications, such as KDE Kontact. KDE neon is a software repository, it aims to provide the users with updated Qt and KDE software, while updating the rest of the OS components from the Ubuntu repositories at the normal pace.
KDE maintains that it is not a "KDE distribution," but rather an up-to-date archive of KDE and Qt packages. There is two "Developer" editions of KDE Neon. WikiToLearn, abbreviated WTL, is one of KDE's newer endeavors, it is a wiki that provides a platform to share open source textbooks. The idea is to have a massive library of textbooks for anyone and everyone to create, its roots lay in University of Milan, where a group of physics majors wanted to share notes—then decided that it was for everyone and not just their internal friend group. They have become an official KDE project with several universities backing it. Like many free/open source projects, developing KDE software is a volunteer effort, although various companies, such as Novell, Nokia, or Blue Systems employ or employed developers to work on various parts of the project. Since a large number of individuals contribute to KDE in various ways (e.g. code
Linux Format is the UK's first Linux-specific magazine, as of 2013 was the best-selling Linux title in the UK. It is exported to many countries worldwide, it is published by Future plc. Linux Format is abbreviated to LXF, issues are referred to with LXF as a prefix followed by the issue number, it began as a one-issue pilot in 1999 called Linux Answers, began full publication as Linux Format in May 2000 after being launched and produced by a small team consisting of Editor Nick Veitch, Art Editor Chris Crookes and staff writer Richard Drummond, who together created the magazines core values and initial design appearance. Linux Format has translated editions available in Italy and Russia. A large number of magazines are exported across the world, principally to the USA where they are sold in Barnes & Noble stores, as well as other large book stores. Articles within Linux Format feature at-length series and practical tutorials to teach and allow users to expand their skills in using the Linux operating system and its associated software applications.
Contributions are encouraged to be submitted by readers. Linux Format shares the UK market place with an English-language version of Linux Magazine and with Linux User and Developer which discontinued in September 2018. Linux Format includes similar content to that found in most computer magazines, but aimed at users of the Linux operating system. There are round-ups, technology features and tutorials aimed at all levels of users; the magazine comes with a DVD containing full Linux distributions, other free software. The magazine is edited by Neil Mohr with a team composed of Efraín Hernández-Mendoza as Art Editor, Jonni Bidwell as Technical Editor and Chris Thornett as Operations Editor. Previous staff members include Graham Morrison, Andrew Gregory, Mike Saunders and Ben Everard who have since gone on to produce a different magazine, Linux Voice; the magazine is published 13 times a year. Linux Format has a dedicated magazine website which contains forums for readers to interact with the editorial staff and writers, as well as an extensive reference section for the articles in the magazine.
In February 2009, the Linux Format editorial staff launched TuxRadar. TuxRadar has become the primary method of the editorial team getting Linux news on to the Internet, with the Linux Format webpage undergoing some modifications to become more community-focused. Linux Journal Linux Voice Linux User and Developer Linux Magazine Linux Magazine Official website TuxRadar Linux Format
In computing, a desktop environment is an implementation of the desktop metaphor made of a bundle of programs running on top of a computer operating system, which share a common graphical user interface, sometimes described as a graphical shell. The desktop environment was seen on personal computers until the rise of mobile computing. Desktop GUIs help the user to access and edit files, while they do not provide access to all of the features found in the underlying operating system. Instead, the traditional command-line interface is still used when full control over the operating system is required. A desktop environment consists of icons, toolbars, folders and desktop widgets. A GUI might provide drag and drop functionality and other features that make the desktop metaphor more complete. A desktop environment aims to be an intuitive way for the user to interact with the computer using concepts which are similar to those used when interacting with the physical world, such as buttons and windows.
While the term desktop environment described a style of user interfaces following the desktop metaphor, it has come to describe the programs that realize the metaphor itself. This usage has been popularized by projects such as the Common Desktop Environment, K Desktop Environment, GNOME. On a system that offers a desktop environment, a window manager in conjunction with applications written using a widget toolkit are responsible for most of what the user sees; the window manager supports the user interactions with the environment, while the toolkit provides developers a software library for applications with a unified look and behavior. A windowing system of some sort interfaces directly with the underlying operating system and libraries; this provides support for graphical hardware, pointing devices, keyboards. The window manager runs on top of this windowing system. While the windowing system may provide some window management functionality, this functionality is still considered to be part of the window manager, which happens to have been provided by the windowing system.
Applications that are created with a particular window manager in mind make use of a windowing toolkit provided with the operating system or window manager. A windowing toolkit gives applications access to widgets that allow the user to interact graphically with the application in a consistent way; the first desktop environment was sold with the Xerox Alto in the 1970s. The Alto was considered by Xerox to be a personal office computer. With the Lisa, Apple introduced a desktop environment on an affordable personal computer, which failed in the market; the desktop metaphor was popularized on commercial personal computers by the original Macintosh from Apple in 1984, was popularized further by Windows from Microsoft since the 1990s. As of 2014, the most popular desktop environments are descendants of these earlier environments, including the Aero environment used in Windows Vista and Windows 7, the Aqua environment used in macOS; when compared with the X-based desktop environments available for Unix-like operating systems such as Linux and FreeBSD, the proprietary desktop environments included with Windows and macOS have fixed layouts and static features, with integrated "seamless" designs that aim to provide consistent customer experiences across installations.
Microsoft Windows dominates in marketshare among personal computers with a desktop environment. Computers using Unix-like operating systems such as macOS, Chrome OS, Linux, BSD or Solaris are much less common. Among the more popular of these are Google's Chromebooks and Chromeboxes, Intel's NUC, the Raspberry Pi, etc. On tablets and smartphones, the situation is the opposite, with Unix-like operating systems dominating the market, including the iOS, Tizen and Ubuntu. Microsoft's Windows phone, Windows RT and Windows 10 are used on a much smaller number of tablets and smartphones. However, the majority of Unix-like operating systems dominant on handheld devices do not use the X11 desktop environments used by other Unix-like operating systems, relying instead on interfaces based on other technologies. On systems running the X Window System, desktop environments are much more dynamic and customizable to meet user needs. In this context, a desktop environment consists of several separate components, including a window manager, a file manager, a set of graphical themes, together with toolkits and libraries for managing the desktop.
All these individual modules can be exchanged and independently configured to suit users, but most desktop environments provide a default configuration that works with minimal user setup. Some window managers—such as IceWM, Openbox, ROX Desktop and Window Maker—contain sparse desktop environment elements, such as an integrated spatial file manager, while others like evilwm and wmii do not provide such elements. Not all of the program code, part of a desktop environment has effects which are directly visible to the user; some of it may be low-level code. KDE, for example, provides so-called KIO slaves which give the user access to a wide range of virtual devices; these I/O slaves are not av
FVWM95 is a window manager for the X Window System based on the popular FVWM 2 window manager. It is similar to the original FVWM, but is designed to resemble the look of Windows 95. FVWM95 was for a while a rather popular window manager, it is no longer as popular, nor is it well-maintained or included in modern Linux distributions. FVWM98 is a derivative of FVWM95, designed to look like Windows 98 instead of Windows 95. FVWM95 was included in Debian since 2000 but was removed in 2006 because of incompatibility with UTF-8 character encoding system. Similar window managers include Qvwm, IceWM and JWM. Windows 95-like appearance. Taskbar for quick window switching. Virtual desktop support. Most features from FVWM 2. IceWM Comparison of X window managers FVWM95 on SourceForge.net Debugged fork of FVWM95 2.0.43f, rev. 2017-04
Graphical user interface
The graphical user interface is a form of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation. GUIs were introduced in reaction to the perceived steep learning curve of command-line interfaces, which require commands to be typed on a computer keyboard; the actions in a GUI are performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements. Beyond computers, GUIs are used in many handheld mobile devices such as MP3 players, portable media players, gaming devices and smaller household and industrial controls; the term GUI tends not to be applied to other lower-display resolution types of interfaces, such as video games, or not including flat screens, like volumetric displays because the term is restricted to the scope of two-dimensional display screens able to describe generic information, in the tradition of the computer science research at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center.
Designing the visual composition and temporal behavior of a GUI is an important part of software application programming in the area of human–computer interaction. Its goal is to enhance the efficiency and ease of use for the underlying logical design of a stored program, a design discipline named usability. Methods of user-centered design are used to ensure that the visual language introduced in the design is well-tailored to the tasks; the visible graphical interface features of an application are sometimes referred to as chrome or GUI. Users interact with information by manipulating visual widgets that allow for interactions appropriate to the kind of data they hold; the widgets of a well-designed interface are selected to support the actions necessary to achieve the goals of users. A model–view–controller allows flexible structures in which the interface is independent from and indirectly linked to application functions, so the GUI can be customized easily; this allows users to select or design a different skin at will, eases the designer's work to change the interface as user needs evolve.
Good user interface design relates to users more, to system architecture less. Large widgets, such as windows provide a frame or container for the main presentation content such as a web page, email message or drawing. Smaller ones act as a user-input tool. A GUI may be designed for the requirements of a vertical market as application-specific graphical user interfaces. Examples include automated teller machines, point of sale touchscreens at restaurants, self-service checkouts used in a retail store, airline self-ticketing and check-in, information kiosks in a public space, like a train station or a museum, monitors or control screens in an embedded industrial application which employ a real-time operating system. By the 1980s, cell phones and handheld game systems employed application specific touchscreen GUIs. Newer automobiles use GUIs in their navigation systems and multimedia centers, or navigation multimedia center combinations. Sample graphical desktop environments A GUI uses a combination of technologies and devices to provide a platform that users can interact with, for the tasks of gathering and producing information.
A series of elements conforming a visual language have evolved to represent information stored in computers. This makes it easier for people with few computer skills to use computer software; the most common combination of such elements in GUIs is the windows, menus, pointer paradigm in personal computers. The WIMP style of interaction uses a virtual input device to represent the position of a pointing device, most a mouse, presents information organized in windows and represented with icons. Available commands are compiled together in menus, actions are performed making gestures with the pointing device. A window manager facilitates the interactions between windows and the windowing system; the windowing system handles hardware devices such as pointing devices, graphics hardware, positioning of the pointer. In personal computers, all these elements are modeled through a desktop metaphor to produce a simulation called a desktop environment in which the display represents a desktop, on which documents and folders of documents can be placed.
Window managers and other software combine to simulate the desktop environment with varying degrees of realism. Smaller mobile devices such as personal digital assistants and smartphones use the WIMP elements with different unifying metaphors, due to constraints in space and available input devices. Applications for which WIMP is not well suited may use newer interaction techniques, collectively termed post-WIMP user interfaces; as of 2011, some touchscreen-based operating systems such as Apple's iOS and Android use the class of GUIs named post-WIMP. These support styles of interaction using more than one finger in contact with a display, which allows actions such as pinching and rotating, which are unsupported by one pointer and mouse. Human interface devices, for the efficient interaction with a GUI include a computer keyboard used together with keyboard shortcuts, pointing devices for the cursor control: mouse, pointing stick, trackball, virtual keyboards, head-up displays. There are actions performed by programs that affect the GUI.
For example, there are components like inotify or D-Bus to facilitate communication between computer programs. Ivan Sutherland developed Sketchpad in 1963 held as the first graphical co
GNOME is a free and open-source desktop environment for Unix-like operating systems. GNOME was an acronym for GNU Network Object Model Environment, but the acronym was dropped because it no longer reflected the vision of the GNOME project. GNOME is part of the GNU Project and developed by The GNOME Project, composed of both volunteers and paid contributors, the largest corporate contributor being Red Hat, it is an international project that aims to develop software frameworks for the development of software, to program end-user applications based on these frameworks, to coordinate efforts for internationalization and localization and accessibility of that software. GNOME 3 is the default desktop environment on many major Linux distributions including Fedora, Ubuntu, SUSE Linux Enterprise, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, Oracle Linux, Scientific Linux, SteamOS, Kali Linux and Endless OS; the continued fork of the last GNOME 2 release that goes under the name MATE is default on many distributions that targets low usage of system resources.
GNOME was started on August 15 1997 by Miguel de Icaza and Federico Mena as a free software project to develop a desktop environment and applications for it. It was founded in part because K Desktop Environment, growing in popularity, relied on the Qt widget toolkit which used a proprietary software license until version 2.0. In place of Qt, the GTK toolkit was chosen as the base of GNOME. GTK uses the GNU Lesser General Public License, a free software license that allows software linking to it to use a much wider set of licenses, including proprietary software licenses. GNOME itself is licensed under the LGPL for its libraries, the GNU General Public License for its applications; the name "GNOME" was an acronym of GNU Network Object Model Environment, referring to the original intention of creating a distributed object framework similar to Microsoft's OLE, but the acronym was dropped because it no longer reflected the vision of the GNOME project. The California startup Eazel developed the Nautilus file manager from 1999 to 2001.
De Icaza and Nat Friedman founded Helix Code in 1999 in Massachusetts. During the transition to GNOME 2 around the year 2001 and shortly thereafter there were brief talks about creating a GNOME Office suite. On September 15, 2003 GNOME-Office 1.0, consisting of AbiWord 2.0, GNOME-DB 1.0 and Gnumeric 1.2.0 was released. Although some release planning for GNOME Office 1.2 was happening on gnome-office mailing list, Gnumeric 1.4 was announced as a part of it, the 1.2 release of the suite itself never materialized. As of May 4, 2014 GNOME wiki only mentions "GNOME/Gtk applications that are useful in an office environment". GNOME 2 was similar to a conventional desktop interface, featuring a simple desktop in which users could interact with virtual objects, such as windows and files. GNOME 2 started out with Sawfish, but switched to Metacity as its default window manager; the handling of windows and files in GNOME 2 is similar to that of contemporary desktop operating systems. In the default configuration of GNOME 2, the desktop has a launcher menu for quick access to installed programs and file locations.
However, these features can be moved to any position or orientation the user desires, replaced with other functions or removed altogether. As of 2009, GNOME 2 was the default desktop for OpenSolaris. GNOME 1 and 2 followed the traditional desktop metaphor. GNOME 3, released in 2011, changed this with GNOME Shell, a more abstract metaphor where switching between different tasks and virtual desktops takes place in a separate area called "Overview". Since Mutter replaced Metacity as the default window manager, the minimize and maximize buttons no longer appear by default, the title bar, menu bar and tool bar combinated in one horizontal bar called "header bar" via Client-Side Decoration mechanism. Adwaita replaced Clearlooks as the default theme. Many GNOME Core Applications went through redesigns to provide a more consistent user experience; the release of GNOME 3, notable for its move away from the traditional menu bar and taskbar, has caused considerable controversy in the GNU and Linux community.
Many users and developers have expressed concerns about usability. A few projects have been initiated to continue development of GNOME 2.x or to modify GNOME 3.x to be more like the 2.x releases. GNOME 3 aims to provide a single interface for desktop computers and tablet computers; this means using only input techniques that work on all those devices, requiring abandonment of certain concepts to which desktop users were accustomed, such as right-clicking, or saving files on the desktop. These major changes evoked widespread criticism; the MATE desktop environment was forked from the GNOME 2 code-base with the intent of retaining the traditional GNOME 2 interface, whilst keeping compatibility with modern Linux technology, such as GTK 3. The Linux Mint team addressed the issue in another way by developing the "Mint GNOME Shell Extensions" that ran on top of GNOME Shell and allowed it to be used via the traditional desktop metaphor; this led to the creation of the Cinnamon user interface, forked from the GNOME 3 codebase.
Among those critical of the early releases of GNOME 3 is Linus Torvalds, the creator of the Linux kernel. Torvalds abandoned GNOME for a wh