Stewart County, Georgia
Stewart County is a county located in the west portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,058; the county seat is Lumpkin. The county was created on December 23, 1830; the area was inhabited by Native Americans for thousands of years in the Pre-Columbian period. Roods Landing Site on the Chattahoochee River is a significant archaeological site located south of Omaha. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it includes major earthwork mounds built about 1100-1350 CE by peoples of the sophisticated Mississippian culture. Another Mississippian site is the Singer Moye Mounds, located in the southern part of the county; the first Europeans to encounter the Native Americans were Spanish explorers in the mid-16th century. At that time the historical Creek tribe inhabited the southern two thirds of what is now defined as Georgia, west of the Low Country, they are believed to be the descendants of the Mississippian culture. They maintained their territory until after European American settlers arrived in increasing number in the early decades of the 19th century.
The ensuing conflicts resulted in most of the Creek people's being driven out of the region. In the 1830s under Indian removal, the US federal government forced most Creek to relocate west of the Mississippi River, to Indian Territory in what became present-day Oklahoma. Stewart County was created by an act of the Georgia General Assembly on December 23, 1830, from land, part of Randolph County, Georgia; the county is named for Daniel Stewart, a Revolutionary War veteran, fighter against American Indians. He was one of the four great-grandfathers of U. S. president Theodore Roosevelt. Settlers developed the area as large cotton plantations, part of the "Black Belt" of Georgia and the Deep South. Before the American Civil War, planters depended on enslaved labor of thousands of African Americans to cultivate and process the cotton for market. Born in the United States, the slaves were transported from the Upper South, with many families broken up when some members were purchased through sales in the domestic slave trade.
In 1850, the county reached its peak in wealth as one of the largest cotton producers in the state. It had the tenth-largest population of any county in the state, with 16,027 people. African-American slaves numbered 46 % of the population; this was By 1860, the county population was 13,422. The apparent drop was due to the counties of Kinchafoonee and Quitman being created from Stewart County territory in 1853 and 1858, respectively. There were 5,534 slaves in the redefined Stewart County, constituting more than one-third of the population. After the war and emancipation, cotton continued as the major commodity crop and additional territory was developed by planters for cultivation. Many freedmen became sharecroppers and tenant farmers in the area, agricultural for decades, but in decline. Stewart County lost its premier position when it was bypassed by developing railroads, which went to the north and south, it did not have railroad access until 1885. Inappropriate farming practices and over-cultivation of cotton from before the Civil War led to extensive land erosion by the early 20th century.
Together with mechanization of agriculture and damage due to infestation by the boll weevil, there were losses in this part of the economy. Population declined. Up to the mid century, many blacks left the area in two waves of the Great Migration, seeking escape from Jim Crow conditions, jobs and better lives in northern and midwestern industrial cities. Farmers shifted to cultivating peanuts and pine trees to reclaim and restore the land. Population losses continued throughout the 20th century, as the forest and lumber industry did not require as many laborers. In 1965, some of the towns in the county began to redevelop their historic properties to attract tourists and expand the economy. Lumpkin and Louvale all had intact historic properties and commercial districts. Green Grove is an historic African-American community established by freedmen after the Civil War. Stewart was the first rural county in the state to use historic preservation and Main Street redevelopment to support heritage tourism.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 464 square miles, of which 459 square miles is land and 4.9 square miles is water. The vast majority of Stewart County is located in the Middle Chattahoochee River-Walter F. George Lake sub-basin of the ACF River Basin. Just the eastern edge of the county, bordered by a north-to-south line running through Richland, is located in the Kinchafoonee-Muckalee sub-basin of the same ACF Basin, with the southeastern corner located in the Ichawaynochaway Creek sub-basin of the larger ACF River Basin. Chattahoochee County Webster County Randolph County Quitman County Barbour County, Alabama Russell County, Alabama Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 6,058 people, 1,862 households, 1,187 families residing in the county; the population density was 13.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,383 housing units at an average density of 5.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 47.3% black or African American, 28.0% white, 0.7% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 22.8% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 24.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 6.8% were English, 6.3% were German, 4.9% were American. Of the 1,862 households
For the Department of Energy facility, see Savannah River Site The Savannah River is a major river in the southeastern United States, forming most of the border between the states of South Carolina and Georgia. Two tributaries of the Savannah, the Tugaloo River and the Chattooga River, form the northernmost part of the border; the Savannah River drainage basin extends into the southeastern side of the Appalachian Mountains just inside North Carolina, bounded by the Eastern Continental Divide. The river is around 301 miles long, it is formed by the confluence of the Seneca River. Today this confluence is submerged beneath Lake Hartwell; the Tallulah Gorge is located on the Tallulah River, a tributary of the Tugaloo River that forms the northwest branch of the Savannah River. Two major cities are located along the Savannah River: Savannah, Augusta, Georgia, they were nuclei of early English settlements during the Colonial period of American history. The Savannah River is tidal at Savannah proper.
Downstream from there, the river broadens into an estuary before flowing into the Atlantic Ocean. The area where the river's estuary meets the ocean is known as "Tybee Roads"; the Intracoastal Waterway flows through a section of the Savannah River near the city of Savannah. The name "Savannah" comes from a group of Shawnee, they destroyed the Westo and occupied established Westo lands at the Savannah River's head of navigation on the Fall Line, near present-day Augusta. These Shawnee were called by several variant names that all derive from their native name, Ša·wano·ki; the local variants included Shawano, Savano and Savannah. Another theory is that the name was derived from the English term "savanna", a kind of tropical grassland, borrowed by the English from Spanish sabana and used in the colonial southeast; the Spanish word was borrowed from the Taino word zabana. Other theories interpret the name Savannah to come from Atlantic coastal tribes, who spoke Algonquian languages, as there are similar terms meaning not only "southerner" but "salt".
Historical and variant names of the Savannah River, as listed by the U. S. Geological Survey, include May River, Westobou River, Kosalu River, Isundiga River and Girande River, among others; the Westobou River was the former name of the Savannah River, derived from the Westo Native American Indians. The Westo were thought to have come from the northeast, pushed out by the more powerful tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy, who had acquired firearms through trade; this migration beginning in the late 16th century resulted in the Westo Indians reaching the present area of Augusta, Georgia, in what was to be the 1660s. The Westo used the river for fishing and water supplies, for transportation, for trade, they were strong enough to hold off the Spanish colonists making incursions from Florida. The Carolina Colony needed the Westo alliance during its early years; when Carolinians desired to expand its trade to Charleston, they viewed the Westo tribe as an obstacle. In order to remove the tribe, they sent a group called the Goose Creek Men to arm the Savanna Indians, a Shawnee tribe, who defeated the Westo in the Westo War of 1680.
Following this, the English colonists renamed the river as the Savannah. They founded two major cities on the river during the colonial era: Savannah was established in 1733 as a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean, Augusta is located where the river crosses the Fall Line of the Piedmont; the two large cities on the Savannah served as Georgia's first two state capitals. In the nineteenth century, the sandy river channel changed causing numerous steamboat accidents. During the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed a blockade around the Confederate states, forcing merchantmen to use specific ports along the coast best suited for this purpose; the harbor at Savannah became one of the busiest ports for blockade runners bringing in supplies for the Confederacy. The Savannah River was significant during the 1950s when construction started on the U. S. government's Savannah River Plant for making tritium for nuclear weapons. In 1956 Clyde L. Cowan and Frederick Reines detected neutrinos with an experiment carried out at the Savannah River Nuclear Plant, after a preliminary experiment at the Hanford Site.
They placed a 10-ton tank of water next to a powerful nuclear reactor engaged in making plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. After shielding the neutrino trap underground and running it for about 100 days over the course of a year, they detected a few synchronized flashes of gamma radiation that signaled the interaction of a few neutrinos with the protons in the water; the neutrinos were not themselves observed, they never have been. Their presence is inferred by an exceedingly rare interaction. One out of every billion billion neutrinos that pass through the water tank hits a proton, producing the telltale burst of radiation. In 1995 Reines was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for this accomplishment, but Cowen did not live long enough to share it. Between 1946 and 1985, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers built three major dams on the Savannah for hydroelectricity, flood control, navigation; the J. Strom Thurmond Dam, the Hartwell Dam, the Richard B. Russell Dam and their reservoirs combine in order to form over 120 miles of lakes.
Donnie Thompson named a small subdivision "Westobou Crossing", located in North Augusta, South Carolina. The area of the subdivision is located marks the first natural ford that crosses the Savannah River, thus promoting trade and allowing travel. Many native a
The Ochlockonee River is a fast running river, except where it has been dammed to form Lake Talquin in Florida, originating in Georgia and flowing for 206 miles before terminating in Florida. The name is from the Hitchiti language words for yellow river; the Ochlockonee originates south of the town of Sylvester in Worth County in southwest Georgia and empties into Ochlockonee Bay and Apalachee Bay in Florida. The river forms the western boundaries of Leon County and Wakulla County and eastern boundaries of Gadsden County, Liberty County, Franklin County in Florida, it flows through the Red Hills, the Jackson Bluff Dam, Talquin State Forest, Lake Talquin State Park and the Apalachicola National Forest, past Ochlockonee River State Park, where it is tidally influenced and a mixture of fresh and salt water, on the way to its terminus in Ochlockonee Bay, which empties into Apalachee Bay, with tidal influences extending upstream over 15 miles from the river's mouth. When the Spanish arrived in northern Florida, the Ochlockonee River formed the western boundary of the Apalachee Province.
Late 17th century Spanish documents refer to the river as Amarillo. A 1716 Spanish document called it Rio de Lagna. An English map from 1720 shows it as the Yellow River. A 1778 map spells the river's name Okalockney; the modern name derieves from the Hitchiti/Mikasuki Oki and Lagana. About 1840, Fort Stansbury was established on the river by placing a two story home, abandoned by its owner due to Seminole raids during the Second Seminole War; this fort was important in the forced removal of Indians from the area. Boats traveled upriver to collect and move Native Americans down to Gulf of Mexico ports for removal to "Indian Territories." By 1844, Fort Stansbury had been abandoned. From 1839 to 1842, Fort Virginia Braden was established on the river located at Fort Braden in Florida; the fort was named after the commander's wife. The Ochlockonee River saw action during the Civil War. On 15 July 1863, the screw steamer gunboat USS Stars and Stripes and wooden side-wheel steam ferryboat USS Somerset attacked the salt works at Mashes Sands.
On 29 December 1863, Stars and Stripes sank the blockade-running schooner Caroline Gertrude, aground on the sandbar at the mouth of the Ochlockonee. Stars and Stripes captured the blockade-running steamer Laura off the Ochlockonee on 18 January 1864. On 19 and 20 October 1864, Stars and Stripes destroyed an extensive Confederate fishery at Mashes Island and captured the troops stationed there as guards. In 1927 the Jackson Bluff Dam was constructed on the Ochlockonee River to produce hydroelectric power; the waters held back by the dam formed Lake Talquin. The Ochlockonee River corridor is home to many threatened fish and plant species, it has been designated under the State of Florida's Outstanding Florida Waters program and has been identified by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission as a Strategic Habitat Conservation Area. Rare animals that can be found along the Ochlockonee include red-cockaded woodpecker, least tern, the Apalachicola dusky salamander; the river is rich in rare freshwater mussels, including three federally listed endangered species: the Ochlockonee moccasinshell, the Shinyrayed pocketbook, the Oval pigtoe.
"The Florida maybell tree can be found only along the Chipola Rivers. The Ochlockonee is connected to and a source of water for Lake Iamonia during flooding. Fishing for bass, perch and catfish can be excellent on the Ochlockonee River, a state-designated canoe trail can be found both upstream and downstream of Lake Talquin. Telogia Creek and the Little River near State Road 12 are popular for canoeing; the Florida National Scenic Trail follows the river for two miles. The Ochlockonee is a vital link in the production of seafood to the southwest in Apalachicola Bay. During floods, the river transports organic matter downstream into the estuary of Ochlockonee Bay where the shallows of the bay were created by the great volume of sand and clay brought down by the river; this estuary serves as a nursery for numerous species of fish and shellfish which are the basis for recreational and commercial fishing as well as the Apalachicola seafood that this area is known for. A number of major highways cross the Ochlockonee River along its course, including Interstate 10 and U.
S. highways 19, 27, U. S. Route 84 and 98. South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region Ochlockonee River and Bay profile and documents from the Northwest Florida Water Management District U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Ochlockonee River
Flint River (Georgia)
The Flint River is a 344-mile-long river in the U. S. state of Georgia. The river drains 8,460 square miles of western Georgia, flowing south from the upper Piedmont region south of Atlanta to the wetlands of the Gulf Coastal Plain in the southwestern corner of the state. Along with the Apalachicola and the Chattahoochee rivers, it forms part of the ACF basin. In its upper course through the red hills of the Piedmont, it is considered scenic, flowing unimpeded for over 200 miles, it was called the Thronateeska River. The Flint River rises in west central Georgia in the city of East Point in southern Fulton County on the southern outskirts of the Atlanta metropolitan area as ground seepage; the exact start can be traced to the field located between Plant Street, Willingham Drive, Elm Street, Vesta Avenue. It travels under the runways of the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Flowing south through rural western Georgia, the river passes through Sprewell Bluff State Park 10 miles west of Thomaston.
Farther south, it comes within 5 miles of Andersonville, the site of the Andersonville prison during the Civil War. In southwestern Georgia, the river flows through the largest city on the river. At Bainbridge it joins Lake Seminole, formed at its confluence with the Chattahoochee River upstream from the Jim Woodruff Dam near the Florida state line. From this confluence, the Apalachicola River flows south from the reservoir through Florida to the Gulf of Mexico; the Flint River is fed by Kinchafoonee Creek just north of Albany, by Ichawaynochaway Creek in southwestern Mitchell County 15 miles northeast of Bainbridge. In addition to Lake Seminole, the Flint River is impounded 15 miles upstream from Albany to form the Lake Blackshear reservoir; the Flint River is one of only 40 rivers in the nation to flow more than 200 miles unimpeded by dams or other manmade systems, is valued for that. In the 1970s, a plan by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers to build a dam at Sprewell Bluff in Upson County was defeated by the Jimmy Carter, Governor of Georgia, other supporters.
Carter's hometown of Plains is located near the Flint River. The river is considered to have three distinct sections as it flows southward through western Georgia. In its upper reaches in the red hills of the Piedmont, it flows through a incised channel etched into crystalline rocks. South of its fall line near Culloden, the channel transforms to a broad, forested swampy flood plain. South of Lake Blackshear, it transforms again, flowing through a channel in limestone rock above the Upper Floridan Aquifer below southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida; the river has been prone to floods throughout its history. In 1994, during flooding from Tropical Storm Alberto, the river crested at 43 feet in Albany, resulting in the emergency evacuation of over 23,000 residents, it caused one of the worst natural disasters in the state's history. Interstate 75 was closed in Macon, Albany State University was seriously flooded, as the river became a few miles or several kilometers wide in some places; the water lifted caskets from cemeteries and left them, along with drowned cattle and other livestock, stuck in trees and other places.
Montezuma, Georgia was inundated after the Flint River topped the 29-foot levee protecting the town from floodwater. The official depth of the river at the height of the flood was estimated at 34 feet; the nearby gauge was underwater. Cleanup and restoration of Albany took months to complete. In 1998 another serious flood occurred in Albany, but it was not as damaging as the one of 1994. Bainbridge flooded in 1998. Other significant floods occurred in 1841 and 1925. In January 2002, a winter storm blew through Atlanta the day after New Year's Day; the airport's drainage system overflowed. Although the antifreeze entered the drinking water of some residents, no one became ill; the airport changed its drainage system to prevent the problem in the future. No problems were reported after an unusually heavy 4 inches of rain fell at the airport at the beginning of March 2009. In May 2009, the National Fish Habitat Action Plan named the Lower Flint River one of its "10 Waters to Watch" for 2009 for its habitat restoration work.
In October 2009, AmericanRivers.org declared the Flint to be one of the most endangered rivers in the country due to new plans to put a dam on it. The Flint is one of four rivers in the southeast with significant remaining populations of Hymenocallis coronaria, the Shoals spider-lily. Four separate stands of the plant have been studied and documented in the river, ranging from Yellow Jacket Shoals to Hightower Shoals. In Gone With the Wind, author Margaret Mitchell describes the Flint River as bordering the fictional plantation Tara. American country music singer Luke Bryan, a native of Georgia, references the river in his songs "That's My Kind of Night". List of Georgia rivers Georgia Wildlife Federation: Flint River Sherpa Guides: Flint River Basin Jimmy Carter: Land Between the Rivers De Soto Trail historical marker
The Satilla River rises in Ben Hill County, near the town of Fitzgerald, flows in a easterly direction to the Atlantic Ocean. Along its 235-mile course are the cities of Waycross and Woodbine; the Satilla drains 4,000 square miles of land, all of it in the coastal plain of southeastern Georgia. It has white sandbars and is the largest blackwater river situated within Georgia; the river derives its name from a Spanish officer named Saint Illa, over a period of time the name was merged to form the word Satilla. The name St. Illa River was in use alongside the name Satilla River in the early nineteenth century; the Satilla enters the Atlantic Ocean about 10 miles south of Brunswick, at the 31st parallel north. Satilla River Marsh Island is one of the few places in Georgia for observing nesting sites of brown pelicans. In May 2010, the city of Waycross purchased the Bandalong Litter Trap and installed it in Tebeau Creek, a tributary of the Satilla River; the trap is manufactured in the United States by Storm Water Systems.
Although the city has maintained a good standing with the Environmental Protection Division, the city wanted to take action to reduce the amount of human generated trash entering the Satilla River and the Atlantic Ocean. Governor Sonny Perdue said, "Water is one of Georgia's most important and precious resources... the litter trap installed by Waycross is a model of stewardship for the state and the nation." The Satilla River litter trap is only the second in the nation. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Satilla River http://www.satillariver.com http://www.satillariverkeeper.org/ Georgia's Coast in photographs and more Bandalong Litter Trap Installed Waycross, Georgia Takes Bold Step in Pollution Control for Satilla River
The Conasauga River is a river that runs through southeast Tennessee and northwest Georgia. The Conasauga River is 93 miles long and is home to 90 species of fish and 25 species of freshwater mussels; the Conasauga River watershed encompasses over 500,000 acres in two states, multiple counties, two ecologically different regions. The Conasauga River is the most westerly trout water on public land in Georgia, it is the only river in Tennessee, not a part of the Mississippi River watershed. The only road access to the Conasauga is found via Old GA 2, GA 2, Carlton Petty Road. Access via foot trail is located on Forest Service road 64 in Betty Gap. Three other trails descend from the west off FS 17 to intersect the river trail. From south to north they are the Chestnut Lead, 2.0 miles, Tearbritches Trail, 4.0 miles, Hickory Creek Trail, 3.0 miles. Primitive camping is allowed all along the river. At the core of the Conasauga watershed is the 35,268-acre Cohutta Wilderness, located in Fannin and Murray counties in Georgia and Polk County in Tennessee.
The United States Forest Service manages the area as part of the Chattahoochee National Forest and Cherokee National Forest. The preserve covers over 95,000 acres and contains 15 miles of the Conasauga; the Conasauga River is home to more than 90 fish species, including 12 federally listed species of fish and mussels. There were 42 species of freshwater mussels, however only 25 species still exist, it is estimated. The waters yield wild rainbow trout and wild browns, with rainbows up to 20 inches and browns to 9 pounds; the managed land is populated by white-tailed deer, wild hogs, black bears, smaller animals. The Conasauga River is a Category 1 priority watershed in Georgia’s Unified Watershed Assessment and 18 miles of the river and 54 miles of the tributaries have been on Georgia’s List of Impaired Waters for fecal, toxic chemical and nutrients. Up to one-third of the summer flow taken in the vicinity of Dalton, Georgia is used for carpet production; the river has been contaminated with perfluorinated compounds used to make carpets stain-resistant.
"Conasauga" is a name derived from the Cherokee language meaning "grass". According to the Geographic Names Information System, Conasauga River has been known as: Connasauga River Connesauga River Conne-san-ga River Slave River Jacks River now is the name of a tributary of the Conasauga. Laurel Fork Railway List of rivers of Tennessee The Conasauga River - The Nature Conservancy no reference to Conasauga May 2016