Battle of Hakodate
The Battle of Hakodate was fought in Japan from December 4, 1868 to June 27, 1869, between the remnants of the Tokugawa shogunate army, consolidated into the armed forces of the rebel Ezo Republic, the armies of the newly formed Imperial government. It was the last stage of the Boshin War, occurred around Hakodate in the northern Japanese island of Hokkaidō. In Japanese, it is known as the Battle of Goryokaku According to the Japanese calendar, the Battle of Hakodate was fought from Meiji-1 year, 10-month, 21-day until Meiji-2 year, 5-month 18-day; the Boshin War erupted in 1868 between troops favorable to the restoration of political authority to the Emperor and the government of the Tokugawa shogunate. The Meiji government defeated the forces of the Shōgun at the Battle of Toba–Fushimi and subsequently occupied the Shōgun's capital at Edo. Enomoto Takeaki, vice-commander of the Shogunate Navy, refused to remit his fleet to the new government and departed Shinagawa on August 20, 1868, with four steam warships and four steam transports as well as 2,000 sailors, 36 members of the "Yugekitai" headed by Iba Hachiro, several officials of the former Bakufu government including the vice-commander in chief of the Shogunate Army Matsudaira Taro, Nakajima Saburozuke, members of the French Military Mission to Japan, headed by Jules Brunet.
On August 21, the fleet encountered a typhoon off Chōshi, in which Mikaho was lost and Kanrin Maru damaged, forced to turn back, where she was captured at Shimizu. The rest of the fleet reached Sendai harbor on August 26, one of the centers of the Northern Coalition against the new government, composed of the fiefs of Sendai, Aizu, Shōnai and Nagaoka. Imperial troops continued to progress north, taking the castle of Wakamatsu, making the position in Sendai untenable. On October 12, 1868, the fleet left Sendai, after having acquired two more ships, about 1,000 more troops: former-Bakufu troops under Ōtori Keisuke, Shinsengumi troops under Hijikata Toshizō, Yugekitai under Katsutaro Hitomi, as well as several more French advisors, who had reached Sendai overland; the rebels, numbering around 3,000 and traveling by ship with Enomoto Takeaki reached Hokkaidō in October 1868. They landed on Takanoki Bay, behind Hakodate on October 20. Hijikata Toshizo and Otori Keisuke each led a column in the direction of Hakodate.
They eliminated local resistance by forces of Matsumae Domain, which had declared its loyalty to the new Meiji government, occupied the fortress of Goryōkaku on October 26, which became the command center for the rebel army. Various expeditions were organized to take full control of the southern peninsula of Hokkaidō. On November 5, commanding 800 troops and supported by the warships Kaiten and Banryo occupied the castle of Matsumae. On November 14, Hijikata and Matsudaira converged on the city of Esashi, with the added support of the flagship Kaiyo Maru, the transport ship Shinsoku. Kaiyō Maru was shipwrecked and lost in a tempest near Esashi, Shinsoku was lost as it came to its rescue, dealing a terrible blow to the rebel forces. After eliminating all local resistance, on December 25, the rebels founded the Ezo Republic, with a government organization modeled after that of the United States, with Enomoto Takeaki, as President. While the governments of France and the United Kingdom conditionally recognized the new republic, the Meiji government in Tokyo did not.
A defense network was established around Hakodate in anticipation of the attack by the troops of the new Imperial government. The Ezo Republic troops were structured under a hybrid Franco-Japanese leadership, with Commander in chief Ōtori Keisuke seconded by Jules Brunet, each of the four brigades commanded by a French officer, seconded by eight half-brigade Japanese commanders. Two ex-French Navy officers, Eugène Collache and Henri Nicol further joined the rebels, Collache was put in charge of building fortified defenses along the volcanic mountains around Hakodate, while Nicol was in charge of re-organizing the Navy. In the meantime, an Imperial fleet had been constituted around the ironclad warship Kōtetsu, purchased by the Meiji government from the United States. Other Imperial ships were Kasuga, Hiryū, Teibō, Yōshun, Mōshun, supplied by the fiefs of Saga, Chōshū and Satsuma to the newly formed government in 1868; the fleet left Tokyo on March 9, 1869, headed north. The Imperial navy reached the harbor of Miyako on March 20.
Anticipating the arrival of the Imperial fleet, the rebels organized a daring plan to seize the powerful new warship Kōtetsu. Three warships were dispatched for a surprise attack, in what is known as the Naval Battle of Miyako: the Kaiten, on which were riding the elite Shinsengumi as well as the ex-French Navy officer Henri Nicol, the warship Banryu, with the ex-French officer Clateau, the warship Takao, with ex-French Navy officer Eugène Collache on board. To create surprise, the Kaiten entered, they raised the Ezo Republic flag seconds before boarding the Kōtetsu. The crew of Kōtetsu managed to repel the attack with a Gatling gun, with huge losses to the attackers; the two Ezo warships escaped back to Hokkaidō. The Imperial troops, numbering 7,000 landed on Hokkaidō on April 9, 1869, they progressively took over various defensive positions, until the final stand
The Satsuma Rebellion or Seinan War was a revolt of disaffected samurai against the new imperial government, nine years into the Meiji Era. Its name comes from the Satsuma Domain, influential in the Restoration and became home to unemployed samurai after military reforms rendered their status obsolete; the rebellion lasted from January 29, 1877, until September of that year, when it was decisively crushed and its leader, Saigō Takamori, committed seppuku after being mortally wounded. Saigō's rebellion was the last and most serious of a series of armed uprisings against the new government of the Empire of Japan, the predecessor state to modern Japan. Although Satsuma had been one of the key players in the Meiji Restoration and the Boshin War, although many men from Satsuma had risen to influential positions in the new Meiji government, there was growing dissatisfaction with the direction the country was taking; the modernization of the country meant the abolition of the privileged social status of the samurai class, had undermined their financial position.
The rapid and massive changes to Japanese culture, language and society appeared to many samurai to be a betrayal of the jōi portion of the sonnō jōi justification used to overthrow the former Tokugawa shogunate. Saigō Takamori, one of the senior Satsuma leaders in the Meiji government who had supported the reforms in the beginning, was concerned about growing political corruption (the slogan of his rebel movement was shinsei-kōtoku. Saigō was a strong proponent of war with Korea in the Seikanron debate of 1873. At one point, he offered to visit Korea in person and to provoke a casus belli by behaving in such an insulting manner that the Koreans would be forced to kill him. Saigō expected both that a war would be successful for Japan and that the initial stages of it would offer a means by which the samurai whose cause he championed could find meaningful and beneficial death; when the plan was rejected, Saigō resigned from all of his government positions in protest and returned to his hometown of Kagoshima, as did many other Satsuma ex-samurai in the military and police forces.
To help support and employ these men, in 1874 Saigō established a private academy in Kagoshima. Soon 132 branches were established all over the prefecture; the “training” provided was not purely academic: although the Chinese classics were taught, all students were required to take part in weapons training and instruction in tactics. Saigō started an artillery school; the schools resembled paramilitary political organizations more than anything else, they enjoyed the support of the governor of Satsuma, who appointed disaffected samurai to political offices, where they came to dominate the Kagoshima government. Support for Saigō was so strong that Satsuma had seceded from the central government by the end of 1876. Word of Saigō’s academies was greeted with considerable concern in Tokyo; the government had just dealt with several small but violent samurai revolts in Kyūshū, the prospect of the numerous and fierce Satsuma samurai, being led in rebellion by the famous and popular Saigō was alarming.
In December 1876, the Meiji government sent a police officer named Nakahara Hisao and 57 other men to investigate reports of subversive activities and unrest. The men were captured, under torture, confessed that they were spies, sent to assassinate Saigō. Although Nakahara repudiated the confession, it was believed in Satsuma and was used as justification by the disaffected samurai that a rebellion was necessary in order to "protect Saigō". Fearing a rebellion, the Meiji government sent a warship to Kagoshima to remove the weapons stockpiled at the Kagoshima arsenal on January 30, 1877; this provoked open conflict, although with the elimination of samurai rice stipends in 1877, tensions were extremely high. Outraged by the government's tactics, 50 students from Saigō’s academy attacked the Somuta Arsenal and carried off weapons. Over the next three days, more than 1000 students staged raids on the naval yards and other arsenals. Presented with this sudden success, the dismayed Saigō was reluctantly persuaded to come out of his semi-retirement to lead the rebellion against the central government.
In February 1877, the Meiji government dispatched Hayashi Tomoyuki, an official with the Home Ministry with Admiral Kawamura Sumiyoshi in the warship Takao to ascertain the situation. Satsuma governor, Oyama Tsunayoshi, explained that the uprising was in response to the government's assassination attempt on Saigō, asked that Admiral Kawamura come ashore to help calm the situation. After Oyama departed, a flotilla of small ships filled with armed men attempted to board Takao by force, but were repelled; the following day, Hayashi declared to Oyama that he could not permit Kawamura to go ashore when the situation was so unsettled, that the attack on Takao constituted an act of lèse-majesté. On his return to Kobe on February 12, Hayashi met with General Yamagata Aritomo and Itō Hirobumi, it was decided that the Imperial Japanese Army would need to be sent to Kagoshima to prevent the revolt from spreading to other areas of the country sympathetic to Saigō. On the same day, Saigō met with his lieutenants Kirino Toshiaki and Shinohara Kunimoto and announced his intention of marching to Tokyo to ask questions of the government.
Rejecting large numbers of volunteers, he made no attempt to contact any of the other domains for support, no troops were left at Kagoshima to secure his base against an attack. To aid in the air of legality, Saigō wore his army uniform. Marching north, his army was hampered
Historical fantasy is a sub-genre of fantasy that encompasses the Middle Ages as well as sometimes and represents fictitious versions of historic events. This sub-genre is common among high fantasy literature, it can include various elements of medieval European culture and society, including a monarchical government, feudal social structure, medieval warfare, mythical entities common in European folklore. Works of this genre may have plots set in classical antiquity, they have plots based loosely on mythology or legends of Greek-Roman history, or the surrounding cultures of the same era. Historical fantasy takes one of four common approaches: Magic, mythical creatures or other supernatural elements co-exist invisibly with the mundane world, with the majority of people being unaware of it. In this, it has a close similarity to contemporary fantasy; this overlaps with the secret history trope. Alternatively, the author's narrative shows or implies that by the present day, magic will have retreated from the world so as to allow history to revert to the familiar version we know.
An example of this can be found in Lord Dunsany's The Charwoman's Shadow, which takes place in Spain, but which ends with the magician in it removing himself, all creatures of romance, from the world, thereby ending the Golden Age. It can include an alternative history where the past or present has been changed when an actual historical event turned out differently; the story takes place in a secondary world with specific and recognizable parallels to a known place and a definite historical period, rather than taking the geographic and historical "mix and match" favoured by other works of secondary world fantasy. However, many, if not most, works by fantasy authors derive ideas and inspiration from real events, making the borders of this approach unclear. Historical Fantasy may be set in a fictional world which resembles a period from history but is not that actual history. All four approaches have overlapped in the sub-genre of steampunk associated with science fiction literature. However, not all steampunk fantasy belongs to the historical fantasy sub-genre.
After Antoine Galland's translation of One Thousand and One Nights became enormously popular in Europe, many writers wrote fantasy based on Galland's romantic image of the Middle East and North Africa. Early examples included the satirical tales of Anthony Hamilton, Zadig by Voltaire. English-language work in the Arabian fantasy genre includes Rasselas by Samuel Johnson, The Tales of the Genii by James Ridley, Vathek by William Thomas Beckford, George Meredith's The Shaving of Shagpat, Khaled by F. Marion Crawford, James Elroy Flecker's Hassan. In the late 1970s, interest in the sub-genre revived with Hasan by Piers Anthony; this was followed by several other novels reworking Arabian legend: the metafictional The Arabian Nightmare by Robert Irwin, Diana Wynne Jones' children's novel Castle in the Air, Tom Holt's humorous Djinn Rummy and Hilari Bell's Fall of a Kingdom. Celtic fantasy has links to Celtic historical fiction. Celtic historical fantasy includes such works as Katharine Kerr's Deverry series, or Teresa Edgerton's Green Lion trilogy.
These works are based on ancient Celtic cultures. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been used indiscriminately, sometimes with great effect,as in Paul Hazel's Finnbranch trilogy, Yearwood and Winterking. Notable works inspired by Irish mythology included James Stephens' The Crock of Gold, Lord Dunsany's The Curse of the Wise Woman, Flann O'Brien's humorous At Swim-Two-Birds, Pat O'Shea's The Hounds of the Morrigan and novels by Peter Tremayne, Morgan Llywelyn and Gregory Frost; the Welsh tradition has been influential, which has its connection to King Arthur and its collection in a single work, the epic Mabinogion. One influential retelling of this was the fantasy work of Evangeline Walton: The Island of the Mighty, The Children of Llyr, The Song of Rhiannon, Prince of Annwn. A notable amount of fiction has been written in the Welsh area of Celtic fantasy. Scottish Celtic fantasy is less common, but James Hogg, John Francis Campbell, Fiona MacLeod, William Sharp, George Mackay Brown and Deborah Turner Harris all wrote material based on Scottish myths and legends.
Fantasy based on the Breton folklore branch of Celtic mythology does not appear in the English language. However, several noted writers have utilized such material. Merritt in Creep, Shadow! both drew on the Breton legend of the lost city of Ys, while "The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun" by J. R. R. Tolkien is a narrative poem based on the Breton legend of the Corrigan. Classical fantasy is a sub-genre fantasy based on the Greek and Roman myths. Symbolism from classical mythology is enormously influential on Western culture, but it was not until the 19th century that it was used in the context of literary fantasy. Richard Garnett and John Kendrick Bangs used the Greek myths for satirical purposes.20th century writers who made extensive use of the sub-genre included John Erksine, who continued the satirical tradition of classical fantasy in such works as The Private Life of Helen of Troy and Venus, the Lon
Ōgaki is a city located in Gifu, Japan. As of 31 October 2018, the city had an estimated population of 161,539, a population density of 380 persons per km2 in 65,931 households; the total area of the city was 206.57 square kilometres. Ōgaki was the final destination for the haiku poet Matsuo Bashō on one of his long journeys as recounted in his book Oku no Hosomichi. Every November the city holds a Bashō Festival. Ōgaki is located in the northwest area of the Nōbi Plain in Gifu Prefecture and is known as being the most centrally-located city in Japan. As a result of its 2006 merger with the town of Kamiishizu, the town of Sunomata, the city consists of three disconnected regions, with Sunomata in the east, the original Ōgaki in the center, Kamiishizu in the southwest; the main river flowing through the city is the Ibi River. Gifu Prefecture Gifu Hashima Mizuho Anpachi, Gōdo and Wanouchi Ikeda Sekigahara and Tarui Yōrō Mie Prefecture Inabe Shiga Prefecture Maibara Taga Per Japanese census data, the population of Ōgaki has increased over the past 40 years..
The city has a climate characterized by characterized by hot and humid summers, mild winters. The average annual temperature in Ōgaki is 14.8 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1871 mm with September as the wettest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 27.2 °C, lowest in January, at around 3.7 °C. The area around Ōgaki was part of traditional Mino Province. During the Edo period, the area developed as a castle town for Ōgaki Domain under the Tokugawa shogunate. In the post-Meiji restoration cadastral reforms, the town of Ogaki was established within Anpachi District, Gifu Prefecture with the creation of the modern municipalities system on July 1, 1889, it was raised to city status on April 1, 1918. The city suffered severe flooding during the 1934 Muroto typhoon, was destroyed in six air raids in 1945. April 1918: Gained city status April 1928: Merged with parts of the village of Kitakuise, Anpachi District December 1934: Merged with village of Minamikuise, Anpachi District June 1935: Merged with village of Tagishima, Anpachi District June 1936: Merged with village of Yasui, Anpachi District February 1940: Merged with villages of Urū and Shizusato, Fuwa District October 1947: Merged with villages of Ayasato, Fuwa District, Sumoto, Anpachi District June 1948: Merged with village of Asakusa, Anpachi District October 1948: Merged with village of Kawanami and the Maze part of Maki, Anpachi District April 1949: Merged with village of Nakagawa, Anpachi District April 1951: Merged with village of Wagō, Anpachi District June 1952: Merged with village of Mitsukoshi, Anpachi District October 1954: Merged with village of Arasaki, Fuwa District September 1967: Merged with town of Akasaka, Fuwa District April 1988: Established city constitution March 27, 2006: Merged with towns of Kamiishizu, Yōrō District, Sunomata, Anpachi District Ōgaki has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 22 members.
Ibiden, a global electronic components manufacturer, is headquartered in the city. Institute of Advanced Media Arts and Sciences Gifu Keizai University Ogaki Women's College Institute for Fashion Studies Ogaki Nursing College Nihon Information Processing College Nihon General Business College Nihon-Chūō Nursing College Ogaki Nihon-Chūō Gakuen Culinary College Ōgaki has 22 public elementary schools and ten public middle schools operated by the city government and one private middle school; the city has nine public high school operated by the Gifu Prefectural Board of Education, two private high schools. The prefecture operates one special education school. Ogaki Kita Senior High School Ogaki Higashi Senior High School Ogaki Minami Senior High School Ogaki Nishi Senior High School Ogaki Technical High School Ogaki-Shogyo Business High School Nihon University Ogaki Senior High SchoolHirano Gakuen Ogaki Sakura High SchoolOgaki School for Handicapped Escola Brasileira Prof. Kawase - Brazilian primary school - JR Central - Tōkaidō Main Line Ōgaki - Arao - Mino-Akasaka Tarumi Railway - Tarumi Railway Tarumi Line Ōgaki - Higashi-Ōgaki Yōrō Railway Yōrō Line Ōtoba - Tomoe - Mino-Yanagi - Nishi-Ōgaki - Ōgaki - Muro - Kita-Ōgaki Seino Railway Seino Ichihashi Line: Mino Akasaka Station, Otomezaka Station, Saruiwa Station, Ichihashi Station Seino Hirui Line: Mino Akasaka Station, Mino Okubo Station, Hirui Station Meishin Expressway- Ogaki IC Tōkai-Kanjō Expressway - Ogaki-nishi IC National Route 21 National Route 258 National Route 365 National Route 417 Ōgaki is twinned with the following towns and cities.
Changwon, South Korea Handan, China Berea, United States Beaverton, United States Stuttgart, Germany Namur, Belgium Glen Eira, Australia Kagoshima, Kagoshima Prefecture Hioki, Kagoshima Akasaka-juku, the 56th station on the Nakasendō Kokubun-ji ruins Basho's Oku no Hosomichi Haiku Journey Memorial Ōgaki Castle Softopia Japan Sumiyoshi Lighthouse Sunomata Castle Hiroshi Tanahashi, professional wrestler Kozō Andō, kendo teacher Ōgaki City official website
Katana were one of the traditionally made Japanese swords that were used by the samurai of ancient and feudal Japan. The katana is characterized by its distinctive appearance: a curved, single-edged blade with a circular or squared guard and long grip to accommodate two hands. "Katana" is the term now used to describe the family of swords known as nihontō that are 2 shaku 60 cm in length, or longer. Katana can be known as dai or daitō among Western sword enthusiasts although daitō is a generic name for any Japanese long sword meaning "big sword"; as Japanese does not have separate plural and singular forms, both katanas and katana are considered acceptable forms in English. Pronounced, the kun'yomi of the kanji 刀 meaning dao or knife/saber in Chinese, the word has been adopted as a loanword by the Portuguese language. In Portuguese the designation means machete; the katana is defined as the standard sized, moderately curved Japanese sword with a blade length greater than 60 cm. It is characterized by its distinctive appearance: a curved, single-edged blade with a circular or squared guard and long grip to accommodate two hands.
With a few exceptions and tachi can be distinguished from each other, if signed, by the location of the signature on the tang. In general, the mei should be carved into the side of the nakago which would face outward when the sword was worn. Since a tachi was worn with the cutting edge down, the katana was worn with the cutting edge up, the mei would be in opposite locations on the tang. Western historians have said that katana were among the finest cutting weapons in world military history; the production of swords in Japan is divided into specific time periods: Jōkotō Kotō Shintō Shinshintō Gendaitō Shinsakutō The first use of katana as a word to describe a long sword, different from a tachi occurs as early as the Kamakura Period. These references to "uchigatana" and "tsubagatana" seem to indicate a different style of sword a less costly sword for lower-ranking warriors; the Mongol invasions of Japan facilitated a change in the designs of Japanese swords. Thin tachi and chokutō-style blades were unable to cut through the boiled leather armour of the Mongols, with the blades chipping or breaking off.
The evolution of the tachi into what would become the katana seems to have continued during the early Muromachi period. Starting around the year 1400, long swords signed with the katana-style mei were made; this was in response to samurai wearing their tachi in what is now called "katana style". Japanese swords are traditionally worn with the mei facing away from the wearer; when a tachi was worn in the style of a katana, with the cutting edge up, the tachi's signature would be facing the wrong way. The fact that swordsmiths started signing swords with a katana signature shows that some samurai of that time period had started wearing their swords in a different manner; the rise in popularity of katana amongst samurai came about due to the changing nature of close-combat warfare. The quicker draw of the sword was well suited to combat where victory depended on short response times; the katana further facilitated this by being worn thrust through a belt-like sash with the sharpened edge facing up.
Ideally, samurai could strike the enemy in a single motion. The curved tachi had been worn with the edge of the blade facing down and suspended from a belt; the length of the katana blade varied during the course of its history. In the late 14th and early 15th centuries, katana blades tended to have lengths between 70 and 73 centimetres. During the early 16th century, the average length dropped about 10 centimetres, approaching closer to 60 centimetres. By the late 16th century, the average length had increased again by about 13 centimetres, returning to 73 centimetres; the katana was paired with a smaller companion sword, such as a wakizashi, or it could be worn with a tantō, a smaller shaped dagger. The pairing of a katana with a smaller sword is called the daishō. Only samurai could wear the daishō: it represented their social power and personal honour. During the Meiji period, the samurai class was disbanded, the special privileges granted to them were taken away, including the right to carry swords in public.
The Haitōrei Edict in 1876 forbade the carrying of swords in public except for certain individuals, such as former samurai lords, the military, the police. Skilled swordsmiths had trouble making a living during this period as Japan modernized its military, many swordsmiths started making other items, such as farm equipment and cutlery. Military action by Japan in China and Russia during the Meiji period helped revive interest in swords, but it was not until the Shōwa period that swords were produced on a large scale again. Japanese military swords produced between 1875 and 1945 are referred to as guntō. During the pre-World War II military buildup, throughout the war, all Japanese officers were required to wear a sword. Traditionally made swords were produced during this period, but in order to supply such large numbers of swords, blacksmiths with little or no knowledge of traditional Japanese sword manufacture were recruited. In
Republic of Ezo
The Republic of Ezo was a short-lived state established in 1869 by a part of the former Tokugawa military on the island of Ezo, the large but sparsely populated northernmost island in modern Japan, now known as Hokkaido. Ezo is notable for being the first government to attempt to institute democracy in Japan. After the defeat of the forces of the Tokugawa shogunate in the Boshin War of the Meiji Restoration, a part of the former shōgun's navy led by Admiral Enomoto Takeaki fled to the northern island of Ezo, together with several thousand soldiers and a handful of French military advisers and their leader, Jules Brunet. Enomoto made a last effort to petition the Imperial Court to be allowed to develop Hokkaido and maintain the traditions of the samurai unmolested, but his request was denied. On January 27, 1869, the independent "Republic of Ezo" was proclaimed, with a government organisation based on that of the United States, with Enomoto elected as its first president. Elections were based on universal suffrage among the samurai class.
This was the first election held in Japan, where a feudal structure under an Emperor with military warlords was the norm. Through Hakodate Magistrate Nagai Naoyuki, attempts were made to reach out to foreign legations present in Hakodate to obtain international diplomatic recognition; the treasury included 180,000 gold ryō coins Enomoto retrieved from Osaka Castle following Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu's precipitous departure after the Battle of Toba–Fushimi in early 1868. During the winter of 1868–1869, the defences around the southern peninsula of Hakodate were enhanced, with the star fortress of Goryōkaku at the centre; the troops were organised under a joint Franco-Japanese command, commander-in-chief Ōtori Keisuke being seconded by the French captain Jules Brunet, divided into four brigades, each commanded by a French officer. The brigades were themselves divided under Japanese command. Brunet demanded a signed personal pledge of loyalty from all officers and insisted they assimilate French ideas.
An anonymous French officer wrote that Brunet had taken charge of everything: Imperial troops soon consolidated their hold on mainland Japan, in April 1869 dispatched a fleet and an infantry force of 7,000 men to Hokkaido. The Imperial forces progressed swiftly, won the Battle of Hakodate, surrounded the fortress at Goryōkaku. Enomoto surrendered on June 26, 1869, turning the Goryōkaku over to Satsuma staff officer Kuroda Kiyotaka on June 27, 1869. Kuroda is said to have been impressed by Enomoto's dedication in combat, is remembered as the one who spared the latter's life from execution. On September 20 of the same year, the island was given Hokkaido. While history texts were to refer to May 1869 as being when Enomoto accepted Emperor Meiji's rule, the Imperial rule was never in question for the Ezo Republic, as made evident by part of Enomoto's message to the Daijō-kan at the time of his arrival in Hakodate: The farmers and merchants are unmolested, live without fear, going their own way, sympathising with us.
We pray that this portion of the Empire may be conferred upon Tokugawa Kamenosuke. Thus from Enomoto's perspective, the efforts to establish a government in Hokkaido were not only for the sake of providing for the Tokugawa clan on the one hand, but as developing Ezo for the sake of defence for the rest of Japan, something, a topic of concern for some time. Recent scholarship has noted that for centuries, Ezo was not considered a part of Japan the same way that the other "main" islands of modern Japan were, so the creation of the Ezo Republic, in a contemporary mindset, was not an act of secession, but rather of "bringing" the politico-social entity of "Japan" formally to Ezo. Enomoto was sentenced to a brief prison sentence, but was freed in 1872 and accepted a post as a government official in the newly renamed Hokkaido Land Agency, he became ambassador to Russia, held several ministerial positions in the Meiji Government. Ballard C. B. Vice-Admiral G. A; the Influence of the Sea on the Political History of Japan.
London: John Murray, 1921. Black, John R. Young Japan: Yokohama and Yedo, Vol. II. London: Trubner & Co. 1881. Hillsborough, Romulus. Shinsengumi: The Shogun's Last Samurai Corps. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3627-2. Onodera Eikō, Boshin Nanboku Senso to Tohoku Seiken. Sendai: Kita no Sha, 2004. Sims, Richard. French Policy towards the Bakufu and Meiji Japan 1854–1895, Richmond: Japan Library, 1998. Suzuki, Tessa Morris. Re-Inventing Japan: Time Space Nation. New York: M. E. Sharpe, 1998. Yamaguchi, Ken. Kinsé shiriaku A history of Japan, from the first visit of Commodore Perry in 1853 to the capture of Hakodate by the Mikado's forces in 1869. Trans. Sir Ernest Satow. Wilmington, Del. Scholarly Resources, 1973. Media related to Republic of Ezo at Wikimedia Commons