Arne Dekke Eide Næss was a Norwegian philosopher who coined the term "deep ecology" and was an important intellectual and inspirational figure within the environmental movement of the late twentieth century. Næss cited Rachel Carson's 1962 book Silent Spring as being a key influence in his vision of deep ecology. Næss combined his ecological vision with Gandhian nonviolence and on several occasions participated in direct action. Næss averred that while western environmental groups of the early post-war period had raised public awareness of the environmental issues of the time, they had failed to have insight into and address what he argued were the underlying cultural and philosophical background to these problems. Naess believed that the environmental crisis of the twentieth century had arisen due to certain unspoken philosophical presuppositions and attitudes within modern western developed societies which remained unacknowledged, he thereby distinguished between what he called shallow ecological thinking.
In contrast to the prevailing utilitarian pragmatism of western businesses and governments, he advocated that a true understanding of nature would give rise to a point of view that appreciates the value of biological diversity, understanding that each living thing is dependent on the existence of other creatures in the complex web of interrelationships, the natural world. Næss was born in Slemdal, Norway, the son of Christine and Ragnar Eide Næss. In 1939, Næss was the youngest person to be appointed full professor at the University of Oslo and the only professor of philosophy in the country at the time, he was a noted mountaineer. The Tvergastein hut in the Hallingskarvet massif played an important role in Ecosophy T, as "T" is said to represent his mountain hut Tvergastein. In 1958, he founded the interdisciplinary journal of philosophy Inquiry. In 1970, together with a large number of protesters, he chained himself to rocks in front of Mardalsfossen, a waterfall in a Norwegian fjord, refused to descend until plans to build a dam were dropped.
Though the demonstrators were carried away by police and the dam was built, the demonstration launched a more activist phase of Norwegian environmentalism. In 1996, he won the Swedish Academy Nordic Prize, known as the'little Nobel'. In 2005 he was decorated as a Commander with Star of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav for useful work. Næss was a minor political candidate for the Norwegian Green Party in 2005. Næss' Erkenntnis und wissenschaftliches Verhalten anticipated many themes familiar in post-war analytic philosophy. Næss' main philosophical work from the 1950s was entitled "Interpretation and Preciseness"; this was an application of set theory to the problems of language interpretation, extending the work of semanticists such as Charles Kay Ogden in The Meaning of Meaning. A simple way of explaining it is that any given utterance can be considered as having different potential interpretations, depending on prevailing language norms, the characteristics of particular persons or groups of users, the language situation in which the utterance occurred.
These differing interpretations are to be formulated in more precise language represented as subsets of the original utterance. Each subset can, in its turn, have further subsets; the advantages of this conceptualisation of interpretation are various. It enables systematic demonstration of possible interpretation, making possible evaluation of which are the more and less "reasonable interpretations", it is a logical instrument for demonstrating language vagueness, undue generalisation, pseudo-agreement and effective communication. Næss developed a simplified, practical textbook embodying these advantages, entitled Communication and Argument, which became a valued introduction to this pragmatics or "language logic", was used over many decades as a sine qua non for the preparatory examination at the University of Oslo known as "Examen Philosophicum". Communication and Argument included his recommendations for objective public debate. Næss argued for adhering to the following rules to make discussions as fruitful and pleasant as possible: Avoid tendentious irrelevanceExamples: Personal attacks, claims of opponents' motivation, explaining reasons for an argument.
Avoid tendentious quotingQuotes should not be edited regarding the subject of the debate. Avoid tendentious ambiguityAmbiguity can be exploited to support criticism. Avoid tendentious use of straw menAssigning views to the opponent that she does not hold. Avoid tendentious statements of factInformation put forward should never be untrue or incomplete, one should not withhold relevant information. Avoid tendentious tone of presentationExamples: irony, pejoratives, subtle threats. For many years these points were part of two compulsory courses in philosophy taught in Norwegian universities. Ecosophy T, as distinct from deep ecology, was the name of his personal philosophy. Others such as Warwick Fox have interpreted deep ecology as a commitment to ecosophy T, Næss's personal beliefs; the T referred to Tvergastein, a mountain hut where he wrote many of his books, reflected Næss's view that everyone should develop his own philosophy. Although a rich and complex philosophy, Næss's ecosophy can be summed up as having Self-realization as its core.
According to Næss, every being, whether human, animal, or vegetable has an equal right to live and to blossom. Through this capitalized Self, Næss emphasizes, in distinction t
Abraham Moritz Warburg, known as Aby Warburg, was a German art historian and cultural theorist who founded a private Library for Cultural Studies, the Kulturwissenschaftliche Bibliothek Warburg, moved to the Warburg Institute, London. At the heart of his research was the legacy of the Classical World, the transmission of classical representation, in the most varied areas of western culture through to the Renaissance. Warburg described himself as: "Amburghese di cuore, ebreo di sangue, d'anima Fiorentino". Aby Warburg was born in Hamburg into the wealthy Warburg family of German Jewish bankers, his ancestors had come to Germany from Italy in the 17th century and settled in the town of Warburg in Westphalia, taking on the town's name as their family name. In the 18th century the Warburgs moved to Altona near Hamburg. Two brothers Warburg founded the banking firm M. M. Warburg & Co in Hamburg, which today again has an office there. Aby Warburg was the first of seven children born to Moritz Warburg, director of the Hamburg bank, his wife Charlotte, née Oppenheim.
Aby Warburg showed an early interest in literature and history and the second eldest son, Max Warburg went into the Hamburg bank, younger brothers Paul and Felix entered banking. Max Warburg established the Warburg family bank as a "global player". Warburg grew up in a conservative Jewish home environment. Early on he demonstrated an unstable and volatile temperament. Warburg as a child reacted against the religious rituals which were punctiliously observed in his family, rejected all career plans envisaged for him, he did not want to be a rabbi, as a doctor or lawyer. Against the resistance Aby Warburg met with from his relatives, he forced through his plans to study art history. Aby famously made a deal with his brother Max to forfeit his right, as the eldest son, to take over the family firm, in return for an undertaking on Max's part to provide him with all the books he needed. In 1886 Warburg began his study of art history and archaeology in Bonn and attended the lectures on the history of religion by Hermann Usener, those on cultural history by Karl Lamprecht and on art history by Carl Justi.
He continued his studies in Munich and with Hubert Janitschek in Strasbourg, completing under him his dissertation on Botticelli's paintings The Birth of Venus and Primavera. From 1888 to 1889 he studied the sources of these pictures at the Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florence, he was now interested in applying the methods of natural science to the human sciences. The dissertation was completed in 1892 and printed in 1893. Warburg's study introduced into art history a new method, that of iconography or iconology developed by Erwin Panofsky. After receiving his doctorate Warburg studied for two semesters at the Medical Faculty of the University of Berlin, where he attended lectures on psychology. During this period he undertook a further trip to Florence. Paul Warburg married Nina Loeb, daughter of Solomon Loeb in New York late in 1895, Aby Warburg used the occasion to travel, his long American journey took him to Colorado in winter, to New Mexico and to Pasadena and Mount Lowe. He met the San Francisco boheme Les Jeunes around Gelett Burgess and went back to the Pueblos in spring, to the Hopi and Zuni.
Before going west, he had met veteran anthropologists James Mooney and Frank Hamilton Cushing at the Smithsonian Institution. Cushing had lived for years with the Zuni in New Mexico and fascinated Warburg wanted to see the Pueblos for himself. First stop in the west was Mesa Verde, he went from Pueblo town to Spanish town, to Cochiti and the Palace Hotel in Santa Fe, to Albuquerque and Acoma and San Ildefonso, where he photographed an Antelope dance. In Cochiti Warburg spoke to a priest and his son and received a cosmological drawing with a snake at its center; the Hopi of Arizona were famous for their snake dance and although April was too early in the year to see this tourist attraction, the time he spent with the Hopi was a most important part of his long journey. Warburg was fascinated with their still secluded culture, their architecture, their masks and their ages-old abstract painting on pottery Nampeyo had revived. Mennonite missionary Heinrich R. Voth shared his knowledge of Hopi religion.
Voth and Warburg saw a Hemis Kachina dance complete with obscene clowning. Thanks to Voth he could observe the preparations for this end-of-winter ceremony; the most famous photo of the trip shows Warburg holding a half naked dancer resting. Another snapshot is of Warburg wearing a Kachina dancer' s mask. In New York the social life of the Schiffs and Loebs seemed empty and futile, Warburg was impressed with the dead seriousness of Hopi ritual. Writing up his field notes for a now famous lecture at the Kreuzlingen sanatorium Warburg stressed the kinship of religious thinking in Athens and Oraibi. In 1897 Warburg married, against his father's will, the painter and sculptor Mary Hertz, daughter of Adolph Ferdinand Hertz, a Hamburg senator and member of the Synod of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Hamburg; the couple had three children: Marietta, Max Adolph and Frede C. Warburg. In 1898 Warburg and his wife took up residence in Florence. While Warburg was plagued by depression, the couple enjoyed a lively social life.
Among their Florentine circle could be counted the sculptor Adolf von Hildebrand, the writer Isolde Kurz, the English architect and antiquary Herbert Horne, the Dutch Germanist André Jolles and his wife Mathilde Wolff-Mönckeberg, the Belgian art historian Jacques Mesnil. The most fam
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, 16th centuries. The term humanism is contemporary to that period, while Renaissance humanism is a retronym used to distinguish it from humanist developments. Renaissance humanism was a response to the utilitarian approach and what came to be depicted as the "narrow pedantry" associated with medieval scholasticism. Humanists sought to create a citizenry able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity and thus capable of engaging in the civic life of their communities and persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions; this was to be accomplished through the study of the studia humanitatis, today known as the humanities: grammar, history and moral philosophy. According to one scholar of the movement, Early Italian humanism, which in many respects continued the grammatical and rhetorical traditions of the Middle Ages, not provided the old Trivium with a new and more ambitious name, but increased its actual scope and significance in the curriculum of the schools and universities and in its own extensive literary production.
The studia humanitatis excluded logic, but they added to the traditional grammar and rhetoric not only history and moral philosophy, but made poetry, once a sequel of grammar and rhetoric, the most important member of the whole group. Humanism was a pervasive cultural mode and not the program of a small elite, a program to revive the cultural legacy, literary legacy, moral philosophy of classical antiquity. There were important centres of humanism in Florence, Rome, Genoa, Mantua and Urbino; some of the first humanists were great collectors of antique manuscripts, including Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Coluccio Salutati, Poggio Bracciolini. Of the four, Petrarch was dubbed the "Father of Humanism" because of his devotion or loyalty to Greek and Roman scrolls. Many worked for the Catholic Church and were in holy orders, like Petrarch, while others were lawyers and chancellors of Italian cities, thus had access to book copying workshops, such as Petrarch's disciple Salutati, the Chancellor of Florence.
In Italy, the humanist educational program won rapid acceptance and, by the mid-15th century, many of the upper classes had received humanist educations in addition to traditional scholasticist ones. Some of the highest officials of the Catholic Church were humanists with the resources to amass important libraries; such was Cardinal Basilios Bessarion, a convert to the Catholic Church from Greek Orthodoxy, considered for the papacy, was one of the most learned scholars of his time. There were several 15th-century and early 16th-century humanist Popes one of whom, Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, was a prolific author and wrote a treatise on The Education of Boys; these subjects came to be known as the humanities, the movement which they inspired is shown as humanism. The migration waves of Byzantine Greek scholars and émigrés in the period following the Crusader sacking of Constantinople and the end of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 assisted the revival of Greek and Roman literature and science via their greater familiarity with ancient languages and works.
They included Gemistus Pletho, George of Trebizond, Theodorus Gaza, John Argyropoulos. Italian humanism spread northward to France, the Low Countries, England with the adoption of large-scale printing after the end of the era of incunabula, it became associated with the Reformation. In France, pre-eminent humanist Guillaume Budé applied the philological methods of Italian humanism to the study of antique coinage and to legal history, composing a detailed commentary on Justinian's Code. Budé was a royal absolutist, active in civic life, serving as a diplomat for François I and helping to found the Collège des Lecteurs Royaux. Meanwhile, Marguerite de Navarre, the sister of François I, was a poet and religious mystic who gathered around her and protected a circle of vernacular poets and writers, including Clément Marot, Pierre de Ronsard, François Rabelais. Many humanists were churchmen, most notably Pope Pius II, Sixtus IV, Leo X, there was patronage of humanists by senior church figures. Much humanist effort went into improving the understanding and translations of Biblical and early Christian texts, both before and after the Reformation, influenced by the work of non-Italian, Northern European figures such as Erasmus, Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples, William Grocyn, Swedish Catholic Archbishop in exile Olaus Magnus.
The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy describes the rationalism of ancient writings as having tremendous impact on Renaissance scholars: Here, one felt no weight of the supernatural pressing on the human mind, demanding homage and allegiance. Humanity—with all its distinct capabilities, worries, possibilities—was the center of interest, it has been said that medieval thinkers philosophised on their knees, bolstered by the new studies, they dared to stand up and to rise to full stature. The rediscovery of classical philosophy and science would challenge traditional religious beliefs. In 1417, for example, Poggio Bracciolini discovered the manuscript of Lucretius, De rerum natura, lost for centuries and which contained an explanation of Epicurean doctrine, though at the time this was not commented on much by Renaissance scholars, who confined themselves to remarks about Lucretius's grammar and syntax. Only in 1564 did French commentator Denys Lambin an
Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich was an Austrian-born art historian who, after settling in England in 1936, became a naturalised British citizen in 1947 and spent most of his working life in the United Kingdom. Gombrich was the author of many works of cultural history and art history, most notably The Story of Art, a book regarded as one of the most accessible introductions to the visual arts, Art and Illusion, a major work in the psychology of perception that influenced thinkers as diverse as Carlo Ginzburg, Nelson Goodman, Umberto Eco; the son of Karl Gombrich and Leonie Hock, Gombrich was born in Vienna, Austria-Hungary, into an assimilated bourgeois family of Jewish origin who were part of a sophisticated social and musical milieu. His father was a lawyer and former classmate of Hugo von Hofmannsthal and his mother was a distinguished pianist who graduated from the Vienna Conservatoire with the School's Medal of Distinction. At the Conservatoire she was a pupil of, amongst others, Anton Bruckner.
However, rather than follow a career as a concert pianist she became an assistant of Theodor Leschetizky. She knew Arnold Schoenberg, Gustav Mahler, Hugo Wolf and Johannes Brahms. Rudolf Serkin was a close family friend. Adolf Busch and members of the Busch Quartet met and played in the family home. Throughout his life Gombrich maintained a deep knowledge of classical music, he was a competent cellist and in life at home in London played the chamber music of Haydn, Schubert and others with his wife and his elder sister Dea Forsdyke, a concert violinist. Gombrich was educated at Theresianum Secondary School and at Vienna University, where he studied art history under Hans Tietze, Karl Maria Swoboda, Julius von Schlosser and Josef Strzygowski, completing a PhD thesis on the Mannerist architecture of Giulio Romano, supervised by Von Schlosser. Specialized in caricature, he was invited to help Ernst Kris, keeper of decorative arts at the Kunsthistorisches Museum, on his graduating in 1933. In 1936 he married Ilse Heller, a pupil of his mother, herself an accomplished pianist.
Their only child, Richard Gombrich, went on to become a noted Indologist and scholar of Buddhism, acting as the Boden Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford University in 1976–2004. Lady Gombrich died in 2006. After publishing his first book A Little History of the World in German in 1936, written for children and adolescents, seeing it become a hit only to be banned by the Nazis for pacifism and fleeing to Britain in 1939, he took up a post as a research assistant at the Warburg Institute, University of London. During World War II, Gombrich worked for the BBC World Service; when in 1945 an upcoming announcement was prefaced by Bruckner's seventh symphony, written for Wagner's death, Gombrich guessed that Hitler was dead and promptly broke the news to Churchill. Gombrich returned to the Warburg Institute in November 1945, where he became Senior Research Fellow, Lecturer and Professor of the History of the Classical Tradition and director of the institute, he was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1960, made CBE in 1966, knighted in 1972, appointed a member of the Order of Merit in 1988.
He continued his work at the University of London till close to his death in 2001. He was the recipient of numerous additional honours, including Goethe Prize 1994 and Balzan Prize in 1985 for History of Western Art. Gombrich was close to a number of Austrian émigrés who fled to the West prior to the Anschluss, among them Karl Popper, Friedrich Hayek and Max Perutz, he was instrumental in bringing to publication Popper's magnum opus The Open Society and Its Enemies. Each had known the other only fleetingly in Vienna, as Gombrich's father served his law apprenticeship with Popper's father, they became lifelong friends in exile. Gombrich remarked that he had two different publics: amongst scholars he was known for his work on the Renaissance and the psychology of perception, but his thoughts on cultural history and tradition. Gombrich's first book, the only one he did not write in English, was Eine kurze Weltgeschichte für junge Leser, published in Germany in 1936, it was popular and translated into several languages, but was not available in English until 2005, when a translation of a revised edition was published as A Little History of the World.
He did most of this translation and revision himself, it was completed by his long-time assistant and secretary Caroline Mustill and his granddaughter Leonie Gombrich after his death. The Story of Art, first published in 1950 and in its 16th edition, is regarded as one of the most accessible introductions to the history of visual arts. Intended for adolescent readers, it has sold millions of copies and been translated into more than 30 languages. Other major publications include Art and Illusion, regarded by critics to be his most influential and far-reaching work, the essays gathered in Meditations on a Hobby Horse and The Image and the Eye. Other important books are Aby Warburg: An Intellectual Biography, The Sense of Order and The Preference for the Primitive; the complete list of his publications, E. H. Gombrich: A Bibliography, was published by Joseph Burney Trapp in 2000; when Gombrich arrived in En
Leuven or Louvain is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in Belgium. It is located about 25 kilometres east of Brussels; the municipality itself comprises the historic city and the former neighbouring municipalities of Heverlee, Kessel-Lo, a part of Korbeek-Lo, Wilsele and Wijgmaal. It is the eighth largest city in Belgium and the fourth in Flanders with more than 100,244 inhabitants. Leuven is home to the KU Leuven, the largest and oldest university of the Low Countries and the oldest Catholic university still in existence; the related university hospital of UZ Leuven is one of the largest hospitals in Europe. The city is known for being the headquarters of Anheuser-Busch InBev, the world's largest brewer and one of the five largest consumer-goods companies in the world; the earliest mention of Leuven dates from 891, when a Viking army was defeated by the Frankish king Arnulf of Carinthia. According to a legend, the city's red and white arms depict the blood-stained shores of the river Dyle after this battle to Austria’s Flag.
Situated beside this river, near to the stronghold of the Dukes of Brabant, Leuven became the most important centre of trade in the duchy between the 11th and 14th centuries. A token of its former importance as a centre of cloth manufacture is shown in that ordinary linen cloth was known, in late-14th-century and 15th-century texts, as lewyn. In the 15th century, a new golden era began with the founding of what is now the largest and oldest university in the Low Countries, the Catholic University of Leuven, in 1425. In the 18th century, the brewery Den Horen flourished. In 1708, Sebastien Artois became the master brewer at Den Horen, gave his name to the brewery in 1717, now part of AB InBev, whose flagship beer, Stella Artois, is brewed in Leuven and sold in many countries. Leuven occupied by foreign armies. In the 20th century, both world wars inflicted major damage upon the city. Upon Germany's entry into World War I, the town was damaged by rampaging soldiers. In all, about 300 civilians lost their lives.
The university library was destroyed on 25 August 1914, using petrol and incendiary pastilles. 230,000 volumes were lost in the destruction, including Gothic and Renaissance manuscripts, a collection of 750 medieval manuscripts, more than 1,000 incunabula. The destruction of the library shocked the world, with the Daily Chronicle describing it as war not only against civilians but against "posterity to the utmost generation." It was rebuilt after the war, much of the collection was replaced. Great Britain and the United States were major providers of material for the replenishment of the collection; the new library building was financed by the National Committee of the United States for the Restoration of the University of Louvain and built to the design of architect Whitney Warren. Richard Harding Davis, a war correspondent for the New York Tribune, was in Leuven and wrote a column titled "The Germans Were Like Men After an Orgy" in which he described the organized civilian murders and vandalism committed by the occupying troops.
In World War II, after the start of the German offensive, Leuven formed part of the British Expeditionary Force's front line and was defended by units of the 3rd Division and Belgian troops. From 14 to 16 May 1940, the German Army Group B assaulted the city with heavy air and artillery support; the British withdrew their forces to the River Senne on the night of 16 May and the town was occupied the next day. The new university library building was set on fire by shelling, on 16 May, nearly a million books were lost. Given the presence of the KU Leuven, Europe's most innovative university according to Reuters, much of the local economy is concentrated on spin-offs from academic research. In addition, the Leuven-based research centre, IMEC, is a world class research centre in the field of nano-electronics and digital technologies; as a result, dozens of companies in high technological fields such as biotech, additive manufacturing and IT, are located near these research institutes on the Arenberg Science Park and Haasrode Research-Park.
Quite a few international companies such as Siemens, Nitto Denko, JSR Corporation or Commscope have important research oriented branches, in Leuven. The academic hospital Gasthuisberg is another advanced research institute, it is one of Europe's most advanced hospitals. As a result, large numbers of private service providers are active in the medical and legal fields; because it is the capital of the region of Flemish Brabant, many governmental institutions are located in Leuven, as well as the regional headquarters of transport corporations such as De Lijn. As one of Flanders Art-Cities, with a large range of cafés, cultural institutions and shopping neighbourhoods, Leuven attracts a fair share of tourists. Leuven is the worldwide headquarters of Anheuser-Busch InBev, the largest beer company in the world and is considered one of the largest fast-moving consumer goods companies in the world. InBev's Stella Artois brewery and main offices dominate the entire north-eastern part of the town, between the railway station and the canal to Mechelen.
As of 1 November 2016, the population of Leuven was 100,244. The arrondissement of Leuven
Erwin Panofsky was a German-Jewish art historian, whose academic career was pursued in the U. S. after the rise of the Nazi regime. Panofsky's work represents a high point in the modern academic study of iconography, which he used in hugely influential works like his "little book" Renaissance and Renascences in Western Art and his masterpiece, Early Netherlandish Painting. Many of his works are still in print, including Studies in Iconology: Humanist Themes in the Art of the Renaissance, Meaning in the Visual Arts, his eponymous 1943 study of Albrecht Dürer. Panofsky's ideas were highly influential in intellectual history in general in his use of historical ideas to interpret artworks and vice versa. Panofsky was born in Hannover to a wealthy Jewish Silesian mining family, he grew up in Berlin. In 1910–14 he studied law, philosophy and art history in Freiburg and Berlin, where he heard lectures by the art historian Margarete Bieber, filling in for Georg Loeschcke. While Panofsky was taking courses at Freiburg University, a older student, Kurt Badt, took him to hear a lecture by the founder of the art history department, Wilhelm Vöge, under whom he wrote his dissertation in 1914.
His topic, Dürer's artistic theory Dürers Kunsttheorie: vornehmlich in ihrem Verhaltnis zur Kunsttheorie der Italiener was published the following year in Berlin as Die Theoretische Kunstlehre Albrecht Dürers. Because of a horse-riding accident, Panofsky was exempted from military service during World War I, using the time to attend the seminars of the medievalist Adolph Goldschmidt in Berlin. Panofsky's academic career in art history took him to the University of Berlin, University of Munich, to University of Hamburg, where he taught from 1920 to 1933, it was during this period. A significant early work was Idea: Ein Beitrag zur Begriffsgeschichte der älteren Kunstheorie, based on the ideas of Ernst Cassirer. Panofsky first came to the United States in 1931 to teach at New York University. Although allowed to spend alternate terms in Hamburg and New York City, after the Nazis came to power in Germany his appointment in Hamburg was terminated because he was Jewish, he remained permanently in the United States with his art historian wife, Dorothea "Dora" Mosse.
By 1934 Panofsky was teaching concurrently at New York University and Princeton University, in 1935 he was invited to join the faculty of the new Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, where he remained for the rest of his career. In 1999, "Panofsky Lane", named in his honor, was created in the Institute's faculty housing complex. Panofsky was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the British Academy and a number of other national academies. In 1954 he became foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences. In 1962 he received the Haskins Medal of The Medieval Academy of America. In 1947–1948 Panofsky was the Charles Eliot Norton professor at Harvard University. Panofsky became well known for his studies of symbols and iconography in art. First in a 1934 article in his Early Netherlandish Painting, Panofsky was the first to interpret Jan van Eyck's Arnolfini Portrait as not only a depiction of a wedding ceremony, but a visual contract testifying to the act of marriage.
Panofsky identifies a plethora of hidden symbols. In recent years, this conclusion has been challenged, but Panofsky's work with what he called "hidden" or "disguised" symbolism is still much influential in the study and understanding of Northern Renaissance art. In his monograph on Dürer, Panofsky gives lengthy "symbolic" analyses of the prints Knight and the Devil and Melancolia I, the former based on Erasmus's Handbook of a Christian Knight. Panofsky was known to be a friend with physicists Wolfgang Albert Einstein, his younger son, Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky, became a renowned physicist who specialized in particle accelerators, his elder son, Hans A. Panofsky, was "an atmospheric scientist who taught at Pennsylvania State University for 30 years and, credited with several advances in the study of meteorology"; as Wolfgang Panofsky related, his father used to call his sons "meine beiden Klempner". William S. Heckscher was a student, fellow emigre, close friend. In 1973 he was succeeded at Princeton by Irving Lavin.
“Ervin Panofsky was the most influential art historian of the twentieth century”. Erwin Panofsky had been a "highly distinguished" professor at the Institute for Advanced Study, New Jersey. In 1999, the new "Panofsky Lane", in that Institute's faculty housing complex, was named in Erwin Panofsky's honor. Panofsky was the most eminent representative of iconology, a method of studying the history of art created by Aby Warburg and his disciples Fritz Saxl, at the Warburg Institute in Hamburg. A personal and professional friendship linked him to Fritz Saxl in collaboration with whom he produced a large part of his work, he gave a short and precise description of his method in his article "Iconography and Iconology". In his 1936 essay "Style and Medium in the Motion Pictures, Panofsky seeks to describe the visual symptoms endemic" to the medium of film. In Studies in Iconology Panofsky details his idea of three levels of art-historical understanding: Primary or natural subject matter: The most bas
The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, painting, printmaking, crafts, video and architecture. Many artistic disciplines involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Included within the visual arts are the applied arts such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art. Current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term'artist' was restricted to a person working in the fine arts and not the handicraft, craft, or applied art media; the distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement, who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms. Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts, maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of the arts; the increasing tendency to privilege painting, to a lesser degree sculpture, above other arts has been a feature of Western art as well as East Asian art.
In both regions painting has been seen as relying to the highest degree on the imagination of the artist, the furthest removed from manual labour – in Chinese painting the most valued styles were those of "scholar-painting", at least in theory practiced by gentleman amateurs. The Western hierarchy of genres reflected similar attitudes. Training in the visual arts has been through variations of the apprentice and workshop systems. In Europe the Renaissance movement to increase the prestige of the artist led to the academy system for training artists, today most of the people who are pursuing a career in arts train in art schools at tertiary levels. Visual arts have now become an elective subject in most education systems. Drawing is a means of using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques, it involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface using dry media such as graphite pencils and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, charcoals and markers.
Digital tools that simulate the effects of these are used. The main techniques used in drawing are: line drawing, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling and blending. An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draughtsman. Drawing goes back at least 16,000 years to Paleolithic cave representations of animals such as those at Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain. In ancient Egypt, ink drawings on papyrus depicting people, were used as models for painting or sculpture. Drawings on Greek vases geometric developed to the human form with black-figure pottery during the 7th century BC. With paper becoming common in Europe by the 15th century, drawing was adopted by masters such as Sandro Botticelli, Raphael and Leonardo da Vinci who sometimes treated drawing as an art in its own right rather than a preparatory stage for painting or sculpture. Painting taken is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier and a binding agent to a surface such as paper, canvas or a wall. However, when used in an artistic sense it means the use of this activity in combination with drawing, composition, or other aesthetic considerations in order to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner.
Painting is used to express spiritual motifs and ideas. Like drawing, painting has its documented origins on rock faces; the finest examples, believed by some to be 32,000 years old, are in the Chauvet and Lascaux caves in southern France. In shades of red, brown and black, the paintings on the walls and ceilings are of bison, cattle and deer. Paintings of human figures can be found in the tombs of ancient Egypt. In the great temple of Ramses II, his queen, is depicted being led by Isis; the Greeks much of their work has been lost. One of the best remaining representations are the Hellenistic Fayum mummy portraits. Another example is mosaic of the Battle of Issus at Pompeii, based on a Greek painting. Greek and Roman art contributed to Byzantine art in the 4th century BC, which initiated a tradition in icon painting. Apart from the illuminated manuscripts produced by monks during the Middle Ages, the next significant contribution to European art was from Italy's renaissance painters. From Giotto in the 13th century to Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael at the beginning of the 16th century, this was the richest period in Italian art as the chiaroscuro techniques were used to create the illusion of 3-D space.
Painters in northern Europe too were influenced by the Italian school. Jan van Eyck from Belgium, Pieter Bruegel the Elder from the Netherlands and Hans Holbein the Younger from Germany are among the most successful painters of the times, they used the glazing technique with oils to achieve luminosity. The 17th century witnessed the emergence of the great Dutch masters such as the versatile Rembrandt, remembered for his portraits and Bible scenes, Vermeer who specialized in interior scenes of Dutch life; the Baroque started from the late 16th century to the late 17th century. Main artists of the Baroque included Caravaggio. Peter Paul Rubens was a flemish painter who studied in Italy, work