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Id, ego and super-ego

The id, super-ego are the three distinct, interacting agents in the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche. The three agents are theoretical constructs that describe the activities and interactions of the mental life of a person. In the ego psychology model of the psyche, the id is the set of uncoordinated instinctual desires. Thus, in its relation to the id, is like a man on horseback, who has to hold in check the superior strength of the horse; the analogy may be carried a little further. A rider, if he is not to be parted from his horse, is obliged to guide where it wants to go. Although the structural model of the psyche refers to a mental apparatus, the id, the ego, the super-ego are purely psychological concepts, do not correspond to structures of the brain, such as the kind dealt with by neuroscience; the existence of the super-ego is observable in how people can view themselves as guilty and bad and weak, feel compelled to do certain things. In "The Ego and the Id", Freud presents "the general character of harshness and cruelty exhibited by the ideal — its dictatorial Thou shalt.

At the time at which the Oedipus complex gives place to the super-ego they are something quite magnificent. Identifications come about with these parents as well, indeed they make important contributions to the formation of character; the earlier in the child's development, the greater the estimate of parental power. Those different levels of mental development, their relations to parental imagos, correspond to specific id forms of aggression and affection. In response to the unstructured ambiguity and conflicting uses of the term "the unconscious mind", Freud introduced the structured model of ego psychology in the essay "Beyond the Pleasure Principle" and elaborated and made that model formal in the essay "The Ego and the Id"; the id is the disorganized part of the personality structure that contains a human's basic, instinctual drives. Id is the only component of personality, present from birth, it is the source of a person's bodily needs, wants and impulses their sexual and aggressive drives.

The id contains the libido, the primary source of instinctual force, unresponsive to the demands of reality. The id acts according to the "pleasure principle"—the psychic force that motivates the tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse—defined as seeking to avoid pain or unpleasure aroused by increases in instinctual tension. According to Freud the id is unconscious by definition: It is the dark, inaccessible part of our personality, what little we know of it we have learned from our study of the dreamwork and of course the construction of neurotic symptoms, most of, of a negative character and can be described only as a contrast to the ego. We approach the id with analogies: we call it a chaos, a cauldron full of seething excitations.... It is filled with energy reaching it from the instincts, but it has no organization, produces no collective will, but only a striving to bring about the satisfaction of the instinctual needs subject to the observance of the pleasure principle.

In the id:...contrary impulses exist side by side, without cancelling each other out.... There is nothing in the id that could be compared with negation...nothing in the id which corresponds to the idea of time. Developmentally, the id precedes the ego. While "id" is in search of pleasure, "ego" emphasizes the principle of reality. Thus, the id:...contains everything, inherited, present at birth, is laid down in the constitution—above all, the instincts, which originate from the somatic organization, which find a first psychical expression here in forms unknown to us. The mind of a newborn child is regarded as "id-ridden", in the sense that it is a mass of instinctive drives and impulses, needs immediate satisfaction; the "id" moves on to. Example is reduction of tension, experienced; the id "knows no judgements of value: no good and evil, no morality.... Instinctual cathexes seeking discharge—that, in our view, is all there is in the id." It is regarded as "the great reservoir of

Swimming at the 2011 Pan American Games – Women's 400 metre freestyle

The women's 400 metre freestyle competition of the swimming events at the 2011 Pan American Games took place on October 17 at the Scotiabank Aquatics Center in the municipality of Zapopan, near Guadalajara, Mexico. The defending Pan American Games champion was Jessica Rodriquez of the United States; this race consisted of eight lengths of the pool. Prior to this competition, the existing world and Pan American Games records were as follows: Each National Olympic Committee was able to enter up to two entrants providing they had met the A standard in the qualifying period. NOCs were permitted to enter one athlete providing they had met the B standard in the same qualifying period. All times are in seconds; the first round was held on October 17. The B final was held on October 17; the A final was held on October 17


HFLS3 is the name for a distant galaxy, located at z = 6.34, originating about 880 million years after the Big Bang. Its discovery was announced on 18 April 2013 as an exceptional starburst galaxy producing nearly 3,000 solar masses of stars a year, it was found by using the far infrared capable Herschel Space Telescope. The galaxy was estimated to have 35 billion stars, it is 10–30 times the mass of other known galaxies at such an early time in the Universe. HFLS3 was subjected to a follow-up campaign by other telescopes due to its high redness. HFLS3 was found in the HerMES campaign, which found other red sources. List of the most distant astronomical objects HFLS3 – a record-breaking galaxy Cooray, Asantha. "HerMES: The Rest-frame UV Emission and a Lensing Model for the z = 6.34 Luminous Dusty Starburst Galaxy HFLS3". The Astrophysical Journal. 790: 40. ArXiv:1404.1378. Bibcode:2014ApJ...790...40C. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/790/1/40. Study of the environmentof HFLS3 an extremestarburst at z=6.34

Cell Press

Cell Press, an imprint of Elsevier, is a publisher of biomedical journals, including Cell and Neuron. Benjamin Lewin founded Cell in January 1974, under the aegis of MIT Press, he bought the title and established an independent Cell Press in 1986. The company spun off new journals as follows: Neuron in March, 1988. Benjamin Lewin left after having sold Cell Press to Elsevier the previous April. Since that time, Cell Press has launched a number of new titles: Developmental Cell in July 2001. Meanwhile, three additional Elsevier journals have joined the Cell Press group: Current Biology launched in January 1996, which became part of Cell Press in early 2001. At that point, the name changed to Structure with Folding & Design but reverted to Structure at the beginning of 2001, when the journal joined Cell Press. In October 1995, was launched and included tables of contents and information for authors and subscribers. Full-text online versions at,, were launched in July 1997.

Journals published by Cell Press Official website

Schenectady County, New York

Schenectady County is a county located in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 154,727; the county seat is Schenectady. The name is from a Mohawk language word meaning "on the other side of the pine lands," a term that applied to Albany. Schenectady County is part of the Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area, is located west of the confluence of the Mohawk with the Hudson River, it includes the south sides of the Mohawk River. This area of the river valley was occupied by the Mohawk people, the easternmost of the Five Nations comprising the Iroquois Confederacy or Haudenosaunee, they had villages in the hills. European settlement started in the present-day county by Dutch colonists in the 17th century; the fur traders in Albany prohibited settlers in Schenectady from the trade. Other areas of the county were developed for farming; the English enforced the Albany monopoly on the fur trade when they took over the New Netherland colony in 1664. The English organized counties in the Province of New York in 1683.

Albany County contained an enormous area, including the northern part of New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean. This county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766, by the creation of Cumberland County, further on March 16, 1770, by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now within the state of Vermont. On March 12, 1772, Albany County was divided to form two other counties; the area of Schenectady County was still within the reduced Albany. From 1772 to 1786 Albany County included, besides the present territory of Albany County, all of the present Columbia, Rensselaer and Schenectady counties, parts of the present Greene and Washington counties, a piece of what is now southwestern Vermont. In 1786 Albany County was reduced in size, it was further reduced in size in 1795 by the splitting off of a part, combined with a portion of Otsego County to create Schoharie County. It was further reduced in size in 1800 by the splitting off of a part, combined with a portion of Ulster County to create Greene County.

In 1809, Schenectady County has kept its current borders. The city of Schenectady is the only city in the county. Major European immigration began in the mid-19th century, with the arrival of Irish refugees from the Great Famine. More immigrants were attracted to the city for its industrial jobs, including those from Italy and Poland. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the city became an industrial powerhouse and center of innovation, the headquarters of General Electric and other national corporations; the city of Schenectady reached its peak of population in 1930 but the county reached its peak in 1970, according to US Census data These differences reflect different settlement patterns and the development of suburban housing outside the city limits. The city of Schenectady lost many jobs and population in the late 20th century due to industrial and railroad restructuring. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 209 square miles, of which 205 square miles is land and 4.9 square miles is water.

Schenectady County is located in east central New York State, northwest of Albany, an area considered "Upstate". Saratoga County - northeast Albany County - southeast Schoharie County - southwest Montgomery County - west As of the census of 2010, there were 154,727 people, 60,684 households, 39,918 families residing in the county; the population density was 275/km². There were 68,032 housing units at an average density of 122/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 79.77% White, 9.79% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 3.97% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.21% from other races, 2.00% from two or more races. 6.17 % of the population were Latino of any race. 24.3% were of Italian, 14.7% Irish, 8.7% German, 6.4% Polish, 4.0 Puerto Rican, 3.9% English ancestry according to Census 2010. 87.6 % spoke 4.7 % Spanish and 1.1 % Italian as their first language. There were 60,684 households out of which 30.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.50% were married couples living together, 14.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.30% were non-families.

30.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.17. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.30% under the age of 18, 7.90% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 23.00% from 45 to 64, 16.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 92.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $53,399, the median income for a family was $57,670. Males had a median income of $41,840 versus $29,339 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,992. About 7.80% of families and 11.90% of th

Charlestown Bridge

The Charlestown Bridge named the North Washington Street Bridge, is located in Boston and spans the Charles River. As the river's easternmost crossing, the bridge connects the neighborhoods of Charlestown and the North End. Completed in 1900 and given its current official name in 1910, the bridge carries a portion of the Freedom Trail linking to the USS Constitution and Bunker Hill. To the north of the bridge, Route 99 begins and the street becomes New Rutherford Avenue. Replacement of the bridge started in fall 2018 and is expected to be completed in 2023; the first government-sanctioned ferry crossing of the Charles was chartered at this location in the 1630s. It was operated by various individuals until it was given to Harvard College "in perpetuity" in 1640, to support the college financially. In 1640, the Massachusetts General Court granted Harvard College the revenue from the Boston-Charlestown ferry to help support the institution; the Harvard Corporation in its capacity managed the Charlestown ferry from the 1640s until 1785, after the completion of the Charles River Bridge in 1785.

The first bridge on this site was known as the Charles River Bridge, chartered in 1785 and opened on June 17, 1786. As a condition of chartering the bridge, a sum of £200 was paid annually to Harvard College to compensate for the lost ferry income; the bridge was built and operated, with tolls producing profits for the investors during the charter period, after the initial expense was paid off. In 1792, the West Boston Bridge was chartered. In compensation, the legislature extended the charter period of the Charles River Bridge by 30 years, but the unpopular double tolls on Sundays were eliminated. Traffic to the bridge was facilitated by the laying out of the Medford Turnpike in 1803; when the Warren Bridge was chartered in 1828 in a location close to the Charles River Bridge, the investors filed a lawsuit which reached the United States Supreme Court as Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge; the current bridge was built in 1900 under chief engineer William Jackson, was designed to carry the Charlestown Elevated railway in addition to vehicle traffic.

However, the railway was demolished in 1975 to make way for its replacement, the MBTA Orange Line's Haymarket North Extension. The new line was rerouted to avoid having to pass directly through the densely populated Charlestown neighborhood; the Haymarket Tunnel, emerging from under both North Station and the Charles River just south of the new Orange Line Community College station, was inaugurated in 1975 as the designated tunnel for Orange Line trains. Because the bridge was designed to accommodate an elevated railroad in addition to automobiles, the bridge spans six lanes; the bridge carried the southernmost stretch of Massachusetts Route 99 to its terminus at the river, but following completion of the Big Dig in the late 2000s, the route's designation was changed to relocate the terminus to Chelsea Street in Charlestown. The bridge has been considered structurally deficient since 2003, when the center two lanes were permanently closed. Construction work on a replacement bridge began in the fall of 2018.

The design for the new bridge, by architect Miguel Rosales in collaboration with Alfred Benesch & Co. is intended to complement the nearby Zakim Bridge. The new bridge is slated to have two vehicular lanes in each direction, a dedicated southbound bus lane, a protected bicycle lane and sidewalk on each side. During construction, a temporary bridge is planned to be installed to carry pedestrians and three lanes of vehicular traffic; the new $180 million Charlestown bridge is expected to be completed in 2023 to coincide with the 20th anniversary of the Zakim Bridge. List of crossings of the Charles River North Washington Street Bridge at Structurae Various photos, 1899-1929 Article with early 1800s photo