Ida Albertina Bengtson was an American bacteriologist, known for her work with anaerobic organisms. She became the first woman hired to work in the United States Public Health Service's Hygienic Laboratory, at the National Institutes of Health. Ida Bengtson was born in Nebraska in 1881 as the daughter of Swedish immigrants, she attended the University of Nebraska graduating in 1903 with degrees in mathematics and languages. Following graduation, Bengtson began working at the U. S. Geological Survey Library. Finding the job to be of low interest to her she spoke to a close friend who encouraged her to go back to school and pursue her master and a Ph. D. In 1911, she entered the University of Chicago to study bacteriology, earned her master's degree in 1913 and her PhD in 1919, both from the University of Chicago. While studying, she worked as a bacteriologist in the Chicago Department of Health in 1915. In 1916 she became the first woman hired to work in the United States Public Health Service's Hygienic Laboratory, at the National Institutes of Health.
Ida paved the way for the hiring of additional female scientists in the NIH lab and worked alongside other influential women such as Alice Evans who went on to serve as the first woman president of the Society of American Bacteriologists. Following her hiring at the NIH, Bengtson helped to discover that the 1917 tetanus outbreak running ramped across the US, could be traced back to a batch of contaminated vaccine scarifiers. After this finding, Bengston began further researching the infectious diseases presenting them selves in various communities across the United States; this research included the production of a typhus vaccine, the most significant contribution of her career: the complement fixation test. This test led to revolutionary findings in regards to detecting the differentiation of diseases including Rocky Mountain spotted Fever and Q fever. Bengtson's most significant scientific achievement was in regards to an organism called Clostridium botulinum, which causes a paralytic disease in chicken.
This organism was first recognized and isolated in 1895 by Emile van Ermengem from home cured ham implicated in a botulism outbreak. The isolate was named Bacillus botulinus, after the Latin word for sausage, botulus. However, isolates from subsequent outbreaks were always found to be anaerobic spore formers, so Bengtson proposed that the organism be placed in the genus Clostridium as the genus Bacillus was restricted to aerobic spore-forming rods. Based on her work with the US Public Health Service, now the NIH, she was moved to Rolla, Missouri, to begin to investigate the trachoma pandemic, widespread in the region of Alabama, Missouri and Oklahoma, she arrived in Rolla in 1924 and took her place in the biology lab at the Missouri School of Mines, in the basement of Parker Hall. Bengtson ran the trachoma hospital in one of only 4 in the country at the time, it was in a small, wood framed house on Elm Street, but it soon was too small to serve all the people who needed treatment. After Bengtson left Rolla in 1931, a new trachoma hospital was built in 1939, today houses the Rock Mechanics and Explosives Research Center on S&T's campus.
During her short time in Rolla, Bengtson worked with animals and over 1500 human patients to isolate the bacteria causing the debilitating disease. She slowed the progression of the disease in over 1000 people, according to The Kansas City Star, Bengtson “made Rolla the chief American battle front in the war on” trachoma, she is known for preparing, during 1935–1936, the standard for gas gangrene toxins and anti-toxins. One of Bengtson's other research interests was typhus, an exceedingly dangerous interest and she, like many other typhus researchers contracted the disease, although she recovered fully, her chapter on the family “Rickettsiaceae” appeared in the sixth edition of the influential Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology after her official retirement. She was awarded the Typhus Medal of the American Typhus Commission in 1947. Ida Albertina Bengtson had a career lasting 30 years, she retired in 1946. She published and contributed to the field of bacteriology and public health.
Bengtson died in 1952
Jessica Sophia Wright is an English television personality. From 2010 to 2016, she appeared. Wright is the elder daughter of Carol and Mark Wright, Sr and the sister of Mark and Josh Wright, the cousin of Elliott Wright and Leah Wright, who appeared in The Only Way Is Essex, she has a degree in Business & Marketing Management from Westminster University in London and her final dissertation looked at celebrity endorsements. From 2010 to 2016, Wright appeared. In February 2016, after five years and 16 series, Wright announced her departure from The Only Way Is Essex. In December 2011, the cast of The Only Way Is Essex released a cover of the Wham! Song "Last Christmas", with their own version of the show's theme song "The Only Way Is Up" as the single's B-side, a cover of the Yazz version, used as the theme for The Only Way Is Essex. In 2012, Wright signed a three-single deal with All Around the World, she went to Marbella to film the music video for her debut single "Dance All Night", released on 16 September 2012 and peaked at number 36 on the UK Singles Chart.
Wright released her second single "Dominoes" featuring Mann on 17 February 2013, which charter on the UK Official Dance Chart at number 36. Wright released a further track, "Come With Me", in June 2013, as part of Clubland 23. Official Twitter Account
Woodcrest is a historic mansion located on the campus of Cabrini University in Radnor Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania. It was built in 1901, with major alterations designed by Horace Trumbauer and completed in 1907, with additional modifications executed in 1914, it is a three-story, 51 47,000 square feet mansion in the Elizabethan Tudor Revival style. It was once part of a 238-acre estate, 112 acres of, Cabrini University; the Estate of Dr. John T. Dorrance, inventor of the process for condensed soup and president of the Campbell Soup Company, sold to the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in 1953. Cabrini University opened in September 1957, Woodcrest served as its first home, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2008
Edward Craig Mazique was a well known pioneer in the medical community among African Americans. Mazique was married to Jewell Mazique in 1937, separated in 1961, divorced in 1965, they had two sons and Jeffrey. Jeffrey was the first black child to attend kindergarten at the Sidwell Friends School in 1956; as a direct result, Senator James Eastland, an anti-integrationist from Mississippi withdrew his son from the school. Jewell preferred to be involved with social causes more than having a social life. Despite this view the Mazique's social life was reported in magazines during the 1950s. Both of their sons went on to be physicians. Ridlon, Florence. A Black Physician's Struggle for Civil Rights: Edward C. Mazique, M. D. University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-3339-7
HMS Surprise was the name the Royal Navy gave to the French Navy's corvette Unité after her capture in 1796. Launched on 16 February 1794, the ship gained fame in 1799 for the recapture of HMS Hermione, in 1802 was sold out of the service. Historical fiction author Patrick O'Brian set many of his Aubrey–Maturin series aboard HMS Surprise, including the 2003 film. Pierre-Alexandre Forfait designed the name ship for a class of corvette. Although the French rated Unité as a corvette, the ships of her class bridged a gap between smaller warships and frigates, at various times were rated as frigates. On 20 March 1794, lieutenant de vaisseau Jean le Drézénec, 41 years old and had entered the naval service soon after the revolution from a career in the merchant service, arrived to take command of Unité, he supervised the fitting out of the ship, found the long guns were too large to be reloaded, the lower sails were too large. He notified the authorities, who urged him to finish fitting out the ship because a major naval operation was imminent.
Soon afterwards, Unité took part in the battle of the Glorious First of June by escorting the dismasted Révolutionnaire as she was towed by the Audacieux. In June 1794 Unité completed repairs in Saint-Malo and Brest to damage she had sustained in the battle. In the following months she escorted merchant vessels along the coasts of France. On 28 September, with the corvette Bergere and under the command of Lieutenant de Vaisseau Gouley, the two ships left Brest to sail northwest in between Ireland and the islands of the Hebrides and St Kilda to intercept enemy merchant ships. On 17 October, the ships captured a 200-ton merchant ship Dianne; the next day the weather turned the two ships were separated. Unwilling or unable to continue the mission alone, Unité searched for Bergere fruitlessly for sixteen days before returning to Brest on 1 November. After repairs, Unité was ordered to join the Mediterranean fleet at Toulon, arrived there in March 1795, she spent the remainder of the year serving as a courier.
In April 1796, she was ordered on one such courier mission to North Africa to deliver personnel and messages to the port of Bône. At the time, Le Drézénec, promoted to capitaine de frégate, was suffering from smallpox and was incapacitated, her first lieutenant, Lieutenant Le Breton, commanded Unité. Captain Thomas Fremantle in command of the frigate HMS Inconstant had heard there was a French frigate in Bône, sailed to intercept her; when Unité arrived in the afternoon of 20 April 1796, the watch aboard Unité identified Inconstant as a neutral vessel and Le Breton did not clear the ship for action. About an hour Inconstant sailed alongside and captured Unité intact. About a year after capture, Unité was renamed HMS Surprise because another French ship named Unité had been taken into the navy. Surprise was re-classed by the British as a 28-gun sixth-rate frigate, though she carried twenty-four 32-pounder carronades on her main deck, eight 32-pounders on her quarter- and fore- decks and two long 6-pound cannons as chasers.
As in the French Navy, this led to difficulty in her rating, considered a fifth rate from 1797 to 1798 but a sixth rate the rest of her commission. She bore the main-mast of a 36-gun ship, just as unusual as her large armament. Under Captain Edward Hamilton, Surprise sailed in the Caribbean for several years, capturing several privateers. Surprise gained fame for the cutting-out expedition in 1799 of HMS Hermione. Hermione's crew had mutinied, had sailed her into the Spanish possession of Puerto Cabello. Captain Edward Hamilton of Surprise led a boarding party to retake Hermione and, after an exceptionally bloody action, sailed her out under Spanish gunfire; the Spanish casualties included 119 dead. Hamilton had 11 injured, four but none killed. After the Treaty of Amiens, the Royal Navy sold Surprise out of the service at Deptford in February 1802 and she was broken up. HMS Surprise was the ship chosen by author Patrick O'Brian to restore Captain "Lucky" Jack Aubrey of the Aubrey–Maturin series to his place as a captain, see him raise his flag as an admiral of the Royal Navy.
Surprise is an important element of the series, both because of her importance to the running plotline, because of the emotional attachment she has earned among the characters in the book and real life fans of the series. In the late 1990s, publisher W. W. Norton & Company rented the replica of HMS Rose in New York for a pier-side party to celebrate the publication of Patrick O’Brian's latest novel. O’Brian himself was present, he casually mentioned to the frigate's captain, Richard Bailey, that if the Rose were painted in an 1805 colour scheme she would be a "dead ringer" for the frigate Surprise that appeared in his books. Bailey ordered his crew to get out the paint and make the changes. O’Brian was so impressed that he changed his mind about his prohibition of having any of his books converted into film, Norton started looking for a Hollywood production company. For the 2003 film Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World, the role of Surprise was filled by the same replica of HMS Rose, purchased by the film studio and extensively modified at Baja Studios to resemble the original Surprise for the role.
The book HMS Surprise by O'Brian mentions Aubrey being a midshipman aboard Surprise The series has the Surprise in service until O'Brian's extended fictional year of 1812, using the latitude of fiction in The Reverse of the Medal. In that era, the Royal Navy commissioned a 38-gun frigate by this name in September 1812; the fictiona
United Nations Security Council resolution 956, adopted unanimously on 10 November 1994, after recalling Chapter XII of the United Nations Charter which established the United Nations Trusteeship system and Resolution 21 which approved the Trusteeship Territory of the Japanese Mandated Islands, the Council determined that, in the light of entry into force of a new status agreement for the Republic of Palau, the objectives of the Trusteeship Agreement had been completed and therefore ended the status of Palau as a Trust Territory. The Council noted that the United States was the Administering Authority of the Trust Territory and was satisfied that the people of Palau had exercised their right to self-determination in approving the new status agreement. Approval for Palau to join the United Nations was given in Resolution 963. Compact of Free Association List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 901 to 1000 United Nations Security Council Resolution 683 United Nations Trust Territories Works related to United Nations Security Council Resolution 956 at Wikisource Text of the Resolution at undocs.org